Skip to main content Accessibility help
Hostname: page-component-684bc48f8b-kl86h Total loading time: 0.323 Render date: 2021-04-11T14:20:53.140Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Absence of anthraquinone pigments is paraphyletic and a phylogenetically unreliable character in the Teloschistaceae

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  29 March 2012

Institute of Botany, Academy of Sciences, Zámek 1, Průhonice, CZ-25243, Czech Republic, and Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branišovská 31, CZ-370 05, Česke Budejovice, Czech Republic. Email:
Jaroslav ŠOUN
Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branišovská 31, České Budějovice, CZ-370 05, Czech Republic.
Institute of Steppe (Urals Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences), Pionerskaya st. 11, Orenburg, RF-460000, Russia.
Herbarium, Department of Plant Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1312, USA.
Kherson State University, 40 Rokiv Zhovtnya str. 27, 73000 Kherson, Ukraine.
Altai State University, Lenin Ave. 61, Barnaul, RF-656049, Russia; Tigirek State Reserve, Nikitina, 111, Barnaul, RF-656043, Barnaul, Russia.
E-mail address:


It has been suggested that the absence of anthraquinones is not a synapomorphic character, but appears independently in unrelated lineages of Teloschistaceae. We analyzed ITS nrDNA regions in species of the genus Caloplaca and present evidence for five such examples: the Caloplaca cerina group, C. obscurella, the C. servitiana group, the C. xerica group and the C. variabilis group (Pyrenodesmia). In some cases, loss of anthraquinones is observed only in individuals within ordinarily pigmented populations, but sometimes the loss covers whole lineages containing one or more species. Both situations are observed in the C. servitiana group. Loss of anthraquinones is always followed by the synthesis of ‘alternative’ pigments (often Sedifolia-grey). In the specimens with anthraquinone-containing apothecia studied, these pigments are not visible in apothecial sections after dissolving anthraquinones in K. Fully unpigmented apothecia have not been observed.

The Caloplaca xerica group is a newly established, infraspecific grouping of species related to, and similar to, C. xerica. The Caloplaca servitiana group is also newly established and represents an isolated lineage covering two rather different, but related species. Caloplaca neotaurica is described here as a new species with apothecia of two colour variants; orange-red (with anthraquinones) and grey (with Sedifolia-grey).

The genus Huea represents another taxon lacking anthraquinones within Teloschistaceae. The genera Apatoplaca and Cephalophysis, which lack anthraquinones, are tentatively placed in Teloschistaceae, but their phylogenetic identity has not been recognized. Hueidea is reported to have no anthraquinones, but its secondary metabolites should be studied further and its possible placement in Teloschistaceae assessed.

We suggest that Caloplaca abbreviata var. lecideoides and C. celata represent variants of C. stillicidiorum lacking anthraquinones.

Research Article
Copyright © British Lichen Society 2012

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.


Aptroot, A. (2001) Lichens from Gambia, with a new black-fruiting isidiate Caloplaca on savannah trees. Cryptogamie, Mycologie 22: 265270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arup, U. (2006) A new taxonomy of the Caloplaca citrina group in the Nordic countries, except Iceland. Lichenologist 38: 120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arup, U. & Grube, M. (1999) Where does Lecanora demissa (Ascomycota, Lecanorales) belong? Lichenologist 31: 419430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arup, U., Arneng, E. & Søchting, U. (2007) Caloplaca fuscorufa—a misunderstood species in northern Europe. Lichenologist 39: 409414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bouly de Lesdain, M. (1936) Notes lichénologiques. 29. Bulletin de la Societé Botanique de France 83: 59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dodge, C. W. & Baker, G. E. (1938) The Second Byrd Antarctic Expedition. Botany. II. Lichens and lichen parasites. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 25: 515718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ekman, S. (2001) Molecular phylogeny of the Bacidiaceae (Lecanorales, lichenized Ascomycota). Mycological Research 105: 783797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fryday, A. M. (2011) How should we deal with the Antarctic and Subantarctic taxa published by Carroll William Dodge? Opuscula Philolichenum 9: 8998.Google Scholar
Gardes, M. & Bruns, T. D. (1993) ITS primers with enhanced specificity for basidiomycetes. Application for the identification of mycorrhizae and rust. Molecular Ecology 2: 113118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gauslaa, Y. & McEvoy, M. (2005) Seasonal changes in solar radiation drive acclimation of the sun-screening compound parietin in the lichen Xanthoria parietina. Basic and Applied Ecology 6: 7582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gaya, E.Navarro-Rosinés, P.Llimona, X.Hladun, N. & Lutzoni, F. (2008) Phylogenetic reassessment of the Teloschistaceae (lichen-forming Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes). Mycological Research 112: 528546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hafellner, J. & Poelt, J. (1979) Die Arten der Gattung Caloplaca mit plurilocularen Sporen (Meroplacis, Triophthalmidium, Xanthocarpia). Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory 46: 141.Google Scholar
Hansen, E. S., Poelt, J. & Søchting, U. (1987) Die Flechtengattung Caloplaca in Grönland. Meddelelser om Grønland, Bioscience 25: 152.Google Scholar
Hauck, M., Dulamsuren, C. & Mühlenberg, M. (2007) Lichen diversity on steppe slopes in the northern Mongolian mountain taiga and its dependence on microclimate. Flora 202: 530546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Joshi, Y., Upreti, D. K. & Sati, S. C. (2008) Three new species of Caloplaca from India. Lichenologist 40: 535541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kantvilas, G. & McCarthy, P. M. (2003) Hueidea (Fuscideaceae), a new lichen genus from alpine Australia. Lichenologist 35: 397407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Katoh, K., Kuma, K., Toh, H. & Miyata, T. (2002) MAFFT: a novel method for rapid multiple sequence alignment based on fast Fourier transform. Nucleic Acids Research 30: 30593066.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kilias, H (1985) Cephalophysis (Hertel) Kilias gen. nov., eine weitere Gattung der Teloschistaceae mit einzelligen Sporen. Herzogia 7: 181190.Google Scholar
Kondratyuk, S. Y., Kärnefelt, I., Elix, J. A. & Thell, A. (2007) New species of the genus Caloplaca in Australia. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 95: 341386.Google Scholar
Kondratyuk, S. Y., Kärnefelt, I., Elix, J. A. & Thell, A. (2009) Contributions to the Teloschistaceae, with particular reference to the Southern Hemisphere. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 100: 207282.Google Scholar
Lederer, M. (1896) Einige für Bayern neue Flechten. Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft 4: 2630.Google Scholar
Lendemer, J. C., Knudsen, K. & Fryday, A. M. (2010) New and interesting lichens, lichenicolous and allied fungi from Yosemite National Park, California, U.S.A. Opuscula Philolichenum 8: 107120.Google Scholar
Magnusson, A. H. (1950) On some species of Blastenia and Caloplaca with black apothecia. Botaniska Notiser 1950(3): 369386.Google Scholar
Meyer, B. & Printzen, C. (2000) Proposal for a standardized nomenclature and characterization of insoluble lichen pigments. Lichenologist 32: 571583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Muggia, L., Grube, M. & Tretiach, M. (2008) A combined molecular and morphological approach to species delimitation in black-fruited, endolithic Caloplaca: high genetic and low morphological diversity. Mycological Research 112: 3649.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nylander, J. A. A. (2004) MrModeltest v2. Program distributed by the author. Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University ( Scholar
Øvstedal, D. O. & Lewis Smith, R. I. (2001) Lichens of Antarctica and South Georgia: A Guide to Their Identification and Ecology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Poelt, J. (1955) Mitteleuropäische Flechten III. Mitteilungen der Botanischen Staatssammlung München 2(12): 4656.Google Scholar
Poelt, J. (1975) Mitteleuropaische Flechten X. Mitteilungen der Botanischen Staatssammlung München 12: 132.Google Scholar
Poelt, J. & Hafellner, J. (1980) Apatoplaca – genus novum Teloschistacearum (Lichenes). Mitteilungen der Botanischen Staatssammlung München 16: 503528.Google Scholar
Ronquist, F. & Huelsenbeck, J. P. (2003) MrBAYES 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 19: 15721574.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smith, C. W., Aptroot, A., Coppins, B. J., Fletcher, A., Gilbert, O. L., James, P. W. & Wolseley, P. A. (eds) (2009) The Lichens of Great Britain and Ireland. London: British Lichen Society.Google Scholar
Søchting, U. (1973) Anatomical and cytological characteristics of unpigmented Caloplaca verruculifera from Denmark. Botanisk Tidsskrift 68: 152156.Google Scholar
Søchting, U. (1989) Lignicolous species of the lichen genus Caloplaca from Svalbard. Opera Botanica 100: 241257.Google Scholar
Søchting, U. (1997) Two major anthraquinone chemosyndromes in Teloschistaceae. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 68: 135144.Google Scholar
Søchting, U. (2001) Chemosyndromes with chlorinated anthraquinones in the lichen genus Caloplaca. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 78: 395404.Google Scholar
Søchting, U. & Frödén, P. (2002) Chemosyndromes in the lichen genus Teloschistes (Teloschistaceae, Lecanorales). Mycological Progress 1: 257266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Søchting, U. & Øvstedal, D. O. (1998) Caloplaca lewis-smithii, a new lichen species from continental Antarctica. Mycotaxon 69: 447451.Google Scholar
Søchting, U., Øvstedal, D. O. & Sancho, L. G. (2004) The lichens of Hurd Peninsula, Livingston Island, South Shetlands, Antarctica. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 88: 607658.Google Scholar
Søchting, U., Lorentsen, L. B. & Arup, U. (2008) The lichen genus Caloplaca (Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes) on Svalbard. Notes and additions. Nova Hedwigia 87: 6996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Solhaug, K. A., Gauslaa, Y., Nybakken, L. & Bilger, W. (2003) UV-induction of sun-screening pigments in lichens. New Phytologist 158: 91100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Šoun, J., Vondrák, J., Søchting, U., Hrouzek, P., Khodosovtsev, A. & Arup, U. (2011) Taxonomy and phylogeny of the Caloplaca cerina group in Europe. Lichenologist 43: 113135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tretiach, M. & Muggia, L. (2006) Caloplaca badioreagens, a new calcicolous, endolithic lichen from Italy. Lichenologist 38: 223229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tretiach, M., Pinna, D. & Grube, M. (2003) Caloplaca erodens [sect. Pyrenodesmia], a new lichen species from Italy with an unusual thallus type. Mycological Progress 2: 127136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vondrák, J., Khodosovtsev, A. & Říha, P. (2008) Caloplaca concreticola (Teloschistaceae), a new species from anthropogenic substrata in Eastern Europe. Lichenologist 40: 97104.Google Scholar
Vondrák, J., Říha, P., Arup, U. & Søchting, U. (2009) The taxonomy of the Caloplaca citrina group (Teloschistaceae) in the Black Sea region; with contributions to the cryptic species concept in lichenology. Lichenologist 41: 571604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vondrák, J., Khodosovtsev, A., Lőkös, L. & Merkulova, O. (2010 a) The identity of type specimens in BP of some names in Caloplaca. Mycotaxon 111: 241250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vondrák, J., Šoun, J., Sogaard, M., Søchting, U. & Arup, U. (2010 b) Caloplaca phlogina, a lichen with two facies; an example of infraspecific variability resulting in the description of a redundant species. Lichenologist 42: 685692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wetmore, C. M. (1994) The lichen genus Caloplaca in North and Central America with brown or black apothecia. Mycologia 86: 813838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wetmore, C. M. (1996) The Caloplaca sideritis group in North and Central America. Bryologist 99: 292314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
White, T. J., Bruns, T. D., Lee, S. & Taylor, J. (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal DNA genes for phylogenies. In PCR Protocols: a Guide to Methods and Applications (Innis, M. A., Gelfand, D. H., Sninsky, J. J. & White, T. J., eds): 315322. San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Wunder, H. (1974) Schwartzfrüchtige, saxicole Sippen der Gattung Caloplaca (Lichenes, Teloschistaceae) in Mitteleuropa, dem Mittelmeergebiet und Vorderasien. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 3: 1186.Google Scholar
Xahidin, H., Abbas, A. & Wei, J.-C. (2010) Caloplaca tianshanensis (lichen-forming Ascomycota), a new species of subgenus Pyrenodesmia from China. Mycotaxon 114: 16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 11
Total number of PDF views: 37 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 11th April 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Absence of anthraquinone pigments is paraphyletic and a phylogenetically unreliable character in the Teloschistaceae
Available formats

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Absence of anthraquinone pigments is paraphyletic and a phylogenetically unreliable character in the Teloschistaceae
Available formats

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Absence of anthraquinone pigments is paraphyletic and a phylogenetically unreliable character in the Teloschistaceae
Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Your details

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *