Skip to main content Accessibility help

Procedural Justice in Negotiation: Procedural Fairness, Outcome Acceptance, and Integrative Potential

  • Rebecca Hollander-Blumoff and Tom R. Tyler


Two correlational studies test the hypothesis that procedural justice, or fairness of process, plays a role in acceptance of agreements reached through bilateral negotiation. Both studies test the relationship between the fairness of the process used to resolve a dispute, objective monetary outcomes, subjective assessments of outcome favorability, and subjective assessments of outcome fairness. Additionally, the second study tests the hypothesis that negotiations characterized by greater procedural justice result in more potential for integrative bargaining. The results suggest that procedural justice encourages the acceptance of negotiated agreements, as well as leading to the opportunity for increased integrative bargaining.



Hide All
Arbuckle, James L., and Wothke, Werner. 1999. AMOS 4.0 User's Guide. Chicago: Small Waters Corporation.
Baumeister, Roy F., and Leary, Mark R. 1995. The Need to Belong: Desire for Interpersonal Attachments as a Fundamental Human Motivation. Psychological Bulletin 117 (3): 497529.
Bazerman, Max H., and Neale, Margaret A. 1983. Heuristics in Negotiation: Limitations to Effective Dispute Resolution. In Negotiation in Organizations, ed. Bazerman, Max H. and Lewicki, Roy J. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Bazerman, Max H., and Neale, Margaret A. 1995. The Role of Fairness Considerations and Relationships in a Judgment Perspective of Negotiation. In Barriers to Conflict Resolution, ed. Arrow, Kenneth J., Mnookin, Robert H., Ross, Lee, Tversky, Amos, and Wilson, Robert B. New York: W.W. Norton.
Blount, Sally. 1995. When Social Outcomes Aren't Fair: The Effects of Causal Attributions on Preferences. Organization Behavior and Human Decision Processes 63 (2): 131–44.
Bolton, Gary E., and Ockenfels, Axel. 2000. ERC: A Theory of Equity, Reciprocity and Competition. American Economic Review 100:166–93.
Brockner, Joel, Chen, Ya-Ru, Mannix, Elizabeth A., Leung, Kwok, and Skarlicki, Daniel P. 2000. Culture and Procedural Fairness: When the Effects of What You Do Depend on How You Do It. Administrative Science Quarterly 45:138–59.
Charness, Gary, and Rabin, Matthew. 2002. Understanding Social Preferences with Simple Tests. Quarterly Journal of Economics 117: 817–69.
De Dreu, Carsten K. W., and Carnevale, Peter J. 2003. Motivational Bases for Information Processing and Strategic Choice in Conflict and Negotiation. In vol. 35, Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, ed. Zanna, Mark P. New York: Academic Press.
De Dreu, Carsten K. W., Koole, Sander L., and Oldersma, Frans L. 1999. On the Seizing and Freezing of Negotiator Inferences: Need for Cognitive Closure Moderates the Use of Heuristics in Negotiation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 25 (3): 348–62.
De Dreu, Carsten K. W., Weingart, Laurie R., and Kwon, Seungwoo. 2000. Influence of Social Motives on Integrative Negotiation: A Meta-Analytical Review and Test of Two Theories. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 78 (5): 889905.
Fehr, Ernst, and Schmidt, Klaus M. 1999. A Theory of Fairness, Competition and Cooperation. Quarterly Journal of Economics 114:817–68.
Fisher, Roger, Ury, William, and Patton, Bruce. 1981. Getting to Yes. New York: Penguin Books.
Galanter, Marc. 2002. Changing Legal Consciousness in America: The View from the Joke Corpus. Cardozo Law Review 23:2223–40.
Galanter, Marc, and Cahill, Mia. 1994. “Most Cases Settle”: Judicial Promotion and Regulation of Settlements. Stanford Law Review 46:1339–91.
Galinsky, Adam D., and Mussweiler, Thomas. 2001. First Offers as Anchors: The Role of Perspective-Taking and Negotiator Focus. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 81 (4): 657–69.
Gilson, Ronald J., and Mnookin, Robert H. 1994. Disputing Through Agents: Cooperation and Conflict Between Lawyers in Litigation. Columbia Law Review 94:509–66.
Guth, Werner, Schmittberger, Rolf, and Schwarze, Bernd. 1982. An Experimental Analysis of Ultimatum Bargaining. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 3:367–88.
Hibbing, John R., and Alford, John R. 2004. Accepting Authoritative Decisions: Humans as Wary Cooperators. American Journal of Political Science 48 (1): 6276.
Issacharoff, Samuel. 2002. The Content of Our Casebooks: Why Do Cases Get Litigated? Florida State University Law Review 29:1265–87.
Jolls, Christine M., Sunstein, Cass R., and Thaler, Richard. 1998. A Behavioral Approach to Law and Economics. Stanford Law Review 50:14711550.
Kahneman, Daniel, Knetsch, Jack L., and Thaler, Richard H. 1990. Experimental Tests of the Endowment Effect and the Coase Theorem. Journal of Political Economy 98 (6): 1325–48.
Kahneman, Daniel, and Tversky, Amos. 1984. Choices, Values, and Frames. American Psychologist 39 (4): 341–50.
Korobkin, Russell, and Guthrie, Chris. 1994. Psychological Barriers to Litigation Settlement: An Experimental Approach. Michigan Law Review 93:107–92.
Kritzer, Herbert M. 1986. Adjudication to Settlement: Shading in the Gray. Judicature 70:161–65.
Kumar, Rajesh. 2004. The Role of Fairness Considerations and Relationships in a Judgment Perspective of Negotiation. In The Handbook of Negotiation and Culture, ed. Gelfand, Michele J. and Brett, Jeanne M. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Lax, David A., and Sebenius, James K. 1986. The Manager as Negotiator: Bargaining for Cooperation and Competitive Gain. New York: Macmillan.
Lind, E. Allan. 2002. Fairness Judgments as Cognitions. In The Justice Motive in Everyday Life, ed. Ross, Michael and Miller, Dale T. New York: Cambridge.
Lind, E. Allan, and Tyler, Tom R. 1988. The Social Psychology of Procedural Justice. New York: Plenum.
MacCoun, Robert J., and Tyler, Tom R. 1988. The Basis of Citizens’ Perceptions of the Criminal Jury: Procedural Fairness, Accuracy and Efficiency. Law and Human Behavior 12 (3): 333–52.
Mnookin, Robert H., and Kornhauser, Lewis. 1979. Bargaining in the Shadow of the Law: The Case of Divorce. Yale Law Journal 88:950–97.
Mnookin, Robert H., Peppet, Scott R., and Tulumello, Andrew S. 2000. Beyond Winning: Negtotiating to Create Value in Deals and Disputes. Cambridge: Belknap.
Mnookin, Robert H., and Ross, Lee. 1995. Introduction. In Barriers to Conflict Resolution, ed. Arrow, Kenneth J., Mnookin, Robert H., Ross, Lee, Tversky, Amos, and Wilson, Robert B. New York: W. W. Norton.
Molm, Linda D., Takahashi, Nobuyuki, and Peterson, Gretchen. 2003. In the Eye of the Beholder: Procedural Justice in Social Exchange. American Sociological Review 68:128–52.
Posner, Richard A. 2003. Economic Analysis of Law. 6th ed. New York: Aspen.
Priest, George L., and Klein, Benjamin. 1984. The Selection of Disputes for Litigation. Journal of Legal Studies 13:155.
Pruitt, Dean G., Peirce, Robert S., McGillicuddy, Neil B., Welton, Gary L., and Castrianno, Lynn M. 1993. Long-Term Success in Mediation. Law and Human Behavior 17 (3): 313–30.
Pruitt, Dean G., and Carnevale, Peter J. 1993. Negotiation in Social Conflict. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Raiffa, Howard. 1982. The Art and Science of Negotiation. Cambridge, MA: Belknap.
Ross, Lee. 1995. Reactive Devaluation in Negotiation and Conflict Resolution. In Barriers to Conflict Resolution, ed. Arrow, Kenneth J., Mnookin, Robert H., Ross, Lee, Tversky, Amos, and Wilson, Robert B. New York: W. W. Norton.
Shestowsky, Donna. 2004. Procedural Preferences in Alternative Dispute Resolution. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law 10 (3): 211–49.
Simon, Herbert A. 1955. A Behavioral Model of Rational Choice. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 69:99118.
Sondak, Harris, and Tyler, Tom R. 2007. How Does Procedural Justice Shape the Desirability of Markets? Journal of Economic Psychology 28 (1): 7992.
Thaler, Richard H. 1994. The Winner's Curse: Paradoxes and Anomalies of Economic Life. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Thibaut, John, and Walker, Laurens. 1978. A Theory of Procedure. California Law Review 66:541–66.
Tyler, Tom R. 1990. Why People Obey the Law. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Tyler, Tom R. 2000. Social Justice: Outcome and Procedure. International Journal of Psychology 35 (2): 117–25.
Tyler, Tom R., and Blader, Steven L. 2000. Cooperation in Groups: Procedural Justice, Social Identity, and Behavioral Engagement. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.
Tyler, Tom R., and Blader, Steven L. 2005. Can Businesses Effectively Regulate Employee Conduct? The Antecedents of Rule Following in Work Settings. Academy of Management Journal 48 (6): 1143–58.
Tyler, Tom R., and Folger, Robert. 1980. Distributional and Procedural Aspects of Satisfaction with Citizen-Police Encounters. Basic and Applied Social Psychology 1 (4): 281–92.
Tyler, Tom R., and Huo, Yuen J. 2002. Trust in the Law: Encouraging Public Cooperation with the Police and the Courts. New York: Russell Sage.
Tyler, Tom R., and Allan Lind, E. 1992. A Relational Model of Authority in Groups. In vol. 25, Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, ed. Zanna, Mark P. New York: Academic Press.
Van den Bos, Kees, and Lind, E. Allan. 2002. Uncertainty Management By Means of Fairness Judgments. In vol. 25, Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, ed. Zanna, Mark P. New York: Academic Press.
Van Lange, Paul A. M. 1999. The Pursuit of Joint Outcomes and Equality in Outcomes: An Integrative Model of Social Value Orientation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 77 (2): 337–49.
Walton, Richard E., and McKersie, Robert B. 1965. A Behavioral Theory of Labor Negotiations: An Analysis of a Social Interaction System. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Welsh, Nancy A. 2004. Perceptions of Fairness in Negotiation. Marquette Law Review 87:753–67.


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed