Skip to main content Accessibility help

Lobaria amplissima thalli with external cephalodia need more rain than thalli without

  • Yngvar GAUSLAA (a1), Stina JOHLANDER (a2) and Björn NORDÉN (a3)


Hydration traits determine much of a lichen’s distribution pattern along a climatic gradient but the mechanisms involved are still incompletely known. A higher abundance of large external cephalodia in wet oceanic than in drier climates has previously been reported in Lobaria amplissima. This study aims to quantify how much more rain L. amplissima thalli with external cephalodia would need to fill their internal water holding capacity (WHCinternal) than thalli without. The mean WHCinternal was 1·8 times higher in thalli with external cephalodia than in those without. The WHCinternal when converted to mm rain needed to saturate an average specimen was 1·37 mm (min–max: 0·55–3·8 mm) for a cephalodiate thallus, whereas an average thallus without external cephalodia needed just 0·76 mm (min–max: 0·36–1·3 mm). Known dewfall rates and rates of water uptake from humid air are far below what is needed to saturate even the cephalodiate thallus with the lowest WHCinternal, implying a stronger dependency on rain for thalli with external cephalodia. Thus, the observed trends in this study are consistent with earlier reports of decreasing frequency of external cephalodia from wet to drier climates.



Hide All
Blom, H. H., & Lindblom, L. (2010) Lobaria amplissima - haplotype distribution and morphological variation along a climatic gradient in southern Norway. In Abstracts of the 9th International Mycological Congress: The Biology of Fungi, 16 August, 2010, Edinburgh, UK, p.3.
Cornejo, C., Derr, C. & Dillman, K. (2017) Ricasolia amplissima (Lobariaceae): one species, three genotypes and a new taxon from south-eastern Alaska. Lichenologist 49: 579596.
Dal Grande, F., Beck, A., Cornejo, C., Singh, G., Cheenacharoen, S., Nelsen, M. P. & Scheidegger, C. (2014) Molecular phylogeny and symbiotic selectivity of the green algal genus Dictyochloropsis s. l. (Trebouxiophyceae): a polyphyletic and widespread group forming photobiont-mediated guilds in the lichen family Lobariaceae. New Phytologist 202: 455470.
Ellis, C. J. (2016) Oceanic and temperate rainforest climates and their epiphyte indicators in Britain. Ecological Indicators 70: 125133.
Esseen, P.-A., Olsson, T., Coxson, D. & Gauslaa, Y. (2015) Morphology influences water storage in hair lichens from boreal forest canopies. Fungal Ecology 18: 2635.
Gauslaa, Y. (2014) Rain, dew, and humid air as drivers of lichen morphology, function and spatial distribution in epiphytic lichens. Lichenologist 46: 116.
Gauslaa, Y. & Coxson, D. (2011) Interspecific and intraspecific variations in water storage in epiphytic old forest foliose lichens. Botany 89: 787798.
Gauslaa, Y., Solhaug, K. A. & Longinotti, S. (2017) Functional traits prolonging photosynthetically active periods in epiphytic cephalolichens during desiccation. Environmental and Experimental Botany 141: 8391.
Gauslaa, Y., Johlander, S. & Nordén, B. (2018) Gastropod grazing may prevent reintroduction of declining N-fixing epiphytic lichens in broadleaved deciduous forests. Fungal Ecology 35: 6269.
Green, T. G. A., Schlensog, M., Sancho, L. G., Winkler, J. B., Broom, F. D. & Schroeter, B. (2002) The photobiont determines the pattern of photosynthetic activity within a single lichen thallus containing cyanobacterial and green algal sectors (photosymbiodeme). Oecologia 130: 191198.
Hovind, A. Å. (2018) Rehydration and photosynthetic reactivation of old forest cephalolichen member of Lobaria in humid air. MSc thesis, Norwegian University of Life Sciences.
Jordan, P. W. (1970) The internal cephalodia in the genus Lobaria. Bryologist 73: 669681.
Lange, O. L., Kilian, E. & Ziegler, H. (1986) Water vapor uptake and photosynthesis in lichens: performance differences in species with green and blue-green algae as phycobionts. Oecologia 71: 104110.
Lange, O. L., Green, T. G. A. & Ziegler, H. (1988) Water status related photosynthesis and carbon isotope discrimination in species of the lichen genus Pseudocyphellaria with green or blue-green photobionts and in photosymbiodemes. Oecologia 75: 494501.
Longinotti, S., Solhaug, K. A. & Gauslaa, Y. (2017) Hydration traits in cephalolichen members of the epiphytic old forest genus Lobaria (s. lat.). Lichenologist 49: 493506.
Millbank, J. W. & Kershaw, K. A. (1969) Nitrogen metabolism in lichens. I. Nitrogen fixation in the cephalodia of Peltigera aphthosa. New Phytologist 68: 721729.
Millbank, J. W. & Kershaw, K. A. (1970) Nitrogen metabolism in lichens. III. Nitrogen fixation by internal cephalodia in Lobaria pulmonaria. New Phytologist 69: 595597.
Moncada, B., Lücking, R. & Betancourt-Macuase, L. (2013) Phylogeny of the Lobariaceae (lichenized Ascomycota: Peltigerales), with a reappraisal of the genus Lobariella. Lichenologist 45: 203263.
Phinney, N. H., Solhaug, K. A. & Gauslaa, Y. (2018) Rapid resurrection of chlorolichens in humid air: specific thallus mass drives rehydration and reactivation kinetics. Environmental and Experimental Botany 148: 184191.
Rasband, W. S. (2014) ImageJ. US National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
Schlensog, M., Schroeter, B. & Green, T. G. A. (2000) Water dependent photosynthetic activity of lichens from New Zealand: differences in the green algal and the cyanobacterial thallus parts of photosymbiodemes. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 75: 149160.
Škaloud, P., Friedl, T., Hallmann, C., Beck, A. & Dal Grande, F. (2016) Taxonomic revision and species delimitation of coccoid green algae currently assigned to the genus Dictyochloropsis (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta). Journal of Phycology 52: 599617.
Xiao, H., Meissner, R., Seeger, J., Rupp, H., Borg, H. & Zhang, Y. (2013) Analysis of the effect of meteorological factors on dewfall. Science of the Total Environment 452-453: 384393.



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed