Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Ethnography of language planning and policy

  • Nancy H. Hornberger (a1), Aldo Anzures Tapia (a2), David H. Hanks (a3), Frances Kvietok Dueñas (a4) and Siwon Lee (a5)...
  • Please note a correction has been issued for this article.

Abstract

A decade ago, Hornberger & Johnson proposed that the ethnography of language planning and policy (ELPP) offers a useful way to understand how people create, interpret, and at times resist language policy and planning (LPP). They envisioned ethnographic investigation of layered LPP ideological and implementational spaces, taking up Hornberger's plea five years earlier for language users, educators, and researchers to fill up and wedge open ideological and implementational spaces for multiple languages, literacies, identities, and practices to flourish and grow rather than dwindle and disappear. With roots going back to the 1980s and 1990s, ethnographic research in LPP had been gathering momentum since the turn of the millennium. This review encompasses selected ethnographic LPP research since 2000, exploring affordances and constraints of this research in yielding comparative and cumulative findings on how people interpret and engage with LPP initiatives. We highlight how common-sense wisdom about the perennial gap between policy and practice is given nuance through ethnographic research that identifies and explores intertwining dynamics of top-down and bottom-up LPP activities and processes, monoglossic and heteroglossic language ideologies and practices, potential equality and actual inequality of languages, and critical and transformative LPP research paradigms.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Adrey, B. (2009). Discourse and struggle in minority language policy formation: Corsican language policy in the EU context of governance. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Allard, E. (2015). Undocumented status and schooling for newcomer teens. Harvard Educational Review 81.3, 478501.
Anderson, G. & Irvine, P. (1993). Informing critical literacy with ethnography. In Lankshear, C. & McLaren, P. (eds.), Critical literacy: Politics, praxis and the postmodern. Albany: SUNY Press, 81104.
Anderson-Levitt, K. & Rockwell, E. (eds.) (2017). Comparing ethnographies: Local studies of education across the Americas. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.
Bekerman, Z. (2005) Complex contexts and ideologies: Bilingual education in conflict-ridden areas. Journal of Language, Identity and Education 4.1, 120.
Berryman, M., SooHoo, S. & Nevin, A. (eds.) (2013a). Culturally responsive methodologies. Bingley: Emerald.
Berryman, M., SooHoo, S. & Nevin, A. (2013b). Culturally responsive methodologies from the margins. In Berryman, M. et al. (eds.), 1–31.
Bishop, R. (2005). Freeing ourselves from neocolonial domination in research: A Kaupapa Māori approach to creating knowledge. In Denzin, N. K. & Lincoln, Y. S. (eds.), The SAGE handbook of qualitative research. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 109138.
Blackledge, A. & Creese, A. (2010). Multilingualism: A critical perspective. London: Continuum.
Blackledge, A. & Creese, A. (eds.) (2014). Heteroglossia as practice and pedagogy. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.
Blackwood, R. J. (2008). Language policy on Corsica: The state, the activists and the islanders. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.
Blommaert, J. (2007). Sociolinguistic scales. Intercultural Pragmatics 4.1, 119.
Blommaert, J. (2009). Ethnography and democracy: Hymes's political theory of language. Text & Talk 29.3, 257276.
Blommaert, J., Kelly-Holmes, H., Lane, P., Leppänen, S., Moriarty, M., Pietikäinen, S. & Piirainen-Marsh, A. (2009). Media, multilingualism and language policing: An introduction. Language Policy 8.3, 203207.
Cadier, L. & Mar-Molinero, C. (2012). Language policies and linguistic super-diversity in contemporary urban societies: The case of the City of Southampton, UK. Current Issues in Language Planning 13.3, 149165.
Canagarajah, A. S. (1995). Functions of codeswitching in the ESL classroom: Socialising bilingualism in Jaffna. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 16.3, 173195.
Canagarajah, A. S. (1997). Safe houses in the contact zone: Coping strategies of African American students in the academy. College Composition and Communication 48.2, 173196.
Canagarajah, A. S. (ed.) (2005). Reclaiming the local in language policy and practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Canagarajah, S. (2006). Ethnographic methods in language policy. In Ricento, T. (ed.), 153–169.
Cavalcanti, M. C. & Maher, T. M. (eds.) (2018). Multilingual Brazil: Language resources, identities and ideologies in a globalized world. New York: Routledge.
Chaparro, S. (2017). Language and the gentrifying city: An ethnographic study of a two-way immersion program in an urban public school. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.
Chick, J. K. (2001). Constructing a multicultural national identity: South African classrooms as sites of struggle between competing discourses. Working Papers in Educational Linguistics 17.1–2, 2745.
Chilisa, B. (2012). Indigenous research methodologies. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Clifford, J. & Marcus, G. E. (eds.) (1986). Writing culture: The poetics and politics of ethnography. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Cochran-Smith, M. & Lytle, S. L. (2009). Inquiry as stance: Practitioner research for the next generation. New York: Teachers College Press.
Coelho, F. O. & Henze, R. (2014). English for what? Rural Nicaraguan teachers’ local responses to national educational policy. Language Policy 13.2, 145163.
Cooper, R. L. (1989). Language planning and social change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Curdt-Christiansen, X. L. (2009). Invisible and visible language planning: Ideological factors in the family language policy of Chinese immigrant families in Quebec. Language Policy 8.4, 351375.
da Silva, E. & Heller, M. (2009). From protector to producer: The role of the State in the discursive shift from minority rights to economic development. Language Policy 8.2, 95116.
Davis, K. A. (1994). Language planning in multilingual contexts: Policies, communities, and schools in Luxembourg. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Davis, K. A. (1999). The sociopolitical dynamics of indigenous language maintenance and loss: A framework for language policy and planning. In Huebner, T. & Davis, K. A. (eds.), Sociopolitical perspectives on language policy and planning in the USA. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 6797.
Davis, K. A. (ed.) (2014a). Engaged language policy and practices (Thematic issue). Language Policy 13.2, entire issue.
Davis, K. A. (2014b). Engaged language policy and practices. Language Policy 13.2, 83100.
De Korne, H. (2016). Imagining convivial multilingualism: Practices, ideologies and strategies in Diidxazá/Isthmus Zapotec Indigenous language education. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.
De Korne, H. & Hornberger, N. H. (2017). Countering unequal multilingualism through ethnographic monitoring. In Martin-Jones, M. & Martin, D. (eds.), Researching multilingualism: Critical and ethnographic approaches. New York: Routledge, 247258.
Erickson, F. (2016). First, do no harm: A comment. Anthropology & Education Quarterly 47.1, 100103.
Fabian, J. (1983). Time and the other: How anthropology makes its object. New York: Columbia University Press.
Ferguson, C. A. (1968). Language development. In Fishman, J., Ferguson, C. A. & Gupta, J. D. (eds.), Language problems of developing nations. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 2735.
Ferguson, J. (2010). Shäwthän Dän, Shäwthän Kwänjè: good people, good words: creating a dän k’è speech community in an elementary school. Current Issues in Language Planning 11.2, 152172.
Fishman, J. A. (1973). Language modernization and planning in comparison with other types of national modernization and planning. Language in Society 2.1, 2343.
Fishman, J. A. (1975). Some implications of The International Research Project on Language Planning Processes (IRPLPP) for sociolinguistic surveys. In Ohannessian, S., Ferguson, C. A. & Polomé, E. C. (eds.), Language surveys in developing nations: Papers and reports on sociolinguistic surveys. Arlington, VA: Center for Applied Linguistics, 209220.
Fishman, J. A. (1991). Reversing language shift: Theoretical and empirical foundations of assistance to threatened languages. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Flores, N. & Schissel, J. L. (2014). Dynamic bilingualism as the norm: Envisioning a heteroglossic approach to standards-based reform. TESOL Quarterly 48.3, 454479.
Foley, D. (2002). Critical ethnography: The reflexive turn. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education 15.4, 469490.
Freeman, R. D. (1998). Bilingual education and social change. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed (trans. Ramos, M. B.). New York: Herder and Herder.
Gallo, S. & Hornberger, N. H. (2017). Immigration policy as family language policy: Mexican immigrant children and families in search of biliteracy. International Journal of Bilingualism. doi.org/10.1177/1367006916684908.
García, O. & Menken, K. (2010). Stirring the onion: Educators and the dynamics of language education policies (looking ahead). In Menken, K. & García, O. (eds.), 249–261.
García, O., Skutnabb-Kangas, T. & Torres-Guzmán, M. E. (eds.) (2006). Imagining multilingual schools: Languages in education and glocalization. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Geertz, C. (1973). The interpretation of cultures: Selected essays. New York: Basic Books.
Goodman, B. A. (2014). Implementing English as a medium of instruction in a Ukrainian university: Challenges, adjustments, and opportunities. International Journal of Pedagogies and Learning 9.2, 130141.
Groff, C. (2017). Language and language-in-education planning in multilingual India: A minoritized language perspective. Language Policy 16.2, 135164.
Hamel, R. E. (2006). Spanish in science and higher education: Perspectives for a plurilingual language policy in the Spanish-speaking world. Current Issues in Language Planning 7.1, 95125.
Hammersley, M. & Martyn, P. (2007). Ethnography: Principles in practice. New York: Routledge.
Haugen, E. (1959). Planning for a standard language in modern Norway. Anthropological Linguistics 1.3, 821.
Haugen, E. (1973). The curse of Babel. Daedalus 102.3, 4757.
Haugen, E. (1983). The implementation of corpus planning: Theory and practice. In Cobarrubias, J. (ed.), Progress in language planning: International perspectives. Berlin: Mouton, 269290.
Hill, R. & May, S. (2011). Exploring biliteracy in Māori-medium education: An ethnographic perspective. In McCarty, T. L. (ed.), New York: Routledge, 161–183.
Hill, R. & May, S. (2013). Non-indigenous researchers in indigenous language education: Ethical implications. IJSL 219, 4765.
Hinton, L. (2001). Language revitalization: An overview. In Hinton, L. & Hale, K. (eds.), The green book of language revitalization in practice. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 318.
Hornberger, N. H. (1988). Bilingual education and language maintenance: A southern Peruvian Quechua case. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Foris.
Hornberger, N. H. (1994). Literacy and language planning. Language and Education 8.1–2, 7586.
Hornberger, N. H. (ed.) (1997). Indigenous literacies in the Americas: Language planning from the bottom up. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Hornberger, N. H. (1998). Language policy, language education, language rights: Indigenous, immigrant, and international perspectives. Language in Society 27.4, 439458.
Hornberger, N. H. (2002). Multilingual language policies and the continua of biliteracy: An ecological approach. Language Policy 1.1, 2751.
Hornberger, N. H. (2005). Opening and filling up implementational and ideological spaces in heritage language education. Modern Language Journal 89.4, 605609.
Hornberger, N. H. (2006a). Frameworks and models in language policy and planning. In Ricento, T. (ed.), 24–41.
Hornberger, N. H. (2006b). Nichols to NCLB: Local and global perspectives on US language education policy. In García, O., Skutnabb-Kangas, T. & Torres-Guzmán, M. E. (eds.), 223–237.
Hornberger, N. H. (ed.) (2008). Can schools save Indigenous languages? Policy and practice on four continents. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Hornberger, N. H. (2013). Negotiating methodological rich points in the ethnography of language policy. IJSL 219, 101122.
Hornberger, N. H. (2014a). On not taking language inequality for granted: Hymesian traces in ethnographic monitoring of South Africa's multilingual language policy. Multilingua 33.5–6, 625647.
Hornberger, N. H. (2014b). ‘Until I became a professional, I was not, consciously, Indigenous’: One intercultural bilingual educator's trajectory in Indigenous language revitalization. Journal of Language, Identity and Education 13.4, 283299.
Hornberger, N. H. (2015). Selecting appropriate research methods in LPP research: Methodological rich points. In Hult, F. M. & Johnson, D. C. (eds.), Research methods in language policy and planning: A practical guide. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 920.
Hornberger, N. H. & Johnson, D. C. (2007). Slicing the onion ethnographically: Layers and spaces in multilingual language education policy and practice. TESOL Quarterly 14.3, 509532.
Hornberger, N. H. & Hult, F. M. (2008). Ecological language education policy. In Spolsky, B. & Hult, F. M. (eds.), Handbook of educational linguistics. Malden, MA: Blackwell, 280296.
Hornberger, N. H. & Johnson, D. C. (2011). The ethnography of language policy. In McCarty, T. L. (ed.), 273–289.
Hornberger, N. H. & McCarty, T. L. (eds.) (2012). Globalization from the bottom up: Indigenous language planning and policy across time, space, and place (Special issue). International Multilingual Research Journal 6.1, entire issue.
Hornberger, N. H. & Kvietok Dueñas, F. (2017). From student shyness to student voice: Mapping biliteracy teaching in Indigenous contexts. Working Papers in Educational Linguistics 32.1, 123.
Hult, F. M. (2010). Analysis of language policy discourses across the scales of space and time. IJLS 202, 724.
Hult, F. M. (2012). English as a transcultural language in Swedish policy and practice. TESOL Quarterly 46.2, 230257.
Hult, F. M. & Johnson, D. C. (eds.) (2015). Research methods in language policy and planning: A practical guide. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Hymes, D. (1964). Introduction: Toward ethnographies of communication. American Anthropologist 66.6, 134.
Hymes, D. H. (1968). The ethnography of speaking. In Fishman, J. A. (ed.), Readings in the sociology of language. The Hague: Mouton, 99138.
Hymes, D. H. (1980a). Ethnographic monitoring. In Hymes, D. H. (1980) Language in education: Ethnolinguistic essays. Washington DC: Center for Applied Linguistics, 104118.
Hymes, D. H. (1980b) What is ethnography? In D. H. Hymes (1980), 88–103.
Hymes, D. (1992). Inequality in language: Taking for granted. Working Papers in Educational Linguistics 8.1, 130.
Hymes, D. (1996). Ethnography, linguistics, narrative inequality: Toward an understanding of voice. London: Taylor & Francis.
Jaffe, A. (1999). Ideologies in action: Language politics on Corsica. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Jaffe, A. (2008). Language ecologies and the meaning of diversity: Corsican bilingual education and the concept of ‘polynomie’. In Creese, A., Martin, P. & Hornberger, N. H. (eds.), Encyclopedia of language and education, volume 9: Ecology of language (2nd edn.). Berlin: Springer, 225235.
Jaffe, A. (2011). Critical perspectives on language-in-education policy: The Corsican example. In McCarty, T. L. (ed.), 205–230.
Jaspers, J. (2015). Modelling linguistic diversity at school: The excluding impact of inclusive multilingualism. Language Policy 14.2, 109129.
Jie, D. & Blommaert, J. (2009). Space, scale and accents: Constructing migrant identity in Beijing. Multilingua 28.1, 124.
Johnson, D. C. (2009). Ethnography of language policy. Language Policy 8.2, 139159.
Johnson, D. C. (2010). Implementational and ideological spaces in bilingual education language policy. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 13.1, 6179.
Johnson, D. C. (2011). Critical discourse analysis and the ethnography of language policy. Critical Discourse Studies 8.4, 267279.
Johnson, D. C. (2013). Language policy. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Johnson, D. C. (2015). Intertextuality and language policy. In Hult, F. M. & Johnson, D. C. (eds.), 166–180.
Johnson, D. C. & Johnson, E. (2015). Power and agency in language policy appropriation. Language Policy 14.3, 221223.
Johnson, D. C. & Ricento, T. (2013). Conceptual and theoretical perspectives in language policy and planning: Situating the ethnography of language policy. IJSL 219, 721.
Jones, J. M. (2012). Language at the brink of conflict: Micro-language planning in one western Kenyan school. Language Policy 11.2, 119143.
Jones, J. M. & Barkhuizen, G. (2011). ‘It is two-way traffic’: Teachers’ tensions in the implementation of the Kenyan language-in-education policy. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 14.5, 513530.
Karam, F. X. (1974). Toward a definition of language planning. In Fishman, J. A. (ed.), Advances in Language Planning. The Hague: Mouton, 103124.
Kekvapil, J. & Nekula, M. (2006). On language management in multinational companies in the Czech Republic. Current Issues in Language Planning 7.2–3, 307327.
Kelly-Holmes, H., Moriarty, M. & Pietikäinen, S. (2009). Convergence and divergence in Basque, Irish and Sámi media language policing. Language Policy 8.3, 227242.
King, K. A. (2001). Language revitalization processes and prospects: Quichua in the Ecuadorian Andes. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
King, K. A. & Haboud, M. (2011). International migration and Quichua language shift in the Ecuadorian Andes. In McCarty, T. L. (ed.), 139–159.
Kloss, H. (1968). Notes concerning a language-nation typology. In Fishman, J., Ferguson, C. & das Gupta, J. (eds.), Language problems of developing nations. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 6985.
Kloss, H. (1969). Research possibilities on group bilingualism: A report. Quebec City: International Center for Research on Bilingualism.
Kloss, H. (1977). The American bilingual tradition. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Lagos, C., Espinoza, M. & Rojas, D. (2013). Mapudungun according to its speakers: Mapuche intellectuals and the influence of standard language ideology. Current Issues in Language Planning 14.3–4, 403418.
Langman, J. (2014). Translanguaging, identity, and learning: Science teachers as engaged language planners. Language Policy 13.2, 183200.
Lather, P. (1986). Research as praxis. Harvard Educational Review 56.3, 257278.
Léonard, J. L., Gragnic, J. M. & González, K. J. A. (2013). Multilingual policies put into practice: Co-participative educational workshops in Mexico. Current Issues in Language Planning 14.3–4, 419435.
Levinson, B. A. U. & Sutton, M. (2001). Introduction: Policy as/in practice—-a sociocultural approach to the study of educational policy. In Sutton, M. & Levinson, B. A. U. (eds.), Policy as practice: Toward a comparative sociocultural analysis of educational policy. Westport, CT: Ablex, 122.
Lim, L., Stroud, C. & Wee, L. (eds.) (2018). The multilingual citizen: Towards a politics of language for agency and change. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
Limerick, N. (2015). Becoming multicultural emblems: The politics and poetics of Quichua language and culture in intercultural bilingual education in Ecuador. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.
Lin, M. A. & Yudaw, B. (2013). Rethinking community-based Indigenous language revitalization using cultural–historical activity theory. Current Issues in Language Planning 14.3–4, 436456.
Link, H. K. (2011). Hola means Hello: The intersection of language ideologies and language policies in a school of the New Latino Diaspora. Working Papers in Educational Linguistics 26.1, 101120.
Makoni, S. & Pennycook, A. (eds.) (2007). Disinventing and reconstituting languages. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Makoni, S. & Pennycook, A. (forthcoming). Applied linguistics from the Global South. New York: Routledge.
Manley, M. S. (2008). Quechua language attitudes and maintenance in Cuzco, Peru. Language Policy 7.4, 323344.
Martin-Jones, M. (2007). Bilingualism, education and the regulation of access to language resources. In Heller, M. (ed.), Bilingualism: A social approach. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 161182.
Martin‐Jones, M., Kroon, S. & Kurvers, J. (2011). Multilingual literacies in the global south: Language policy, literacy learning and use. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education 41.2, 157164.
May, S. (ed.) (2013). The multilingual turn: Implications for SLA, TESOL, and bilingual education. New York: Routledge.
Mazak, C. M. & Carroll, K. S. (eds.) (2017). Translanguaging in higher education: Beyond monolingual ideologies. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
McCarty, T. L. (ed.) (2011). Ethnography and language policy. New York: Routledge.
McCarty, T. L. (2015). Ethnography in language planning and policy research. In Hult, F. M. & Johnson, D. C. (eds.), 81–93.
McCarty, T. L., Romero-Little, M. E., Warhol, L. & Zepeda, O. (2009). Indigenous youth as language policy makers. Journal of Language, Identity and Education 8.5, 291306.
McCarty, T. L. & Wyman, L. T. (2009). Indigenous youth and bilingualism theory, research, praxis. Journal of Language, Identity and Education 8.5, 279290.
Menken, K. & García, O. (eds.) (2010). Negotiating language policies in schools: Educators as policymakers. New York: Routledge.
