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One of the issues that have garnered little attention, but that is nevertheless important for developing practical robots, is optimal walking conditions like power consumption during walking. The main contribution of this research is to prepare a correct walking pattern for humans who have a problem with their walking and also study the effect of average motion speed on optimal power consumption. In this study, we firstly optimize the stability and minimize the power consumption of the robot during the single support phase using parameter optimization. Our approach is based on the well-known Zero Moment Point method to calculate the stability of the proposed biped robot. Secondly, we performed experiments on healthy male, age 29 years, to analyze human walking by placing 28 markers, attached to anatomical positions and two power plates for a distance of more than one gait cycle at an average speed of 1.23 ± 0.1 m s−1 validate our results for motion analysis of correct walking ability. Our model was continuously validated by comparing the results of our empirical evaluation against the prediction of our model. The errors between experimental test and our prediction were about 4%–11% for the joint trajectories and about 0.2%–0.5% for the ground reaction forces which is acceptable for our prediction. Due to the presented model and optimized issue and predicted path, the robot can move like a person in a way that has maximum stability along with the minimum power consumption. Finally, the robot was able to walk like a specific person that we considered. This study is a case study and also can be generalized to all samples and can perform these procedures to another person’s with different features.
To this day, manipulation still stands as one of the hardest challenges in robotics. In this work, we examine the board game Dr. Eureka as a benchmark to encourage further development in the field. The game consists of a race to solve a manipulation puzzle: reordering colored balls in transparent tubes, in which the solution requires planning, dexterity and agility. In this work, we present a robot (Tactical Hazardous Operations Robot 3) that can solve this problem, nicely integrating several classical and state-of-the-art techniques. We represent the puzzle states as graph and solve it as a shortest path problem, in addition to applying computer vision combined with precise motions to perform the manipulation. In this paper, we also present a customized implementation of YOLO (called YOLO-Dr. Eureka) and we implement an original neural network (NN)-based incremental solution to the inverse kinematics problem. We show that this NN outperforms the inverse of the Jacobian method for large step sizes. Albeit requiring more computation per control cycle, the larger steps allow for much larger movements per cycle. To evaluate the experiment, we perform trials against a human using the same set of initial conditions.
The development of a versatile, fully-capable humanoid robot as envisioned in science fiction books is one of the most challenging but interesting issues in the robotic field. Currently, existing humanoid robots are designed with different purposes and applications in mind. In humanoid robot development process, each robot is designed with various characteristics, abilities, and equipment, which influence the general structure, cost, and difficulty of development. Even though humanoid robot development is very popular, a few review papers are focusing on the design and development process of humanoid robots. Motivated by this, we present this review paper to show variations in the requirements, design, and development process and also propose a taxonomy of existing humanoid robots. It aims at demonstrating a general perspective of existing humanoid robots’ characteristics and applications. This paper includes state-of-the-art and successfully reported existing humanoid robot designs along with different robots used in various robot competitions.
This study proposed a method to enable a humanoid robot to step up onto a stair by imitating the step-up motion of a human and to accomplish a lift and carry event in HuroCup of Federation of International RoboSports Association. The step-up motion, divided into five states, was captured by a Kinect sensor, and the human joints corresponded to the humanoid robot joints. Selected servomotors and their angle variation were matched with that of human joint numbers by a designed fuzzy inference system on the basis between the human and the humanoid robot joints. Then, the rest of the robot motors were adjusted by the zero moment point obtained from force-sensing registers to maintain stability. Next, two intermediate transition states were added between each state of the humanoid robot step-up to maintain its balance and reduce motor damage. Finally, to be applied in a real lift and carry event, a vision system was integrated to recognize the edge of a color board and determine a suitable site for the step-up. With these functions integrated, the robot under the proposed method was verified to successfully achieve the task of the lift and carry event without losing its balance or falling.
Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) is a well-known and fundamental topic for autonomous robot navigation. Existing solutions include the FastSLAM family-based approaches which are based on Rao–Blackwellized particle filter. The FastSLAM methods slow down greatly when the number of landmarks becomes large. Furthermore, the FastSLAM methods use a fixed number of particles, which may result in either not enough algorithms to find a solution in complex domains or too many particles and hence wasted computation for simple domains. These issues result in reduced performance of the FastSLAM algorithms, especially on embedded devices with limited computational capabilities, such as commonly used on mobile robots. To ease the computational burden, this paper proposes a modified version of FastSLAM called Adaptive Computation SLAM (ACSLAM), where particles are predicted only by odometry readings, and are updated only when an expected measurement has a maximum likelihood. As for the states of landmarks, they are also updated by the maximum likelihood. Furthermore, ACSLAM uses the effective sample size (ESS) to adapt the number of particles for the next generation. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed ACSLAM performed 40% faster than FastSLAM 2.0 and also has higher accuracy.
The team-orienteering problem (TOP) has broad applicability. Examples of possible uses are in factory and automation settings, robot sports teams, and urban search and rescue applications. We chose the rescue domain as a guiding example throughout this paper. Hence, this paper explores a practical variant of TOP with time window (TOPTW) for rescue applications by humanoid robots called TOPTWR. Due to the significant range of algorithm choices and their parameters tuning challenges, the use of hyper-heuristics is recommended. Hyper-heuristics can select, order, or generate different low-level heuristics with different optimization algorithms. In this paper, first, a general multi-objective (MO) solution is defined, with five objectives for TOPTWR. Then a robust and efficient MO and evolutionary hyper-heuristic algorithm for TOPTW based on the humanoid robot’s characteristics in the rescue applications (MOHH-TOPTWR) is proposed. MOHH-TOPTWR includes two MO evolutionary metaheuristics algorithms (MOEAs) known as non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-III) and MOEA based on decomposition (MOEA/D). In this paper, new benchmark instances are proposed for rescue applications using the existing ones for TOPTW. The experimental results show that MOHH-TOPTWR in both MOEAs can outperform all the state-of-the-art algorithms as well as NSGA-III and MOEA/D MOEAs.
This paper presents our sketch drawing artist humanoid robot research. One of the limitations of the existing artist humanoid robot is the lack of feedback on the error that occurs during the drawing process. The contribution of this research is the development of a humanoid robot artist with drawing error correction capability. Based on our previous work with open-loop control pen-and-ink humanoid robot artist, we have implemented a closed-loop visual servoing approach to address this problem. Our experimental results show that this approach is sufficient to correct drawing errors that occur due to mechanical limitation of a robot.
In this study, we designed a localization and obstacle avoidance system for humanoid robots in the Federation of International Robot-soccer Association (FIRA) HuroCup united soccer competition event. The localization is implemented by using grid points, gait, and steps to determine the positions of each robot. To increase the localization accuracy and eliminate the accumulated distance errors resulting from step counting, the localization is augmented with image pattern matching using a system model. The system also enables the robot to determine the ball’s position on the field using a color model of the ball. Moreover, to avoid obstacles, the robots calculate the obstacle distance using data extracted from real-time images and determine a suitable direction for movement. With the integration of this accurate self-localization algorithm, ball identification scheme, and obstacle avoidance system, the robot team is capable of accomplishing the necessary tasks for a FIRA soccer game.