Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

A Leader Without Followers? The Growing Divergence Between the Regional and Global Performance of Brazilian Foreign Policy

  • Andrés Malamud (a1)

Abstract

Brazilian diplomats and academics alike have long regarded regional leadership as a springboard to global recognition. Yet Brazil's foreign policy has not translated the country's structural and instrumental resources into effective regional leadership. Brazil's potential followers have not aligned with its main goals, such as a permanent seat on the UN Security Council and Directorship-General of the World Trade Organization; some have even challenged its regional influence. Nevertheless, Brazil has been recognized as an emergent global power. This article analyzes the growing mismatch between the regional and global performance of Brazilian foreign policy and shows how both theoretical expectations and policy planning were “luckily foiled” by unforeseen developments. It argues that because of regional power rivalries and a relative paucity of resources, Brazil is likely to consolidate itself as a middle global power before gaining acceptance as a leader in its region.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Abreu, Sergio. 2006. Protocolo de adhesión de Venezuela al MERCOSUR. Exposición en oportunidad de su aprobación en el Senado. Uruguay , Cámara de Senadores, October 31. http://www.sergioabreu.com/adm/parlamento.php?id=88.
Almeida, Paulo Roberto. 2005. Políticas de integração regional no governo Lula. Política Internacional [Lisbon] 29: 3360.
Almeida, Paulo Roberto. 2007. Brazil as a Regional Player and an Emerging Global Power. FES Briefing Paper 8. July. São Paulo : Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung.
Alvarez, Angel E. 2007. Venezuela 2007: los motores del socialismo se alimentan con petróleo. Revista de Ciencia Política (Santiago) 27: 265–89. Special Issue.
Amorim, Celso. 2003. Discurso proferido pelo Embaixador Celso Amorim por ocasião da transmissão do Cargo de Ministro de Estado das Relações Exteriores. Brasília, January 1. http://mundorama.net/2003/01/01/discurso-proferido-pelo-embaixador-celso-amorim-por-ocasiao-da-transmissao-do-cargo-de-ministro-de-estado-das-relacoes-exteriores-brasilia-brasil-01012003. Accessed July 7, 2011.
Amorim, Celso. 2008. Brasil pode suspender crédito a vizinhos. Estado de São Paulo, December 3.
Armijo, Leslie Elliott. 2007. The Brics Countries (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) as Analytical Category: Mirage or Insight? Asian Perspective 31, 4: 742.
Arraes, Virgílio. 2006. O Brasil e a ONU de 1990 a nossos dias: das grandes conferências às grandes pretensões. In Relações internacionais do Brasil. Temas e agendas, vol. 2, ed. Altemani, Henrique and Lessa, António Carlos. São Paulo : Saraiva. 741.
Bouzas, Roberto, Veiga, Pedro Da Motta, and Torrent, Ramón. 2002. In-Depth Analysis of Mercosur Integration, Its Prospectives and the Effects Thereof on the Market Access of Eu Goods, Services and Investment. Report presented to the Commission of the European Communities, Observatory of Globalization, Barcelona. http://www.opalc.org/images/INRE/in-depth%20analysis%20of%20mercosur%20integration.pdf. Accessed July 7, 2011.
Brasil. Ministério da Defesa. 2008. Estratégia Nacional de Defesa (End). Brasília. http://www.fab.mil.br/portal/defesa/estrategia_defesa_nacional_portugues.pdf. Accessed July 7, 2011.
Burges, Sean W. 2005. Bounded by the Reality of Trade: Practical Limits to a South American Region. Cambridge Review of International Affairs 18, 3: 437–54.
Burges, Sean W. 2006. Without Sticks or Carrots: Brazilian Leadership in South America during the Cardoso Era, 1992–2002. Bulletin of Latin American Research 25, 1: 2342.
Burges, Sean W. 2007. Building a Global Southern Coalition: the Competing Approaches of Brazil's Lula and Venezuela's Chávez. Third World Quarterly 28, 7: 1343–58.
Burges, Sean W. 2008. Consensual Hegemony: Theorizing Brazilian Foreign Policy after the Cold War. International Relations 22, 1: 6584.
Cason, Jeffrey, and Power, Timothy. 2009. Presidentialization, Pluralization, and the Rollback of Itamaraty: Explaining Change in Brazilian Foreign Policy Making in the Cardoso-Lula Era. International Political Science Review 30, 2: 117–40.
Centro Brasileiro de Relações Internacionais-Centro de Estudos de Integração e Desenvolvimento (CEBRI-CINDES). 2007. Força-tarefa “O Brasil na América do Sul.” Relatório final. Rio de Janeiro, June. http://www.cindesbrasil.org/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid=20&Itemid=41. Accessed July 7, 2011.
Centro de Estudios Unión para la Nueva Mayoría (CEUNM). 2008. Balance militar de América del Sur 2008. Buenos Aires : CEUNM. http://www.nuevamayoria.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1130&Itemid=30.
The Economist . 2008a. An Economic Superpower, and Now Oil Too. April 17.
The Economist . 2008b. Brazil's Foreign Policy: the Samba Beat, with Missteps. December 18.
Etzioni, Amitai. 1975. A Comparative Analysis of Complex Organizations: On Power, Involvement, and Their Correlates. New York : Free Press.
European Commission. 2007. Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament: towards an Eu-Brazil Strategic Partnership (Com 281). Brussels, May 30. http://ec.europa.eu/external_relations/brazil/docs/com07_281_en.pdf. Accessed July 7, 2011.
Flemes, Daniel. 2007. Emerging Middle Powers' Soft Balancing Strategy: State and Perspectives of the IBSA Dialogue Forum. GIGA Working Paper 57. Hamburg : German Institute of Global and Area Studies. http://www.giga-hamburg.de/dl/download.php?d=/content/publikationen/pdf/wp57_flemes.pdf.
Garcia, Marco Aurélio. 2008. Gobierno ecuatoriano cometió un error muy grave. El Comercio (Quito), November 22.
Gauthier, Amélie, and de Sousa, Sarah John. 2006. Brazil in Haiti: Debate over the Peacekeeping Mission. Fride Comment, November. http://www.fride.org/download/COM_BraHaiti_ENG_nov06.pdf. Accessed July 7, 2011.
O Globo (Rio de Janeiro). 2010. Serra se diz cético quanto ao Mercosul. September 10. http://oglobo.globo.com/pais/mat/2010/09/10/serra-se-diz-cetico-quanto-ao-mercosul-917600935.asp. Accessed July 7, 2011.
Gratius, Susanne. 2007. Brazil in the Americas: a Regional Peace Broker? FRIDE Working Paper 35, April. Fundación para las Relaciones Internacionales y el Diálogo Exterior. http://www.fride.org/descarga/WP35_BraAmer_ENG_abr07.pdf. Accessed July 7, 2011.
Hakim, Peter. 2002. Two Ways to Go Global. Foreign Affairs 81, 1: 148–62.
Higgott, Richard. 2007. Alternative Models of Regional Cooperation? The Limits of Regional Institutionalization in East Asia. In European Union and New Regionalism: Regional Actors and Global Governance in a Post-Hegemonic Era, ed. Telò, Mario. Aldershot : Ashgate. 75106.
Hirst, Monica. 2007. South American Intervention in Haiti. Fride Comment, April.
Hurrell, Andrew, Cooper, Andrew F., González González, Guadalupe, Sennes, Ricardo Ubiraci, and Sitaraman, Srini. 2000. Paths to Power: Foreign Policy Strategies of Intermediate States. Working Paper no. 244. Washington , DC : Woodrow Wilson International Center Latin American Program.
International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS). 2006. The Military Balance 2006. Oxford : Oxford University Press.
Inter Press Service. 2005. Paraguay: U.S. Military Presence Stirs Speculation. August 4. http://www.commondreams.org/headlines05/0804-08.htm. Accessed March 10, 2009.
Jaguaribe, Helio. 2001. La opción de hierro. Consolidar y expandir el Mercado Común del Sur. Encrucijadas 1, 4: 2639.
Jordaan, Eduard. 2003. The Concept of a Middle Power in International Relations: Distinguishing between Emerging and Traditional Middle Powers. Politikon: South African Journal of Political Studies 30, 2: 165–81.
Kennan, George F. 1993. Around the Cragged Hill: A Personal and Political Philosophy. New York : Norton.
Keohane, Robert O. 1969. Lilliputian Dilemmas: Small States in International Politics. International Organization 23, 2: 291310.
Lafer, Celso. 2001. A identidade internacional do Brasil e a política externa brasileira. São Paulo : Perspectiva.
Lima, Maria Regina Soares de. 2008. Brazil Rising. Multipolar World, Internationale Politik (Fall): 6267.
Lima, Maria Regina Soares de, and Hirst, Monica. 2006. Brazil as an Intermediate State and Regional Power: Action, Choice, and Responsibilities. International Affairs 82, 1: 2140.
Malamud, Andrés. 2005. Mercosur Turns 15: between Rising Rhetoric and Declining Achievement. Cambridge Review of International Affairs 18, 3: 421–36.
Malamud, Andrés, and Castro, Pablo. 2007. Are Regional Blocs Leading from Nation States to Global Governance? a Skeptical View from Latin America. Iberoamericana: Nordic Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies 37, 1: 115–34.
Mattli, Walter. 1999. The Logic of Regional Integration: Europe and Beyond. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
Newsweek . 2008. Weathering the Storm. July 26. http://www.newsweek.com/2008/07/25/weathering-the-storm.html.
Nolte, Detlef. 2007. How to Compare Regional Powers: Analytical Concepts and Research Topics. Paper presented at the ECPR Joint Session of Workshops. Helsinki, May 7–12.
Nye, Joseph. 1990. Bound to Lead: The Changing Nature of American Power. New York : Basic Books.
Pinheiro, Letícia. 2000. Traídos pelo desejo: um ensaio sobre a teoria e a prática da política externa brasileira contemporânea. Contexto Internacional 22, 2: 305–35.
Poggi, Gianfranco. 1990. The State: Its Nature, Development and Prospects. Cambridge : Polity Press.
Russell, Roberto, and Tokatlian, Juan Gabriel. 2003. El lugar de Brasil en la política exterior argentina. Buenos Aires : Fondo de Cultura Económica.
Saraiva, Miriam Gomes. 2007. As estratégias de cooperação sul-sul nos marcos da política externa brasileira de 1993 a 2007. Revista Brasileira de Política Internacional 50: 4259.
Saraiva, Miriam Gomes. 2009. O Brasil entre a União Européia e a América do Sul: limites para uma relação triangular. Paper presented at the 28th Conference of the Latin American Studies Association, Rio de Janeiro, June 11–14.
Schirm, Stefan A. 2007. Emerging Power Leadership in Global Governance: Assessing the Leader-Follower Nexus for Brazil and Germany. Paper presented at the ECPR Joint Sessions of Workshops. Helsinki, May 7–12.
Sotero, Paulo, and Armijo, Leslie Elliott. 2007. Brazil: to Be or Not to Be a Bric? Asian Perspective 31, 4: 4370.
Souza, Amaury de. 2008. O Brasil na região e no mundo: percepções da comunidade brasileira de política externa. Rio de Janeiro : CEBRI.
United Nations. 2005. In Larger Freedom: towards Development, Security and Human Rights for All. Report of the Secretary-General. March 21. http://www.un.org/largerfreedom. Accessed July 7, 2011.
Vaillant, Marcel. 2007. ¿Por qué Uruguay necesita negociar con Estados Unidos? Obreal/Eularo Specialist Paper. October. European Union-Latin America Observatory. http://www.obreal.org/obreal/file.php?idfile=1022. Accessed July 7, 2011.
Vaz, Alcides Costa. 2007. Brasil y sus vecinos: ¿del descubrimiento a la interdependencia? In La percepción de Brasil en el contexto internacional: perspectivas y desafíos. Tomo I: América Latina, ed. Hofmeister, Wilhelm, Rojas, Francisco, and Solís, Luis Guillermo. Rio de Janeiro : Konrad Adenauer Stiftung. 2340.
Vigevani, Tullo, Favaron, Gustavo, Ramanzini, Haroldo, and Correia, Rodrigo A.. 2008. O papel da integração regional para o Brasil: universalismo, soberania e percepção das elites. Revista Brasileira de Política Internacional 51, 1: 527.
Vizentini, Paulo Fagundes. 2006. O G-3 e o G-20: o Brasil e as novas coalizões internacionais. In Relações internacionais do Brasil. Temas e agendas, Volume 2, ed. Altemani, Henrique and Lessa, António Carlos. São Paulo : Editora Saraiva. 159–93.
Wall Street Journal . 2008. Brazil Joins Front Rank of New Economic Powers. May 13.
Wall Street Journal . 2009. Economy Fuels Brazil's Ambitions beyond South America. February 6.
Wilson, Dominic, and Purushothaman, Roopa. 2003. Dreaming With BRICs: The Path to 2050. Global Economics Paper no. 99. October 1. New York : Goldman Sachs. http://www2.goldmansachs.com/ideas/brics/book/99-dreaming.pdf. Accessed July 7, 2011.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

A Leader Without Followers? The Growing Divergence Between the Regional and Global Performance of Brazilian Foreign Policy

  • Andrés Malamud (a1)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.