Mortimer, K. S. (2013). Communicative event chains in an ethnography of Paraguayan language policy. IJSL 219, 6799.
Nagai, Y. (1999). Developing a community-based vernacular school: A case study of the Maiwala elementary school in Papua New Guinea. Language and Education 13.3, 194206.
Nahir, M. (1984). Language planning goals: A classification. Language Problems and Language Planning 8.3, 294327.
Nero, S. J. (2014). De facto language education planning through teachers’ attitudes and practices: A critical ethnographic study in three Jamaican schools. Language Policy 13.2, 221242.
Neustupný, J. V. (1974). Basic types of treatment of language problems. In Fishman, J. A. (ed.), 37–48.
Paciotto, C. (2004). Language policy, indigenous languages and the village school: A study of bilingual education for the Tarahumara of northern Mexico. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 7.6, 529548.
Paciotto, C. & Delany-Barmann, G. (2011). Planning micro-level language education reform in new diaspora sites: Two-way immersion education in the rural Midwest. Language Policy 10.3, 221243.
Patrick, D., Budach, G. & Muckpaloo, I. (2013). Multiliteracies and family language policy in an urban Inuit community. Language Policy 12.1, 4762.
Pease-Alvarez, L. & Thompson, A. (2014). Teachers working together to resist and remake educational policy in contexts of standardization. Language Policy 13.2, 165181.
Pérez-Milans, M. (2015a). Language education policy in late modernity: (Socio)linguistic ethnographies in the European Union. Language Policy 14.2, 99107.
Pérez-Milans, M. (2015b). Mandarin Chinese in London education: Language aspirations in a working-class secondary school. Language Policy 14.2, 153181.
Phillipson, R. (1988). Linguicism: Structures and ideologies in linguistic imperialism. In Skutnabb-Kangas, T. & Cummins, J. (eds.), Minority education: From shame to struggle. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 339358.
Phyak, P. (2013). Language ideologies and local languages as the medium-of-instruction policy: A critical ethnography of a multilingual school in Nepal. Current Issues in Language Planning 14.1, 127143.
Phyak, P. & Bui, T. T. N. (2014). Youth engaging language policy and planning: Ideologies and transformations from within. Language Policy 13.2, 101119.
Rabin, C. (1971). A tentative classification of language planning aims. In Rubin, J. & Jernudd, B. (eds.), Can language be planned? Sociolinguistic theory and practice for developing nations. Honolulu: East-West Center and University of Hawaii Press, 277279.
Ramanathan, V. (2010). Introduction to thematic issue: Language policies and health. Language Policy 9.1, 17.
Relaño Pastor, A. M. (2015). The commodification of English in ‘Madrid, comunidad bilingüe’: Insights from the CLIL classroom. Language Policy 14.2, 131152.
Ren, L. & Hu, G. (2013). Prolepsis, syncretism, and synergy in early language and literacy practices: A case study of family language policy in Singapore. Language Policy 12.1, 6382.
Ricento, T. (2000). Historical and theoretical perspectives in language policy and planning. Journal of Sociolinguistics 4.2, 196213.
Ricento, T. (ed.) (2006). An introduction to language policy: Theory and method. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Ricento, T. K. & Hornberger, N. H. (1996). Unpeeling the onion: Language planning and policy and the ELT professional. TESOL Quarterly 30.3, 401427.
Romero-Little, M. E., McCarty, T. L., Warhol, L., Zepeda, O., Ramanathan, V. & Morgan, B. (2007). Language policies in practice: Preliminary findings from a large-scale national study of Native American language shift. TESOL Quarterly 41.3, 607618.
Rubin, J. & Jernudd, B. H. (eds.) (1971). Can language be planned? Sociolinguistic theory and practice for developing nations. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii.
Ruíz, R. (1984). Orientations in language planning. NABE Journal 8.2, 1534.
Sallabank, J. (2010). Standardisation, prescription and polynomie: Can Guernsey follow the Corsican model? Current Issues in Language Planning 11.4, 311330.
Saxena, M. (2014). ‘Critical diglossia’ and ‘lifestyle diglossia’: Development and the interaction between multilingualism, cultural diversity and English. IJSL 225, 91112.
Schecter, S. R., García Parejo, I., Ambadiang, T. & James, C. E. (2014). Schooling transnational speakers of the societal language: Language variation policy-making in Madrid and Toronto. Language Policy 13.2, 121144.
Schiffman, H. F. (1996). Linguistic culture and language policy. London: Routledge.
Schiffman, H. F. (2003). Tongue-tied in Singapore: A language policy for Tamil? Journal of Language, Identity and Education 2.2, 105125.
Schreyer, C. (2008). ‘Nehiyawewin Askîhk’: Cree language on the land: Language planning through consultation in the Loon River Cree First Nation. Current Issues in Language Planning 9.4, 440463.
Shohamy, E. (2006). Language policy: Hidden agendas and new approaches. London: Routledge.
Skeggs, B. (2001). Feminist ethnography. In Atkinson, P., Coffey, A., Delamont, S., Lofland, J. & Lofland, L. (eds.), Handbook of ethnography. London: SAGE, 426442.
Skutnabb-Kangas, T. (1988). Multilingualism and the education of minority children. In Skutnabb-Kangas, T. & Cummins, J. (eds.), 9–44.
SooHoo, S. (2013). Humility within culturally responsive methodologies. In Berryman, M. et al. (eds.), 200–219.
Smith, L. T. (2012). Decolonizing methodologies: Research and indigenous peoples (2nd edn.). (1st edn. published 1999). London: Zed Books.
Stewart, W. (1968). A sociolinguistic typology for describing national multilingualism. In Fishman, J. (ed.), Readings in the sociology of language. The Hague: Mouton, 531545.
Taylor-Leech, K. (2008). Language and identity in East Timor: The discourses of nation building. Language Problems & Language Planning 32.2, 153180.
Tollefson, J. W. (1991). Planning language, planning inequality: Language policy in the community. London: Longman.
Tunger, V., Mar-Molinero, C., Paffey, D., Vigers, D. & Barlog, C. (2010). Language policies and ‘new’ migration in officially bilingual areas. Current Issues in Language Planning 11.2, 190205.
Valdiviezo, L. (2009). Bilingual intercultural education in indigenous schools: An ethnography of teacher interpretations of government policy. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 12.1, 6179.
Valdiviezo, L. A. (2013). Vertical and horizontal approaches to ethnography of language policy in Peru. IJSL 219, 2346.
van der Aa, J. (2012). Ethnographic monitoring: Language, narrative, and voice in a Caribbean classroom. Tilburg, Netherlands: Tilburg University.
Vavrus, F. (2002). Postcoloniality and English: Exploring language policy and the politics of development in Tanzania. TESOL Quarterly 36.3, 373397.
Weber, J. (2009). Constructing lusobourgish ethnicities: Implications for language-in-education policy. Language Problems & Language Planning 33.2, 132152.
Williams, Q. E. & Stroud, C. (2013). Multilingualism in transformative spaces: Contact and conviviality. Language Policy 12.4, 289311.
Wolcott, H. F. (1987). On ethnographic intent. In Spindler, G. & Spindler, L. (eds.), Interpretive ethnography of education: At home and abroad. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 3756.
Wortham, S. (2005). Socialization beyond the speech event. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 15.1, 95112.
Wortham, S. (2008). Linguistic anthropology of education. Annual Review of Anthropology 37, 3751.
Wu, M. & Leung, G. (2014). Re-envisioning heritage language education: A study of middle school students learning Mandarin Chinese. Heritage Language Journal 11.3, 207223.
Zavala, V. (2014). An ancestral language to speak with the ‘Other’: Closing down ideological spaces of a language policy in the Peruvian Andes. Language Policy 13.1, 120.
Zentz, L. (2015). The porous borders of language and nation: English in Indonesia. Language Problems & Language Planning 39.1, 5069.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Ethnography of language planning and policy

  • Nancy H. Hornberger (a1), Aldo Anzures Tapia (a2), David H. Hanks (a3), Frances Kvietok Dueñas (a4) and Siwon Lee (a5)...
  • Please note a correction has been issued for this article.

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.

A correction has been issued for this article: