Skip to main content Accessibility help

Extending the range of measurement of thermal imaging diagnostics of a high-intensity pulsed ion beam

  • A. Pushkarev (a1) (a2), X. P. Zhu (a2), A. Prima (a1), Yu. Egorova (a1) and M. K. Lei (a2)...


Thermal imaging diagnostics was used as a surface temperature mapping tool to characterize the energy density distribution of a high-intensity pulsed ion beam. This approach was tested on the TEMP-6 accelerator (200–250 kV, 150 ns). The beam composition included carbon ions (85%) and protons, and the energy density in the focus was 5–12 J/cm2. Targets of stainless steel, titanium, brass, copper, and tungsten were examined. Our observations show that the maximum energy density measured with the thermal imaging diagnostics considerably exceeds the ablation threshold of the targets. An analysis of the overheating mechanisms of each target was carried out, including metastable overheating of the target to above its boiling temperature during rapid heating; formation, migration, and the subsequent annealing of fast radiation-induced defects in the target under ion beam irradiation. This expands the range of energy density measurement for this thermal imaging diagnostics from 2–3 J/cm2 up to 10–12 J/cm2 but introduces error into the results of measurement. For a stainless steel target, this error exceeds 15% at an energy density of more than 4 J/cm2. A method of correcting the results of the thermal imaging diagnostics is developed for a pulsed ion beam under conditions of intense ablation of the target material.


Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: A. Pushkarev, Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050 Tomsk, Russia and Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China, E-mail:;


Hide All
Boyko, VI, Skvortsov, VA, Fortov, VE and Shamanin, IV (2003) The Interaction of Pulsed Charged-Particle Beams With a Substance. Moscow: Fizmatlit (in Russian).
Bystritskii, VM and Didenko, AN (1989) High-Power Ion Beams. New York: American Institute of Physics.
Davis, HA, Bartsch, RR, Olson, JC, Rej, DJ and Waganaar, WJ (1997) Intense ion beam optimization and characterization with infrared imaging. Journal of Applied Physics 82, 32233231.
Isakova, YI and Pushkarev, AI (2018) Visualization and analysis of pulsed ion beam energy density profile with infrared imaging. Infrared Physics and Technology 89, 140146.
Kovivchak, VS, Panova, TV, Krivozubov, OV, Davletkil'deev, NA and Knyazevet, EV (2013) Wavy microstructures formed at the SiO2/Si interface under the action of high-power ion-beam pulses. Technical Physics Letters 39, 147149.
Martyniuk, MM (1999) Phase Transitions During Pulsed Heating. M: PFUR University Publishing House (in Russian).
Mendelev, MI, Underwood, TL and Ackland, GJ (2016) Development of an interatomic potential for the simulation of defects, plasticity, and phase transformations in titanium. The Journal of Chemical Physics 145, 154102.
Michio, K, Hikoshi, T, Koji, M and Eiichi Fujita, F (1979) Mobility of lattice vacancies in iron. Philosophical Magazine A 40, 779802.
Myers, MT, Charnvanichborikarn, S, Shao, L and Kucheyev, SO (2012) Pulsed ion beam measurement of the time constant of dynamic annealing in Si. Physical Review Letters 109, 095502.
Ohsawa, K and Kuramoto, E (2005) Activation energy and saddle point configuration of high-mobility dislocation loops: A line tension model. Physical Review B 72, 054105.
Proskurovsky, DI, Rotshtein, VP, Ozur, GE, Ivanov, YF and Markov, AB (2000) Physical foundations for surface treatment of materials with low energy, high current electron beams. Surface and Coatings Technology 125, 4956.
Pushkarev, AI, Isakova, YI, Xiao, Y and Khailov, IP (2013) Characterization of intense ion beam energy density and beam induced pressure on the target with acoustic diagnostics. Review of Scientific Instruments 84, 083304.
Pushkarev, AI, Isakova, YI and Prima, AI (2018) High-intensity pulsed ion beam composition and the energy spectrum measurements using the time-of-flight method. Laser and Particle Beams 36, 210218.
Renk, TJ, Harper-Slaboszewicz, V, Mikkelson, KA, Ginn, WC, Ottinger, PF and Schumer, JW (2014) Use of a radial self-field diode geometry for intense pulsed ion beam generation at 6 MeV on Hermes III. Physics of Plasmas 21, 123114.
Satoh, Y, Sohtome, T, Abe, H, Matsukawa, Y and Kano, S (2017) A thermal migration of vacancies in iron and copper induced by electron irradiation. Philosophical Magazine 97, 638656.
Sigmund, P (2014) Particle Penetration and Radiation Effects. Volume 2. Penetration of Atomic and Molecular Ions. Springer Series in Solid-State Sciences: Springer; ISBN-10: 3319055631, ISBN-13: 978-3319055633.
Trushin, JV (2000) Physical Materials Technology. St.-Petersburg: Science (in Russian).
Terentyev, DA, Malerba, L and Hou, M (2007) Dimensionality of interstitial cluster motion in bcc-Fe. Physical Review B 75, 104108.
Upadhyay, AK, Inogamov, NA, Bärbel, R and Urbassek, HM (2008) Ablation by ultrashort laser pulses: Atomistic and thermodynamic analysis of the processes at the ablation threshold. Physical Review B 78, 045437.
Van Renterghem, W, Mazouzi, A and Dyck, S (2011) Influence of post irradiation annealing on the mechanical properties and defect structure of AISI 304 steel. Journal of Nuclear Materials 413, 95102.
Yu, X, Shen, J, Qu, M, Liu, W, Zhong, H, Zhang, J, Zhang, Y, Yan, S, Zhang, G, Zhang, X and Le, X (2015 a) Characterization and analysis of infrared imaging diagnostics for intense pulsed ion and electron beams. Vacuum 113, 3642.
Yu, X, Shen, J, Qu, M, Zhong, H, Zhang, J, Zhang, Y, Yan, S, Zhang, G, Zhang, X and Le, X (2015 b) Distribution and evolution of thermal field formed by intense pulsed ion beam on thin metal target. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 365, 225229.
Wen, QF, Liu, Y, Wang, YM, Zhang, FG, Zhu, XP and Lei, MK (2012) The effect of irradiation parameters of high-intensity pulsed ion beam on tribology performance of YWN8 cemented carbides. Surface and Coatings Technology 209, 143150.
Wirth, BD, Odette, GR, Maroudas, D and Lucas, GE (2000) Energetics of formation and migration of self-interstitials and self-interstitial clusters in α-iron. Journal of Nuclear Materials 276, 3340.
Zhu, XP, Lei, MK and Ma, TC (2002) Characterization of a high-intensity bipolar-mode pulsed ion source for surface modification of materials. Review of Scientific Instruments 73, 17281733.
Zhu, XP, Ding, L, Zhang, Q, Isakova, Y, Prima, A, Pushkarev, A and Lei, MK (2018) Ion beam focusing by own charge. Laser and Particle Beams 36, 470476.


Extending the range of measurement of thermal imaging diagnostics of a high-intensity pulsed ion beam

  • A. Pushkarev (a1) (a2), X. P. Zhu (a2), A. Prima (a1), Yu. Egorova (a1) and M. K. Lei (a2)...


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed