Amnesty International. 2017. “China’s Deadly Secrets.” London: Amnesty International.
Amnesty International. 2018. “Death Sentences and Executions: 2017.” London: Amnesty International.
Andreas, Peter, and Greenhill, Kelly M.. 2010. Sex, Drugs, and Body Counts: The Politics of Numbers in Global Crime and Conflict. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Berman, Elizabeth Popp, and Hirschman, Daniel. 2018. “The Sociology of Quantification: Where Are We Now?” Contemporary Sociology 42, no. 3: 257–66.
Biddulph, Sarah, Nesossi, Elisa, and Trevaskes, Susan. 2017. “Criminal Justice Reform in the Xi Jinping Era.” China Law and Society Review 2, no. 1: 63–128.
Blanton, Thomas. 2002. “The World’s Right to Know.” Foreign Policy 131: 50–58.
Bok, Sissela. 1989. Secrets: On the Ethics of Concealment and Revelation. New York: Vintage.
China Daily. 2017. “White Paper: Judicial Transparency of Chinese Courts.” February 27.
Cohen, Stanley. 2001. States of Denial: Knowing about Atrocities and Suffering. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
Comaroff, Jean, and Comaroff, John L.. 2006. “Figuring Crime: Quantifacts and the Production of the Un/Real.” Public Culture 18, no. 1: 209–46.
Davis, Kevin E., Kingsbury, Benedict, and Merry, Sally Engle. 2012. “Indicators as a Technology of Global Governance.” Law & Society Review 46, no. 1: 71–104.
Diamond, Larry. 2002. “Thinking about Hybrid Regimes.” Journal of Democracy 13, no. 2: 21–35.
Durkheim, Émile. 1951. Suicide: A Study in Sociology. New York: Free Press.
The Economist. 2013. “Strike Less Hard.” August 3.
Espeland, Wendy Nelson, and Sauder, Michael. 2007. “Rankings and Reactivity: How Public Measures Recreate Social Worlds.” American Journal of Sociology 113, no. 1: 1–40.
Espeland, Wendy Nelson, and Stevens, Mitchell L.. 1998. “Commensuration as a Social Process.” Annual Review of Sociology 24, no. 1: 313–43.
Foucault, Michel. 1980. Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, 1972–1977. New York: Pantheon.
Foucault, Michel 2009. Security, Territory, Population: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1977–78. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Gallagher, Mary E. 2017. Authoritarian Legality in China: Law, Workers, and the State. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Ginsburg, Tom, and Moustafa, Tamir. 2008. Rule By Law: The Politics of Courts in Authoritarian Regimes. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Greenhill, Kelly M. 2010. “Counting the Cost: The Politics of Numbers in Armed Conflict.” In Sex, Drugs and Body Counts: The Politics of Numbers in Global Crime and Conflict, edited by Andreas, Peter and Greenhill, Kelly M., 127–58. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Hacking, Ian. 1990. The Taming of Chance. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Hacking, Ian 2007. “Kinds of People: Moving Targets.” Proceedings of the British Academy 151: 285–318.
Hansen, Hans Krause, and Porter, Tony. 2012. “What Do Numbers Do in Transnational Governance?” International Political Sociology 6, no. 4: 409–26.
He, Jiahong. 2016. Back from the Dead: Wrongful Convictions and Criminal Justice in China. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.
He, Ni. 2014. Chinese Criminal Trials: A Comprehensive Empirical Survey. New York: Springer.
Heilmann, Sebastian. 2017. China’s Political System. London: Rowman & Littlefield.
Hobbes, Thomas. 2010. Leviathan. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Johnson, David T., and Zimring, Franklin E.. 2009. The Next Frontier: National Development, Political Change, and the Death Penalty in Asia. New York: Oxford University Press.
Lau, Mimi. 2013. “Family of Executed Hunan Businessman Vows to Seek Justice.” South China Morning Post, July 17.
Latour, Bruno. 2005. Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lehrfreund, Saul. 2013. “The Impact and Importance of International Human Rights Standards: Asia in World Perspective.” In Confronting Capital Punishment in Asia, edited by Hood, Roger and Deva, Surya, 23–45. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Levitsky, Steven, and Way, Lucan A.. 2010. Competitive Authoritarianism: Hybrid Regimes after the Cold War. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Li, Fenlei. 2014. “Zuigao Renmin Fayuan Sixing Fuhe Chengxu Xintan” [A new inquiry into the Supreme People’s Court’s death penalty review process]. Guojia Jianchaguan Fayuan Xuebao [Journal of National Prosecutor’s College] 22, no. 5: 24–32.
Liang, Bin, and Lu, Hong. 2016. The Death Penalty in China: Policy, Practice, and Reform. New York: Columbia University Press.
Liebman, Benjamin L., Roberts, Margaret E., Stern, Rachel E., and Wang, Alice Z. 2019. “Mass Digitization of Chinese Court Decisions: How to Use Text as Data in the Field of Chinese Law.” Social Science Research Network. https://ssrn.com/abstract=2985861.
Lu, Hong, and Miethe, Terance D.. 2007. China’s Death Penalty: History, Law and Contemporary Practices. New York: Routledge.
Lynch, Mona. 2017. “The Narrative of the Number: Quantification in Criminal Court.” Law & Social Inquiry 44, no. 1: 31–57.
Mai, Jun. 2016. “China Executes Man Who Killed Official over His Demolished House.” South China Morning Post, November 15.
McConville, Michael. 2011. Criminal Justice in China: An Empirical Inquiry. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
Merry, Sally Engle. 2016. The Seductions of Quantification: Measuring Human Rights, Gender Violence, and Sex Trafficking. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Miao, Michelle. 2013. “Examining China’s Responses to the Global Campaign against the Death Penalty.” In Confronting Capital Punishment in Asia, edited by Hood, Roger and Deva, Surya, 46–67. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Minzner, Carl F. 2011. “China’s Turn against Law.” American Journal of Comparative Law 59, no. 4: 935–84.
Moustafa, Tamir. 2014. “Law and Courts in Authoritarian Regimes.” Annual Review of Law and Social Science 10: 281–99.
Nesossi, Elisa. 2017. “Wrongful Convictions: The Useful Injustice?” In Justice: The China Experience, edited by Sapio, Flora, Trevaskes, Susan, Biddulph, Sarah and Nesossi, Elisa, 141–67. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Oman, Charles P., and Arndt, Christiane. 2010. “Measuring Governance,” OECD Development Center, Policy Brief no. 39.
Pascoe, Daniel. 2016. “Researching the Death Penalty in Closed or Partially Closed Criminal Justice Systems.” In Changing Contours of Criminal Justice, edited by Bosworth, Mary, Hoyle, Carolyn, and Zedner, Lucia, 197–212. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Porter, Theodore M. 1995. Trust in Numbers: The Pursuit of Objectivity in Science and Public Life. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Pozen, David E. 2010. “Deep Secrecy.” Stanford Law Review 62: 257–339.
Prewitt, Kenneth. 1987. “Public Statistics and Democratic Politics.” In The Politics of Numbers, edited by Alonso, William and Starr, Paul, 261–74. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Ren, Zhongyuan. 2014. “Sixing Fuhequan Shangshou Banian: Zuigao Fayuan Ruhe Daoxialiuren” [Eight years after the return of the power of death penalty review: how does the Supreme Court decide to spare life?]. Southern Weekend, October 16.
Robertson, Matthew P., Hinde, Raymond L., and Lavee, Jacob. 2019. “Analysis of Official Deceased Organ Data Casts Doubt on the Credibility of China’s Organ Transplant Reform.” BMC Medical Ethics 20: 79–100. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12910-019-0406-6
Rosenzweig, Joshua. 2017. “State, Society and the Justice Debate in Contemporary China.” In Justice: The China Experience, edited by Sapio, Flora, Trevaskes, Susan, Biddulph, Sarah, and Nesossi, Elisa, 141–67. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Scheppele, Kim Lane. 1988. Legal Secrets: Equality and Efficiency in the Common Law. Chicago: University of Chicago press.
Scott, James C. 1990. Domination and the Arts of Resistance: Hidden Transcripts. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Shils, Edward A. 1956. The Torment of Secrecy: The Background and Consequences of American Security Policies. Chicago: Elephant Paperback.
Simmel, Georg. 1906. “The Sociology of Secrecy and of Secret Societies.” American Journal of Sociology 11, no. 4: 441–98.
Smith, Tobias, and Jiang, Su. 2019. “Making Sense of Life without Parole in China.” Punishment & Society 21, no. 1: 70–88.
SPC (Supreme People’s Court). 2018. Renmin Fayuan Sifa Tongji Lishi Dianji 1949–2016 [Records of People’s Courts historical judicial statistics: 1949–2016]. Beijing: China Democratic Legal Press.
Tian, Wenchang, and Chen, Ruihua. 2013. Xingshi Bianhu de Zhongguo Jingyan [The Chinese experience of criminal defense]. Beijing: Peking University Press.
Trevaskes, Susan. 2010. Policing Serious Crime in China: From “Strike Hard” to “Kill Fewer.” New York: Routledge.
Trevaskes, Susan 2012. The Death Penalty in Contemporary China. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Tyler, Tom R. 2006. Why People Obey the Law. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Wang, Guangze. 2007. “The Mystery of China’s Death Penalty Figures.” China Rights Forum 41, no. 2: 39–41.
Wu, Hongyao, and Guo, Yong. 2016. “Wanshan Woguo Xingshi Falü Bangzhu Zhidu de Sikao” [Reflections on perfecting China’s criminal justice legal aid system]. Zhongguo Sifa 2: 48–50.
Wu, Hongyao, and Zhang, Liang. 2017. “Sixing Fuhe Chengxu Zhong Beigaoren de Lüshi Bangzhuquan: Jiyu 255 Fen Sixing Fuhe Xingshi Caiding Shu de Shizheng Yanjiu” [Defendant’s right to legal aid during the death penalty review process: based on empirical study of 255 death penalty review decisions]. Falü Shiyong 7: 61–69.
Xinhua. 2008. “China Sees 30% Drop in Death Penalty.” May 10.
Xinhua. 2013. “Zuigao Fayuan Xiangjie Shengjiao Caipan Wenshuwang Shangwang Gongkai Banfa” [The Supreme Court carefully explains China judgments online publication measures]. July 3.
Xiong, Moulin. 2016. “The Death Penalty after the Restoration of Centralized Review: An Empirical Study of Capital Sentencing.” In The Death Penalty in China: Policy, Practice and Reform, edited by Liang, Bin and Lu, Hong, 214–46. New York: Columbia University Press.
Yan, Zhang. 2018. “All Criminal Cases to Have Defense Lawyers.” China Daily, January 19.
Zimring, Franklin E. 2017. When Police Kill. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.