Skip to main content Accessibility help

Using Wearable Technology to Increase Police Legitimacy in Uruguay: The Case of Body-Worn Cameras

  • Barak Ariel, Renée J. Mitchell, Justice Tankebe, Maria Emilia Firpo, Ricardo Fraiman and Jordan M. Hyatt...


What are the effects of wearable police cameras on perceptions of the police? In this study, we report causal estimates from a crossover randomized controlled trial in Uruguay on the effects of use of body-worn cameras by traffic police on the perceptions of legitimacy and satisfaction by drivers ticketed for traffic violations. We pay particular attention to the effects on procedural justice—that is, perceptions of the fairness of the interactions between officers and drivers—without neglecting other features of legitimacy (i.e., effectiveness, distributive justice, and lawfulness). With the exception of lawfulness, wearable surveillance apparatuses showed improvements across all dimensions of legitimacy compared to control conditions, with medium to large effect sizes. The overall satisfaction from the police-public interaction was significantly higher when officers used body-worn cameras. These findings suggest that wearable surveillance technology can lead to enhanced perceptions of legitimacy across multiple dimensions, not just increased efficiency, as well as the perceived overall quality of police-public interaction.



Hide All
Adler, Paul S., and Borys, Bryan. “Two Types of Bureaucracy: Enabling and Coercive.” Administrative Science Quarterly 41 no. 1, (1996): 6189.
Ariel, BarakDeterrence and moral persuasion effects on corporate tax compliance: findings from a randomized controlled trial.” Criminology 50, no. 1 (2012): 2769.
Ariel, Barak, and Sutherland, Alex. “Cameras, Complaints and Cops: Body-Worn Cameras Reduce Complaints by 93%.” Police Science 2, no. 1 (2017): 1315.
Ariel, Barak, Farrar, William A., and Sutherland, Alex. “The Effect of Police Body-Worn Cameras on Use of Force and Citizens’ Complaints Against the Police: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” Journal of Quantitative Criminology 31, no. 3 (2015): 509–35.
Ariel, Barak, Lawes, David, Weinborn, Cristobal, Henry, Ron, Chen, Kevin, and Brants, Hagit Sabo. “The ‘Less-Than-Lethal Weapons Effect’—Introducing TASERs to Routine Police Operations in England and Wales: A Randomized Controlled Trial.” Criminal Justice and Behavior 46, no. 2 (2019): 280300.
Ariel, Barak, Newton, Mark, McEwan, Lorna, Ashbridge, Garry A., Weinborn, Cristobal, and Brants, Hagit Sabo. “Reducing Assaults Against Staff Using Body-Worn Cameras (BWCs) in Railway Stations.” Criminal Justice Review 44, no.1 (2019): 7693.
Ariel, Barak, Sutherland, Alex, Henstock, Darren, Young, Josh, and Sosinski, Gabriela. “The Deterrence Spectrum: Explaining Why Police Body-Worn Cameras ‘Work’ or ‘Backfire’ in Aggressive Police–Public Encounters.” Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice 12, no. 1 (2017): 626.
Ariel, Barak, Sutherland, Alex, Henstock, Darren, Young, Josh, Drover, Paul, Sykes, Jayne, Megicks, Simon, and Henderson, Ryan. “Report: Increases in Police Use of Force in the Presence of Body-Worn Cameras Are Driven by Officer Discretion: A Protocol-Based Subgroup Analysis of Ten Randomized Experiments.Journal of Experimental Criminology 12, no. 3 (2016): 453–63.
Ariel, Barak, Sutherland, Alex, and Sherman, Lawrence W.. “Preventing Treatment Spillover Contamination in Criminological Field Experiments: The Case of Body-Worn Police Cameras.” Journal of Experimental Criminology (2018): 123. doi: 10.1007/s11292-018-9344-4
Ariel, Barak, Sutherland, Alex, and Sherman, Lawrence W.. “‘Contagious Accountability’: A Global Multisite Randomized Controlled Trial on the Effect of Police Body-Worn Cameras on Citizens’ Complaints Against the Police.Criminal Justice and Behavior 44, no. 2 (2017): 293316.
Ariel, Barak, et al. “Paradoxical Effects of Self-Awareness of Being Observed: Testing the Effect of Police Body-Worn Cameras on Assaults and Aggression Against Officers.Journal of Experimental Criminology 14, no. 1 (2018): 1947.
Bayley, David H.US Aid for Foreign Justice and Police.Orbis 50, no. 3 (2006): 469–79.
Beetham, D. The legitimation of power. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanuties Fress International.
Bottoms, Anthony E.Understanding Compliance with Laws and Regulations: A Mechanism-Based Approach”. In Financial Compliance: Issues, Concerns and Future Directions. Edited by Krambia-Kapardis, Maria, 145. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019.
Bottoms, Anthony E., and Tankebe, Justice. “Police Legitimacy and the Authority of the State”. In Criminal Law and the Authority of the State. Edited by Du Bois-Pedain, Antje, Ulväng, Magnus, and Asp, Petter, 4788. Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2017
Bottoms, Anthony E., and Tankebe, Justice. “Beyond Procedural Justice: A Dialogic Approach to Legitimacy in Criminal Justice.” The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 102, no. 1 (2012): 119–70.
Bradford, Ben. “Policing and Social Identity: Procedural Justice, Inclusion and Cooperation Between Police and Public.Policing and Society 24, no. 1 (2014): 2243.
Braga, Anthony, Coldren, James, Sousa, William, Rodriguez, Dario, and Alper, Omer. “The Benefits of Body-Worn Cameras: New Findings from a Randomized Controlled Trial at the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department.” CNA Analysis & Solutions. (2017).
Braga, Anthony A., Christopher Winship, Tom R. Tyler, Jeffrey Fagan, and Meares, Tracey L.. “The Salience of Social Contextual Factors in Appraisals of Police Interactions with Citizens: A Randomized Factorial Experiment.Journal of Quantitative Criminology 30, no. 4 (2014): 599627.
Buquet, Daniel, and Rafael, Piñeiro. “Uruguay’s Shift from Clientelism.” Journal of Democracy 27, no. 1 (2014): 139151.
Cabella, Wanda, and Porzecanski, Rafael. “The Growth of Ethnic Minorities in Uruguay: Ethnic Renewal or Measurement Problems?.” In Social Statistics and Ethnic Diversity: Cross-National Perspectives in Classifications and Identity Politics. Edited by Simon, Patrick, Piché, Victor, and Amélie, A. Gagnon, 175–89. New York: Springer, 2015.
Canache, Damarys, and Allison, Michael E.. “Perceptions of Political Corruption in Latin American Democracies.Latin American Politics and Society 47, no. 3 (2005): 91111.
Canton, Robert, and Eadie, Tina. “Accountability, Legitimacy, and Discretion: Applying Criminology in Professional Practice.” Applied Criminology (2008): 86102.
Cohen, J. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. 2nd ed. Mahwah, NJ: Earlbaum Associates, 1988.
Coicaud, Jean-Marc. Legitimacy and Politics: A Contribution to the Study of Political Right and Political Responsibility. Translated and edited by David Ames Curtis. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
Cook, Thomas D., and Campbell, Donald T.. “The Design and Conduct of True Experiments and Quasi-experiments in Field Settings.” InReproduced in Part in Research in Organizations: Issues and Controversies. Santa Monica, CA: Goodyear Publishing Company, 1979.
Crow, Matthew S., Snyder, Jamie A., Crichlow, Vaughn J., and Smykla, John Ortiz. “Community Perceptions of Police Body-Worn Cameras: The Impact of Views on Fairness, Fear, Performance, and Privacy.” Criminal Justice and Behavior 44, no. 4 (2017): 589610.
Cubitt, Timothy IC, Lesic, Rebecca, Myers, Gemma L., and Corry, Robert. “Body-Worn Video: A Systematic Review of Literature.Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology 50, no. 3 (2017): 379–96.
Demir, Mustafa, Apel, Robert, Braga, Anthony A., Brunson, Rod K., and Ariel, Barak. “Body-Worn Cameras, Procedural Justice, and Police Legitimacy: A Controlled Experimental Evaluation of Traffic Stops.” Justice Quarterly (2018): 132. doi: 10.1080/07418825.2018.1495751.
Drover, Paul, and Ariel, Barak. “Leading an Experiment in Police Body-Worn Video Cameras.” International Criminal Justice Review 25, no. 1 (2015): 8097.
Duval, Shelley, and Wicklund, Robert A.. A Theory of Objective Self-Awareness. Oxford: Academic Press, 1972.
Engel, Robin Shepard., Sobol, J. J., and Worden, R. E.Further exploration of the demeanor hypothesis: The interaction effects of suspects' characteristics and demeanor on police behavior.Justice Quarterly 17, no. 2 (2000): 235–58.
Engel, Robin Shepard.Citizens’ Perceptions of Distributive and Procedural Injustice During Traffic Stops with Police.Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 42, no. 4 (2005): 445–81.
Fallik, Seth Wyatt, Deuchar, Ross, and Crichlow, Vaughn J.. “Body-Worn Cameras in the Post-Ferguson Era: An Exploration of Law Enforcement Perspectives.” Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology (2018): 111.
Farrar, William, and Ariel, Barak. “Self-Awareness to Being Watched and Socially-Desirable Behavior: A Field Experiment on the Effect of Body-Worn Cameras on Police Use-of-Force.” Washington, DC: Police Foundation (2013).
Farrington, David P., Gottfredson, Denise C., Sherman, Lawrence W., and Welsh, Brandon C.. “The Maryland Scientific Methods Scale.” Evidence-Based crime Prevention (2002): 1321.
Feys, Yinthe, Verhage, Antoinette, and Boels, Dominique. “A State-of-the-Art Review on Police Accountability: What Do We Know from Empirical Studies?.International Journal of Police Science & Management 20, no. 3 (2018): 225–39.
Finkelstien, Marcia A.Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivational Orientations and the Volunteer Process.Personality and Individual Differences 46, nos. 5–6 (2009): 653–58.
French, Jeff. “Why Nudging Is Not Enough.Journal of Social Marketing 1, no. 2 (2011): 154–62.
Gau, Jacinta M., and Brunson, Rod K.. “Procedural Injustice, Lost Legitimacy, and Self-Help: Young Males’ Adaptations to Perceived Unfairness in Urban Policing Tactics.” Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 31, no. 2 (2015): 132–50.
Geller, Valerie, and Shaver, Phillip. “Cognitive Consequences of Self-Awareness.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 12, no. 1 (1976): 99108.
Grant, Adam M.Does Intrinsic Motivation Fuel the Prosocial Fire? Motivational Synergy in Predicting Persistence, Performance, and Productivity.Journal of Applied Psychology 93, no. 1 (2008): 4858.
Grossmith, Lynne, Owens, Catherine, Finn, Will, Mann, David, Davies, Tom, and Baika, Laura. “Police, Camera, Evidence: London’s Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial of Body Worn Video.” London, UK: College of Policing and the Mayor’s Office for Policing and Crime (MOPAC) (2015).
Hasisi, Badi, and Weisburd, David. “Going beyond Ascribed Identities: The Importance of Procedural Justice in Airport Security Screening in Israel.Law & Society Review 45, no. 4 (2011): 867–92.
Hedberg, Eric C., Katz, Charles M., and Choate, David E.. “Body-Worn Cameras and Citizen Interactions with Police Officers: Estimating Plausible Effects Given Varying Compliance Levels.” Justice Quarterly 34, no. 4 (2017): 627–51.
Henstock, Darren, and Ariel, Barak. “Testing the Effects of Police Body-Worn Cameras on Use of Force During Arrests: A Randomised Controlled Trial in a Large British Police Force. European Journal of Criminology 14, no. 6 (2017): 720–50.
Herbert, Steve. “Police Subculture Reconsidered.Criminology 36, no. 2 (1998): 343–70.
Hine, K. A., Porter, L. E., Westera, N. J. and Alpert, G. P.. “The understated ugly side of police–citizen encounters: situation, suspect, officer, decision-making, and force predictors of officer injuries.Policing and Society 28, no. 6 (2018): 665–83.
Hinds, Lyn, and Murphy, Kristina. “Public Satisfaction with Police: Using Procedural Justice to Improve Police Legitimacy.Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology 40, no. 1 (2007): 2742.
Hough, Mike, Jackson, Jon, and Bradford, Ben. “Policing, Procedural Justice and Prevention.” In Handbook of Crime Prevention and Community Safety. 2nd ed. Edited by Tilley, Nick and Sidebottom, Aiden, 274–93. New York, Routledge, 2017.
Hough, Mike, Jackson, Jonathan, Bradford, Ben, Myhill, Andy, and Quinton, Paul. “Procedural Justice, Trust, and Institutional Legitimacy.” Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice 4, no. 3 (2010): 203–10.
Hyatt, Jordan M., Mitchell, Renee J., and Ariel, Barak. “The Effects of a Mandatory Body-Worn Camera, Policy on Officer Perceptions of Accountability, Oversight, and Departmental Culture.” Villanova Law Review 62, no. 5 (2017): 1005–35.
IPS (Israel Police Service). “Israeli Police Body Worn Cameras: Research Report.” Available through the Israel Freedom of Information Request No. 127/18 (2017) [report available upon request; in Hebrew].
Jennings, Wesley G., Lynch, Mathew D., and Fridell, Lorie A.. “Evaluating the Impact of Police Officer Body-Worn Cameras (BWCs) on Response-to-Resistance and Serious External Complaints: Evidence from the Orlando Police Department (OPD) Experience Utilizing a Randomized Controlled Experiment.Journal of Criminal Justice 43, no. 6 (2015): 480–86.
Johnston, David. A Brief History of Justice. Vol. 10. Oxford, UK: Wiley Blackwell, 2011.
Jervis, R., Lebow, R. N., and Stein, J. G.. “Psychology and deterrence.Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. (1989).
Joinson, Adam N.Self-disclosure in Computer-Mediated Communication: The Role of Self-Awareness and Visual Anonymity.European Journal of Social Psychology 31, no. 2 (2001): 177–92.
Jonathan-Zamir, Tal, and Harpaz, Amikam. “Predicting Support for Procedurally Just Treatment: The Case of the Israel National Police.Criminal Justice and Behavior 45, no. 6 (2018): 840–62.
Katz, Charles M., Kurtenbach, Mike, Choate, David E., and White, Michael D.. “Phoenix, Arizona, Smart Policing Initiative: Evaluating the Impact of Police Officer Body-Worn Cameras.Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Assistance, US Department of Justice (2015).
Lawrence, Daniel, Peterson, Bryce, and Thompson, Paige. “Community Views of Milwaukee’s Police Body-Worn Camera Program.” The Urban Institute: Justice Policy Center. (2018).
Langley, B., and Ariel, B.. “The effect of procedural justice training: a state of art review of randomised controlled trials in policing.Presented at West Midlands Police Fairness Team (2018) (05 January 2019, West Midlands).
Lee, Murray, Taylor, Emmeline, and Willis, Matthew. “Being Held to Account: Detainees’ Perceptions of Police Body-Worn Cameras.Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology 52, no. 2 (2018): 174–92.
Lind, E. Allan, and Tyler, Tom R.. The Social Psychology of Procedural Justice. New York: Plenum Press, 1988.
Lipsey, Mark W., and Wilson, David. Practical Meta-Analysis (Applied Social Research Methods). London: Sage Publications, 2000.
Loader, Ian. “Policing, Recognition, and Belonging.” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 605, no. 1 (2006): 201–21.
Lum, Cynthia M., Koper, Christopher S., Merola, Linda M., Scherer, Amber, and Reioux, Amanda. “Existing and Ongoing Body Worn Camera Research: Knowledge Gaps and Opportunities.” Report for the Laura and John Arnold Foundation. Fairfax, VA: Center for Evidence-Based Crime Policy, George Mason University (2015).
Lowrey-Kinberg, B. V., and Sullivan Buker, G. “I'm Giving You a Lawful Order”: Dialogic Legitimacy in Sandra Bland's Traffic Stop.” Law & Society Review 51, no. 2 (2017): 379412.
Lum, C., Stoltz, M., Koper, C. S., and Scherer, J. A.. “Research on body-worn cameras: What we know, what we need to know.” Criminology & Public Policy 18, no. 1 (2019): 93118.
MacQueen, Sarah, and Bradford, Ben. “Enhancing Public Trust and Police Legitimacy During Road Traffic Encounters: Results from a Randomised Controlled Trial in Scotland.Journal of Experimental Criminology 11, no. 3 (2015): 419–43.
MacQueen, Sarah, and Bradford, Ben. “Where Did It All Go Wrong? Implementation Failure—and More—in a Field Experiment of Procedural Justice Policing.” Journal Of Experimental Criminology 13, no. 3 (2017): 321–45.
Maskaly, Jon, Donner, C. M.. A theoretical integration of social learning theory with terror management theory: Towards an explanation of police shootings of unarmed suspects.American Journal of Criminal Justice 40, no. 2 (2015): 205–24.
Maskaly, Jon, Donner, Christopher, Jennings, Wesley G., Ariel, Barak, and Sutherland, Alex. “The Effects of Body-Worn Cameras (BWCs) on Police and Citizen Outcomes: A State-of-the-Art Review.Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 40, no. 4 (2017): 672–88.
Mastrofski, Stephen D., Jonathan-Zamir, Tal, Moyal, Shomron, Willis, James J.. Predicting Procedural Justice in Police–Citizen Encounters. Criminal Justice and Behavior 43, no. 1 (2016): 119–39.
Mastrofski, Stephen D., Snipes, Jeffrey B., and Supina, Anne E.. “Compliance on Demand: The Public’s Response to Specific Police Requests.Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 33, no. 3 (1996): 269305.
Mazerolle, Lorraine, Antrobus, Emma, Bennett, Sarah, and Tyler, Tom R.. “Shaping Citizen Perceptions of Police Legitimacy: A Randomized Field Trial of Procedural Justice.Criminology 51, no. 1 (2013): 3363.
Mazerolle, Lorraine, Antrobus, Emma, Bennett, Sarah, and Tyler, Tom R.. “Shaping Citizen Perceptions of Police Legitimacy: A Randomized Field Trial of Procedural Justice.Criminology 51, no. 1 (2013): 3363.
Mesa Police Department. On-officer body camera system: Program evaluation and recommendations (2013). Mesa: Mesa Police Department.
McCall, George J.Systematic Field Observation.” Annual Review of Sociology 10, no. 1 (1984): 263–82.
McClure, Dave, La Vigne, Nancy, Lynch, Mathew, Golian, Laura, Lawrence, Daniel, and Malm, Aili. “How Body Cameras Affect Community Members’ Perceptions of Police: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial of One Agency’s Pilot.” Washington, DC: Urban Institute (2017).
McCluskey, John D., Uchida, Craig D., Solomon, Shellie E., Wooditch, Alese, Connor, Christine, and Revier, Lauren. “Assessing the Effects of Body Worn Cameras on Procedural Justice in the Los Angeles Police Department.Criminology 57, no. 2 (2017): 208–36.
Mitchell, Renée J., Ariel, Barak, Firpo, Maria Emilia, Fraiman, Ricardo, del Castillo, Federico, Hyatt, Jordan M., Weinborn, Cristobal, and Sabo, Hagit Brants. “Measuring the Effect of Body-Worn Cameras on Complaints in Latin America: The Case of Traffic Police in Uruguay.” Policing: An International Journal 41, no. 4 (2018): 510–24.
Morin, Alain. “Self-Awareness Part 1: Definition, Measures, Effects, Functions, and Antecedents.” Social and Personality Psychology Compass 5, no. 10 (2011): 807–23.
Morlino, Leonardo, and Montero, José Ramón. “Legitimacy and Democracy in Southern Europe.” The Politics of Democratic Consolidation: Southern Europe in Comparative Perspective (1995): 231–60.
Murphy, Kristina, and Cherney, Adrian. “Understanding Cooperation with Police in a Diverse Society.” The British Journal of Criminology 52, no. 1 (2011): 181201.
Murphy, Kristina, Hinds, Lyn, and Fleming, Jenny. “Encouraging Cooperation and Public Support for Police.Policing and Society 18, no. 2 (2008): 138–57
Nagin, Daniel S.Deterrence in the Twenty-First Century.Crime and Justice 42, no. 1 (2013): 199263.
Nagin, Daniel S., and Telep, Cody W.. “Procedural Justice and Legal Compliance.Annual Review of Law and Social Science 13 (2017): 528.
Nagin, Daniel S., Cullen, Francis T., and Jonson, Cheryl Lero, eds. “Deterrence, Choice, and Crime: Contemporary Perspectives.” Advances in Criminological Theory, Vol. 23. New York: Routledge, 2018.
Natapoff, Alexandra. “Underenforcement.Fordham Law Review 75, no. 3 (2006): 1715–76.
Nottinghamshire Police. “The Cost of Recruiting and Training a Police Officer.” 2012.
Orrick, W. Dwayne. “Calculating the Cost of Police Turnover.Police chief 69, no. 10 (2002): 100–03.
Owens, Catherine, Mann, David, and Mckenna, Rory. “The Essex Body Worn Video Trial: The Impact of Body Worn Video on Criminal Justice Outcomes of Domestic Abuse Incidents.” College of Policing (2014).
Paternoster, Ray, Brame, Bobby, Bachman, Ronet, and Sherman, Lawrence W.. “Do Fair Procedures Matter? Procedural Justice in the Milwaukee Domestic Violence Experiment.Law and Society Review 31 (1997): 163204.
Piza, E. L.The History, Policy Implications, and Knowledge Gaps of the CCTV Literature: Insights for the Development of Body-Worn Video Camera Research.International Criminal Justice Review 41, no. 1 (2018a): 1430.
Piza, E. L.The crime prevention effect of CCTV in public places: a propensity score analysis.Journal of Crime and Justice, 41, no. 1 (2018b): 1430.
Pogarsky, Greg, Piquero, Alex R., and Paternoster, Ray. “Modeling Change in Perceptions About Sanction Threats: The Neglected Linkage in Deterrence Theory.Journal of Quantitative Criminology 20, no. 4 (2004): 343–69.
President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing. “Final Report of the President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing.” Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (2015).
Punch, Maurice. “Police Corruption and Its Prevention.European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research 8, no. 3 (2000): 301324.
Rawls, J. A theory of justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (2009).
Ready, Justin T., and Young, Jacob TN. “The Impact of On-Officer Video Cameras on Police–Citizen Contacts: Findings from a Controlled Experiment in Mesa, AZ.” Journal of Experimental Criminology 11, no. 3 (2015): 445–58.
Reisig, Michael D., McCluskey, J. D., Mastrofski, S. D., and Terrill, W.Suspect disrespect toward the police.Justice Quarterly 21, no. 2 (2004): 241–68.
Reisig, Michael D.Continuing the Discussion on Community Policing, Issue 2 Procedural Justice and Community Policing—What Shapes Residents’ Willingness to Participate in Crime Prevention Programs?.Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice 1, no. 3 (2007): 356–69.
Sahin, Nusret, Braga, Anthony A., Apel, Robert, and Brunson, Rod K.. “The Impact of Procedurally-Just Policing on Citizen Perceptions of Police During Traffic Stops: The Adana Randomized Controlled Trial.Journal of Quantitative Criminology 33, no. 4 (2017): 701–26.
Sparks, J. R., and Bottoms, A. E. “Legitimacy and order in prisons.” British Journal of Sociology (1995): 4562.
Skogan, Wesley G.Asymmetry in the Impact of Encounters with Police.Policing & Society 16, no. 02 (2006): 99126.
Skogan, Wesley G., Van Craen, Maarten, and Hennessy, Cari. “Training Police for Procedural Justice.Journal of Experimental Criminology 11, no. 3 (2015): 319–34.
Skolnick, Jerome H., and Bayley, David H.. The New Blue Line: Police Innovation in Six American Cities. New York: The Free Press, 1988.
Skolnick, Jerome H., and Fyfe, James J.. Above the Law: Police and the Excessive Use of Force. New York: Free Press, 1993.
Sunshine, Jason, and Tyler, Tom R.. “The Role of Procedural Justice and Legitimacy in Shaping Public Support for Policing.Law & Society Review 37, no. 3 (2003): 513–48.
Sutherland, Alex, Ariel, Barak, Farrar, William, and De Anda, Randy. “Post-experimental Follow-Ups—Fade-Out Versus Persistence Effects: The Rialto Police body-Worn Camera Experiment Four Years On.Journal of Criminal Justice 53 (2017): 110–16.
Tankebe, Justice. “Public Cooperation with the Police in Ghana: Does Procedural Fairness Matter?.” Criminology 47, no. 4 (2009): 1265–93.
Tankebe, Justice. “Viewing Things Differently: The Dimensions of Public Perceptions of Police Legitimacy.Criminology 51, no. 1 (2013): 103135.
Telep, Cody W., and Weisburd, David. “Policing.” In What Works in Crime Prevention and Rehabilitation: Lessons from Systematic Reviews. Edited by Weisburd, David, Farrington, David P., and Gill, Charlotte, 137–68. New York: Springer, 2016.
Terrill, W., and Mastrofski, S. D..“Situational and officer-based determinants of police coercion.Justice Quarterly 19, no. 2 (2002): 215–48.
Trinkner, Rick, Jackson, Jonathan, and Tyler, Tom. “Expanding ‘Appropriate’ Police Behavior Beyond Procedural Justice: Bounded Authority & Legal Legitimation.Law and Human Behavior 42, no. 3 (2017): 280–93.
Tyler, Tom R. Why People Obey the Law. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1990.
Tyler, Tom R. “Procedural Justice, Legitimacy, and the Effective Rule of Law.” Crime and Justice 30 (2003): 283357.
Tyler, Tom R. Why people obey the law (2003). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Tyler, Tom R. “Can the Police Enhance Their Popular Legitimacy through Their Conduct: Using Empirical Research to Inform Law.” University of Illinois Law Review (2017a): 19712008.
Tyler, Tom R. “Value-Driven Behavior and the Law.” In The Oxford Handbook of Law and Economics: Volume 1: Methodology and Concepts. Edited by Parisi, Francesco, 402–21. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2017b.
Tyler, Tom R., and Bies, Robert J.. “Beyond Formal Procedures: The Interpersonal Context of Procedural Justice.” In Applied Social Psychology and Organizational Settings. Edited by John, S. Carroll, 98. London: Psychology Press, 1990.
Tyler, Tom R., and Fagan, Jeffrey. “Legitimacy and Cooperation: Why Do People Help the Police Fight Crime in Their Communities.Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law 6 (2008): 231–75.
Tyler, Tom R., and Wakslak, Cheryl J.. “Profiling and Police Legitimacy: Procedural Justice, Attributions of Motive, and Acceptance of Police Authority.Criminology 42, no. 2 (2004): 253–82.
Tyler, Tom R., Fagan, Jeffrey, and Geller, Amanda. “Street Stops and Police Legitimacy: Teachable Moments in Young Urban Men’s Legal Socialization.Journal of Empirical Legal Studies 11, no. 4 (2014): 751–85.
Tyler, Tom R., Schulhofer, Stephen, and Huq, Aziz Z.. “Legitimacy and Deterrence Effects in Counterterrorism Policing: A Study of Muslim Americans.Law & Society Review 44, no. 2 (2010): 365402.
van Bommel, Marco, van Prooijen, Jan-Willem, Elffers, Henk, and Van Lange, Paul AM. “Be Aware to Care: Public Self-Awareness Leads to a Reversal of the Bystander Effect.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 48, no. 4 (2012): 926–30.
Weber, Max, Runciman, Walter Garrison, and Matthews, Eric. Max Weber: Selections in Translation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1978.
Weisburd, D., Lum, C. M., and S. M., YangWhen can we conclude that treatments or programs “don’t work”?.The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 587, no. 1 (2003): 31–48.
White, Michael D.Police Officer Body-Worn Cameras: Assessing the Evidence.” Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (2014).
White, Michael D., Todak, Natalie, and Gaub, Janne E.. “Assessing Citizen Perceptions of Body-Worn Cameras After Encounters with Police.Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 40, no. 4 (2017): 689703.
Willis, Justin. “‘Peace and Order Are in the Interests of Every Citizen’: Elections, Violence and State Legitimacy in Kenya, 1957–74.International Journal of African Historical Studies 48, no. 1 (2015): 99116.
Yao, Mike Z., and Flanagin, Andrew J.. “A Self-Awareness Approach to Computer-Mediated Communication.Computers in Human Behavior 22, no. 3 (2006): 518–44.
Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

Ariel et al. supplementary material
Ariel et al. supplementary material 1

 PDF (88 KB)
88 KB


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed