Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Sensory Analysis and Willingness to Pay for Craft Cider*

  • Peter R. Tozer (a1), Suzette P. Galinato (a2), Carolyn F. Ross (a3), Carol A. Miles (a4) and Jill J. McCluskey (a5)...

Abstract

We conducted a blind tasting sensory evaluation experiment and a chemical analysis of four craft hard apple ciders from the Pacific Northwest of the USA. Using the sensory and demographic data collected during the experiment, we estimated the consumer willingness-to-pay (WTP), using a contingent valuation model. Overall liking, taste, and aroma, from the sensory evaluation, as well as age of the sampler and if the sampler was a cider drinker, contributed positively to the WTP. In contrast, if the subject was a beer drinker this reduced their WTP. From the chemical analysis we found that tannin level had a positive effect on WTP, but an increased level of sweetness, as part of a ratio of specific gravity to acid, decreased consumer WTP. (JEL Classifications: C91, D12, L66, Q13)

Copyright

Corresponding author

e-mail: Peter_tozer@wsu.edu (corresponding author)

Footnotes

Hide All
*

Research funded by the USDA-AMS - Federal-State Marketing Improvement Program (FSMIP). Project entitled Assessment of the Cider Market: Pilot Study in Washington State (GRANT 11680819). The authors are also grateful to an anonymous referee and comments provided by the editor, Karl Storchmann.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Ashton, R.H. (2014). Wine as an experience good: Price versus enjoyment in blind tastings of expensive and inexpensive wines. Journal of Wine Economics, 9(2), 171182.
ATTTB (Alcohol and Tobacco Trade and Tax Bureau) (various years). Statistical Report - Wine. ATTTB, Washington, D.C. Report Symbol TTB S 5120-12. Various years 2007–2014.
Capehart, K.W. (2015). Fine water: A hedonic pricing approach. Journal of Wine Economics. 10(2), 129150.
Cardebat, J.-M., and Figuet, J.-M. (2004). What explains Bordeaux wine prices? Applied Economics Letters, 11(5), 293296.
Didier, A., Symoneaux, R., Schlich, P., Sybiril, S., Droger, D., Baudin, R., Gilles, Y., Sanoner, P., Lequéré, J.M., Simon, J.P., Raimbaud, F.J., Dechatre, J.C., Lepage, A., Simard, V., Desvignes, M., and Legendre, P. (2012). Le cidre, d'une logique de l'offre vers une démarche marketing de la demande. Innovations Agronomiques, 25, 114.
Goldstein, R., Almenberg, J., Dreber, A., Emerson, J.W., Herschkowitsch, A., and Katz, J. (2008). Do more expensive wines taste better? Evidence from a large sample of blind tastings. Journal of Wine Economics, 3(1), 19.
Grimsrud, K.M., McCluskey, J.J., Loureiro, M.L., and Wahl, T.I. (2004). Consumer attitudes to genetically modified food in Norway. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 55(1), 7590.
Grunert, K.G. (2002). Current issues in the understanding of consumer food choice. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 13:275285.
Hanemann, W.M., Loomis, J., and Kanninen, B.J. (1991). Statistical efficiency of double-bounded dichotomous choice contingent valuation. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 73(4), 12551263.
Holmquist, C., McCluskey, J.J., and Ross, C. (2011). Consumer preferences and willingness to pay for oak attributes in Washington Chardonnays. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 94(2), 556561.
International Riesling Foundation (2008). Riesling Taste Profile. http://drinkriesling.com/wp-content/themes/irf/images/tasting-profile-standards.pdf, accessed April 21, 2015.
Jolicoeur, C. (2013). The New Cider Maker's Handbook: A Comprehensive Guide for Craft Producers. Chelsea Green Publishing: White River Junction, VT.
Kanninen, B.J., and Khawaja, M.S. (1995). Measuring goodness of fit for the double-bounded logit model. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 77(4), 885890.
Keri, J. (2015). Hard cider is having a moment. FiveThirtyEight. Accessed at http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/hard-cider-is-having-a-moment/ April 1 2015.
Lawless, H.T., and Heymann, H. (2010). Sensory Evaluation of Food: Principles and Practices. 2nd ed. Springer, New York.
Lecocq, S., and Visser, M.. (2006). What determines wine prices: Objective vs. Sensory characteristics. Journal of Wine Economics, 1(1), 4256.
Lopez-Feldman, A. (2012). Introduction to contingent valuation using Stata. MPRA, Munich. http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/41018/, accessed February 27, 2015.
Miles, C.A., Zimmerman, A., Scheenstra, F., King, J., and Moulton, G. (2015). Bottled cider evaluation protocol at WSU Mount Vernon NWREC. Mimeo.
Miles, C.A., and King, J. (2014). Yield, labor, and fruit and juice quality characteristics of machine and hand-harvested ‘Brown Snout’ specialty cider apple. HortTechnology, 24, 519526.
Northwest Cider Association (NWCA) (2015). Accessed at http://www.nwcider.com/ January 7, 2015.
Oczkowski, E., and Doucouliagos, H. (2014). Wine prices and quality ratings: A meta-regression analysis. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 97(1), 103121.
Olkin, I., Lou, Y., Stokes, L., and Cao, J. (2015). Analyses of wine-tasting data: A tutorial. Journal of Wine Economics, 10(1), 430.
Rihar, M., Hrovatin, N., and Zoric, J. (2015). Household valuation of smart-home functionalities in Slovenia. Utilities Policy, 33, 4253.
Sun, C., and Zhu, X. (2014). Evaluating the public perceptions of nuclear power in China: Evidence from a contingent valuation survey. Energy Policy, 69, 397405.
Watson, B. (2013). Cider, Hard and Sweet: History, Traditions and Making Your Own. Countryman Press: Woodstock, VT.
Yang, N., McCluskey, J.J., and Ross, C. (2009). Willingness to pay for sensory properties in Washington State red wines. Journal of Wine Economics, 4(1), 8193.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed