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Inka Administration of the Far South Coast of Peru

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  20 January 2017


R. Alan Covey
Affiliation:
Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor MI 48109-1079, and Department of Anthropology, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th St, New York, NY 10024-5192

Abstract

This paper examines ethnohistoric and archaeological evidence of Inka imperial strategies for controlling resources and people in the Titicaca Basin and the coastal valleys of southern Peru and northern Chile, and suggests that Inka imperial policies were adapted to meet local conditions in a series of dynamic political and economic interactions. In the coastal region between the Tambo Valley of southern Peru and the Azapa Valley of northern Chile, Inka policies included, variously, the resettlement of labor colonists (mitmaqkuna), the direct incorporation of coastal groups, and the maintenance of alliances with autonomous coastal elites. Altiplano elites exploited the imperial system to extend their own networks of colonization and exchange. Recent archaeological surveys in the Ilo-Ite coastal region, as well as unpublished data collected by Gary Vescelius between 1958 and 1960, indicate that the Inka developed more direct control of the south-central coast than earlier polities had achieved, but that imperial control over this region was limited and influenced by the persistence of autonomous coastal groups. Groups around Ilo remained fairly independent, while parts of the Tambo and Sama valleys and the Quebrada Tacahuay were brought under direct imperial control.


Resumen

Resumen

Se consideran en este artículo las estrategias imperiales incaicas para gobernar recursos y gente en la Cuenca Titicaca y en la costa sur-central. Datos etnohistóricos y arqueológicos sugieren que los Inka adaptaron sus políticas imperiales para satisfacer condiciones locales por medio de una serie dinámica de interacciones politico-económicas. Se considera el desarrollo y ejercicio de estrategias administrativas, así como valoraciones "locales" de la complementaridad de recursos y las interacciones de los élite. Según muchos documentos coloniales, en la región costera entre los valles Tambo (Peru) y Azapa (Chile), las estrategias inkaicas incluyeron: la colonización de mitmaqkuna de la Cuenca Titicaca en Sama Grande, la incorporación directa de algunas gentes costeras en Pueblo Tacahuay, y el mantenimiento de alianzas con algunos kurakas costeros autónomos en Ilo. Los kurakas del altiplano utilizaban el sistema imperial para la extensión de sus redes de colonización e intercambio, una condición hecha posible bajo la integración política del imperio. Se presentan datos nuevos proporcionados por reconocimientos arqueológicos llevados a cabo recientemente en esta región, así como unos datos arqueológicos recobrados por el arqueólogo Gary Vescelius en 1958-1960. La evidencia regional sugiere que en la costa sur-central, los Inkas desarrollaron un control más directo que él de los estados más tempranos (Wari y Tiwanaku). No obstante, el control imperial en esta región fue limitado e influido por la persistencia de grupos costeros autónomos. En la región de Ilo, artefactos de contextos funerarios revelan que los kurakas costeros mantenían sus redes de intercambio utilizando recursos marítimos y agriculturales. Sin embargo, la arquitectura inkaica en los valles de Tambo y Sama, así como la quebrada costera de Tacahuay, revela un control imperial más directo en estas partes. El sitio arqueológico Pueblo Tacahuay tiene conjuntos arquitectónicos en el estilo inka, asociados con andenes y canales para la agricultura intensiva. Las cerámicas del sitio revelan la ocupación de grupos locales bajo del control del Tawantinsuyu. La diversidad vista en la evidencia arqueológica y documentaria sugiere por una parte que los Inka no efectuaron su desarrollo imperial de la costa, o por otra parte que no querían incorporar grupos costeros directamente. Visto desde la perspectiva local, es posible decir que los kurakas locales mantuvieron algunas opciones en sus interacciones con el Tawantinsuyu.


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Copyright © Society for American Archaeology 2000

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