Review of some research into laser thermonuclear fusion carried out in Russian Federal Nuclear Center (RFNC-VNIIEF) within the last several years is presented. The review begins with a brief survey into ICF development in RFNC-VNIIEF starting from A.D. Sakharov and S.B. Kormer's pioneer proposals of the 1960s. The review concludes with the exposition of historical background of the 10 TW ISKRA-4 and 100 TW ISKRA-5 laser facilities creation and with the prospects of the 300 kJ ISKRA-6 (λ= 0.35 μm) laser development. The results of survey carried out at the ISKRA-5 facility are presented in the review. The high degree of symmetry (nonuniformity < 3%) of irradiation of a DT-shell by the X-ray emission made it possible to successfully conduct experiments with the asymmetrical shells. The asymmetry was effected through the asymmetrical Mg layers deposition on a spherically uniform glass shell surface. The asymmetry impact on neutron yield and the moment of neutron generation was investigated. The line X-ray emission characteristics of the H-like and He-like Ar, Fe, and Al ions were studied in another set of experiments. Ar was doped into DT-gas, while Fe and Al were deposited on the CH spherical hohlraums' inner surface. Development of the Cherenkov radiation generator in which the electron motion is actuated by the faster-than-light X-ray pulse motion on the surface of a plane sample, being under voltage, is reported. And in fine a brief description of experiments carried out at the ISKRA-4 facility under the program of turbulent mixing in plane multi layer targets is presented.
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