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A Reevaluation of the Absolute Chronology of Cabuza and Related Ceramic Styles of the Azapa Valley, Northern Chile

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 January 2017

Antti Korpisaari
Affiliation:
Department of World Cultures, P.O. Box 59(Unioninkatu 38 A), FI-00014, University of Helsinki, Finland, (antti.korpisaari@helsinki.fi)
Markku Oinonen
Affiliation:
Finnish Museum of Natural History — LUOMUS, P.O. Box 64(Gustaf Hällströminkatu 2), FI-00014, University of Helsinki, Finland, (markku.j.oinonen@helsinki.fi)
Juan Chacama
Affiliation:
Departamento de Antropología, Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica, Chile, (juanchacama@gmail.com)

Abstract

The nature and extent of the political and cultural influence of the Tiwanaku state (ca. A.D. 500—1100) in the Azapa Valley of northern Chile are debated topics. The absolute chronology of these contacts also remains somewhat unclear. Much of the debate has centered on the origins and chronological position of the Tiwanaku-related black-on-red ceramic style called Cabuza. In order to reevaluate the chronological position of the Cabuza, Maytas-Chiribaya, and San Miguel ceramic styles and associated cultural phases of the Azapa Valley, we obtained a total of 16 new radiocarbon dates for the Azapa-6, Azapa- 71a, Azapa-141, and Azapa-143 cemeteries. All but one sample dated to the Late Intermediate period (ca.A.D. 1000-1450). We compare our results with previously published radiocarbon and thermoluminescence dates and carry out Bayesian probability calculations, establishing the most likely chronological ranges for the three ceramic styles. Based on this research, we argue that the undeniable Tiwanaku influence seen in the Azapa Valley more likely reflects processes set in motion by the collapse of the Tiwanaku state rather than an attempt to colonize or indirectly control the Azapa Valley during the Middle Horizon (ca. A.D. 550-1000).

Resumen

Resumen

La naturaleza y extensión de la influencia político y cultural del estado de Tiwanaku (ca. 500-1100 d.C.) en el valle de Azapa, norte de Chile es actualmente un asunto en debate. Del mismo modo, la cronología absoluta de estos contactos también es confusa. En dicho contexto, gran parte del debate está relacionado con el estilo cerámico Cabuza, cuyos colores (negro sobre rojo) y especialmente susformas (keros), estarían siendo influenciados por los cánones culturales de Tiwanaku. En orden a reevaluar la posición cronológica de los estilos cerámicos y fases culturales correspondientes del valle de Azapa—Cabuza, Maytas-Chiribaya y San Miguel—obtuvimos un total de 16 nuevos fechados radiocarbónicos provenientes de los sitios funerarios Azapa-6, Azapa- 71a, Azapa-141 y Azapa-143. Todos, con excepción de una muestra, se sitúan en el Período Intermedio Tardío (ca. 1000-1450 d.C). Comparamos nuestros resultados confechas de radiocarbono y termoluminiscencia ya publicadas, e hicimos cálculos de probabilidad a través del método bayesiano, estableciendo los rangos cronológicos más probables para los tres estilos de cerámica arriba mencionados. Basados en nuestra investigatión, argumentamos que la innegable influencia de Tiwanaku en el valle de Azapa refleja más bien procesos que son producto del colapso del estado de Tiwanaku, más que un intento colonizador o de control indirecto llevado a cabo por este en el valle de Azapa durante el Horizonte Medio (ca. 550-1000 d.C).

Type
Special Section: Rethinking Ceramic Chronologies, Part I
Copyright
Copyright © Society for American Archaeology 2014

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