Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-559fc8cf4f-sbc4w Total loading time: 0.228 Render date: 2021-03-02T15:05:34.498Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Legal Change and Gender Inequality: Changes in Muslim Family Law in India

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  27 December 2018

Abstract

Group-specific family laws are said to provide women fewer rights and impede policy change. India's family law systems specific to religious groups underwent important gender-equalizing changes over the last generation. The changes in the laws of the religious minorities were unexpected, as conservative elites had considerable indirect influence over these laws. Policy elites changed minority law only if they found credible justification for change in group laws, group norms, and group initiatives, not only in constitutional rights and transnational human rights law. Muslim alimony and divorce laws were changed on this basis, giving women more rights without abandoning cultural accommodation. Legal mobilization and the outlook of policy makers—specifically their approach to regulating family life, their understanding of group norms, and their normative vision of family life—shaped the major changes in Indian Muslim law. More gender-equalizing legal changes are possible based on the same sources.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © American Bar Foundation, 2008 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Agnes, Flavia. 1999. Law and Gender Inequality: The Politics of Women's Rights in India. New Delhi, India: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Ali, Ikram. 2005. Muslim Women Form Law Board. Times News Network, February 1. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/1008193.cms (accessed April 7, 2008).Google Scholar
All India Democratic Women's Association. 2000. Gender-Just Laws. Delhi, India: self-published.Google Scholar
All India Muslim Personal Law Board. 2001. All India Muslim Personal Law Board: Services and Activities. Delhi, India: self-published.Google Scholar
All India Muslim Personal Law Board. 2002. Compendium of Islamic Law: A Section-Wise Compilation of the Rules of Shari'at relating to Muslim Personal Law. 2nd ed. New Delhi, India: Self-published.Google Scholar
Ameer Ali, Syed. 1929. Mahommedan Law: Tagore Law Lectures. 5th ed. Calcutta, India: Kitab Bhavan.Google Scholar
An-Na'im, Abdullahi. 19871988. The Rights of Women and International Law in the Muslim Context. Whittier Law Review 3:491516.Google Scholar
An-Na'im, Abdullahi. 2002. Islamic Family Law in a Changing World: A Global Resource Book. London: Zed Press.Google Scholar
Berman, Harold J. 2002. Law and Revolution: The Formation of the Western Legal Tradition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Byrnes, Andrew, Jane, Connors, and Lum, Bik, eds. 1996. Advancing the Human Rights of Women: Using International Human Rights Standards in Domestic Litigation. London: The Commonwealth Secretariat.Google Scholar
Carrol, Lucy. 1997. Talaq-i-Tafwid and Stipulations in Muslim Marriage-Contracts: Legal Theory, Legislative Provisions, Judicial Rulings. Religion and Law Review 6 (1): 53102.Google Scholar
Charrad, Mounira M. 2001. States and Women's Rights: The Making of Postcolonial Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Communalism Watch. 2005. Mullahs Propose Shariah Courts in India. May 27. http://communalism.blogspot.com/2005/05/mullahs-propose-sharia-courts-in-india.html (accessed April 10, 2008).Google Scholar
Cook, Rebecca J., ed. 1994. Human Rights of Women: National and International Perspectives. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
Cossman, Brenda, and Kapur, Ratna. 2002. Secularism's Last Sigh: Hindutva and the (Mis)Rule of Law. Delhi, India: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Cottrol, Robert J., Diamond, Raymond T., and Ware, Leland B. 2003. Brown v. Board of Education. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.Google Scholar
Deccan Herald. 2005. Shia Women Float Personal Law Board. February 27. http://www.deccanherald.com/Archives/feb062005/n9.asp (accessed April 7, 2008).Google Scholar
Dhanda, Amita, and Parashar, Archana, eds. 1999. Engendering Law: Essays in Honour of Lotika Sarkar. Lucknow, India: Eastern Book Company.Google Scholar
Dhimmi Watch. 2007. India: Govt says Muslims have right to establish Sharia Courts. January 5. http://www.jihadwatch.org/dhimmiwatch/archives/014705.php (accessed April 10, 2008).Google Scholar
Diduck, Alison. 2003. Law's Families. London: LexisNexis.Google Scholar
Epp, Charles R. 1998. The Rights Revolution: Lawyers, Activists and Supreme Courts in Comparative Perspective. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Fyzee, Asaf A. A. 1964. Muhammadan Law in India and the Impact of English Law on the Shariat in India. Bombay Law Reporter (Journal) 56:111, 107–16, 121–29.Google Scholar
