Results of theoretical calculations and experimental measurements of the equation of state (EOS) at extreme conditions are discussed and applied to aluminum. It is pointed out that the available high pressure and temperature information covers a broad range of the phase diagram, but only irregularly and, as a rule, is not thermodynamically complete; its generalization can be done only in the form of a thermodynamically complete EOS. A multi-phase EOS model is presented, accounting for solid, liquid, gas, and plasma states, as well as two-phase regions of melting and evaporation. The thermodynamic properties of aluminum and its phase diagram are calculated with the use of this model. Theoretical calculations of thermodynamic properties of the solid, liquid, and plasma phases, and of the critical point, are compared with results of static and dynamic experiments. The analysis deals with thermodynamic properties of solid aluminum at T = 0 and 298 K from different band-structure theories, static compression experiments in diamond anvil cells, and the information obtained in isentropic-compression and shock-wave experiments. Thermodynamic data in the liquid state, resulting from traditional thermophysical measurements, “exploding wire” experiments, and evaluations of the critical point are presented. Numerous shock-wave experiments for aluminum have been done to measure shock adiabats of crystal and porous samples, release isentropes, and sound speed in shocked metal. These data are analyzed in a self-consistent manner together with all other available data at high pressure.
The model's results are shown for the principal shock adiabat, the high-pressure melting and evaporation regions and the critical point of aluminum. New experimental and theoretical data helped to improve the description of the high-pressure, high-temperature aluminum liquid. The present EOS describes with high accuracy and reliability the complete set of available information.