Fyzee, Asaf A. A. 1999. Outlines of Muhammadan Law. 4th ed. Delhi, India: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Gandhi, Nandita, and Shah, Nandita. 1992. The Issues at Stake: Theory and Practice in the Contemporary Women's Movement in India. New Delhi, India: Kali for Women.Google Scholar
Glendon, Mary Ann. 1989. The Transformation of Family Law: State, Law, and Family in the United States and Western Europe. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Goode, William J. 1993. World Changes in Divorce Patterns. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Goonesekere, Savitri. 2004. Violence, Law, and Women's Rights in South Asia. New Delhi, India: Sage Publishers.Google Scholar
Hameed, Syeda Saiyidain. 2001. Windows of Opportunity. Communalism Combat 8 (69): 57.Google Scholar
Hooker, M. B. 1975. Legal Pluralism: An Introduction to Colonial and Neo-Colonial Law. Oxford: Clarendon.Google Scholar
Hooker, M. B. 1983. Legal Pluralism in Southeast Asia. Oxford: Clarendon.Google Scholar
Horowitz, Donald L. 1994. The Qur'an and the Common Law: Islamic Law Reform and the Theory of Legal Change. American Journal of Comparative Law 42 (2): 233–93 and 42 (3): 543–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Imtiaz Ahmad, ed. 2003. Divorce and Remarriage among Muslims in India. Delhi, India: Manohar Publishers.Google Scholar
Islamic Fiqh Academy. 2004. Important Fiqhi Decisions. Delhi, India: Islamic Fiqh Academy.Google Scholar
Jacobsohn, Gary J. 2003. The Wheel of Law: India's Secularism in Comparative Constitutional Context. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Jamaat Ahl-i-Hadith. 1994. Fatwa of Ahl-i-Hadith: Talaq, Talaq, Talaq Is Not Final Talaq. Appendix in The Triple Talaq: An Analytical Study with Emphasis on Socio-Legal Aspects, by Ahmad, Furqan, 140–41. Delhi, India: Regency.Google Scholar
Joseph, Suad, ed. 2000. Gender and Citizenship in the Middle East. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.Google Scholar
Joseph, Suad, and Najmabadi, Afsaneh, eds. 2005. Encyclopedia of Women and Islamic Cultures: Family, Law and Politics. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
Kader, S. A. 1998. Muslim Law of Marriage and Succession in India: A Critique with a Plea for Optional Civil Code. Lucknow, India: Eastern Law House.Google Scholar
Kandiyoti, Deniz. 1991. Identity and Its Discontents: Women and the Nation. Millennium: Journal of International Studies 20 (3): 429–43.Google Scholar
Kapur, Ratna, and Cossman, Brenda. 1996. Subversive Sites: Feminist Engagements with Law in India. New Delhi, India: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
Kluger, Richard. 2004. Simple Justice: the History of Brown v. Board of Education and Black America's Struggle for Equality. London: Vintage Books.Google Scholar
Krishna Iyer, V. R. 1992. Religion and Law of Islam: Some Observations of a Non-Muslim Judge. Religion and Law Review 1 (1): 6570.Google Scholar
Kvam, Kristen E., and Ziegler, Valerie H., eds. 1999. Eve and Adam: Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Readings on Genesis and Gender. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mahmood, Tahir. 1997. Islamic Law in the Indian Courts since Independence: Fifty Years of Judicial Interpretation. New Delhi, India: Institute of Objective Studies.Google Scholar
Mahmood, Tahir. 1998. No More “Talaq, Talaq, Talaq”: Juristic Restoration of Islamic Divorce Law. Religion and Law Review 7:109–19.Google Scholar
Mansfield, John H. 1993. The Personal Laws or a Uniform Civil Code? In Religion and Law in Independent India, ed. Baird, Robert D., 207–45. New Delhi, India: Manohar Publishers.Google Scholar
Mazumdar, Vina. 1999. Political Ideology of the Women's Movement's Engagement with Law. In Engendering Law: Essays in Honour of Lotika Sarkar, ed. Dhanda, Amita and Parashar, Archana, 339406. Lucknow, India: Eastern Book Company.Google Scholar
McCann, Michael W. 1994. Rights at Work: Pay Equity Reform and the Politics of Legal Mobilization. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Menon, Nivedita. 1998. Women and Citizenship. In Wages of Freedom: Fifty Years of the Indian Nation-State, ed. Chatterjee, Partha, 241–66. Delhi, India: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Menski, Werner. 2001. Modern Indian Family Law. Richmond, VA: Curzon.Google Scholar
Menski, Werner. 2003. Hindu Law. Delhi, India: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Merry, Sally Engle. 2006. Human Rights & Gender Violence: Translating International Law into Local Justice. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Mir-Hosseini, Ziba. 2000. Marriage on Trial: A Study of Islamic Family Law. London: I. B. Tauris.Google Scholar
Mulla, Dinshaw Fardunji. 1968. Principles of Mahomedan Law. 16th ed. Bombay, India: N. M. Tripathi Publishers.Google Scholar
Okin, Susan Moller. 2001. When Cultural Values Clash with Universal Rights: Is Multiculturalism Bad for Women? Markkula Center for Applied Ethics Lecture Series. http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/submitted/okin/multicultural.html (accessed April 7, 2008).Google Scholar
Okin, Susan Moller, Cohen, Joshua, Howard, Matthew, and Nussbaum, Martha C. 1999. Is Multiculturalism Bad for Women? Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Parashar, Archana. 1992. Women and Family Law Reform in India. New Delhi, India: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
Parekh, Bhikhu. 2006. Rethinking Multiculturalism: Cultural Diversity and Political Theory. 2nd ed. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Radiance Viewsweekly. 2005. Muslim Women Form Law Board. 40 (13): 713.Google Scholar
Rosen, Lawrence. 2000. The Justice of Islam: Comparative Perspectives on Islamic Law and Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosenberg, Gerald N. 1991. The Hollow Hope: Can Courts Bring About Social Change? Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Rueschemeyer, Dietrich, and Skocpol, Theda, eds. 1996. States, Social Knowledge, and the Making of Modern Social Policies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Shahabuddin, Syed. 1992. Should Muslims Follow the Qur'anic Modality for Divorce? Religion and Law Review 1 (1): 2735.Google Scholar
Shankar, Shylashri. 2002. War of the Worlds: Political Equality and Religious Freedom in India and Israel. Ph.D. diss. Department of Political Science, Columbia University, New York.Google Scholar
Shankar, Shylashri. n.d. Dealing with Religious Freedom in India and Israel: Do Courts Follow an Institutional Logic. (In author's possession.)Google Scholar
Sharma, Amit. 2005. Lifting the Veil. Lucknow Newsline, February 27, 15.Google Scholar
Sikand, Yoginder. 2005a. Interrogating Triple Talaq: The Ahl-i Hadith Counter-Perspective. Qalandar: Islam and Interfaith Relations in South Asia. http://www.islaminterfaith.org (accessed November 25, 2005; site no longer active).Google Scholar
Sikand, Yoginder. 2005b. Shariah Court Campaign in India: Battle for the Muslim Mind. Sabrang Alternative News Network. http://www.sabrang.com/news/2005/yg/3june05.htm (accessed April 10, 2008).Google Scholar
Singh, Kirti. 1994. Obstacles to Women's Rights in India. In Human Rights of Women: National and International Perspectives, ed. Cook, Rebecca J., 375–96. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
Siraj, Mehrun. 1994. Women and the Law: Significant Developments in Malaysia. Law & Society Review 28:561–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stowasser, Barbara Freyer. 1994. Women in the Qur'an, Traditions and Interpretation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Sunder Rajan, Rajeswari. 2003. The Scandal of the State: Women, Law and Citizenship in Post-Colonial India. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Telegraph . 2005. Middle Way. http://www.telegraphindia.com/1050503/asp/opinion/story_4687277.asp (accessed April 7, 2008).Google Scholar
Vatuk, Sylvia. 2001. “Where Will She Go? What Will She Do?” Paternalism Towards Women in the Administration of Muslim Personal Law in Contemporary India. In Religion and Personal Law in Secular India: A Call to Judgment, ed. Larson, Gerald, 226–38. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
Verma, B. R. 2002. Commentaries on Mohammedan Law (in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh). 8th ed. Allahabad, India: Law Publishers.Google Scholar
Watson, Alan. 19821983. Legal Change: Sources of Law and Legal Culture. University of Pennsylvania Law Review 131:1121–57.Google Scholar
Yilmaz, Ihsan. 2005. Muslim Laws, Politics and Society in Modern Nation States: Dynamic Legal Pluralisms in England, Turkey and Pakistan. London: Ashgate.Google Scholar
Zaman, Muhammad Qasim. 2002. The Ulama in Contemporary Islam: Custodians of Change. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 17
Total number of PDF views: 9 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 27th December 2018 - 2nd March 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Legal Change and Gender Inequality: Changes in Muslim Family Law in India
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Legal Change and Gender Inequality: Changes in Muslim Family Law in India
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Legal Change and Gender Inequality: Changes in Muslim Family Law in India
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *