BALFOUR, D. A. & MIDGLEY, J. J. 2006. Fire induced stem death in an African acacia is not caused by canopy scorching. Austral Ecology 31:892–896.
BARNES, R. F. W. 1983. The elephant problem in Ruaha National Park, Tanzania. Biological Conservation 26:127–148.
BELSKY, A. J. 1994. Influences of trees on savanna productivity: tests of shade, nutrients, and tree-grass competition. Ecology 75:922–932.
BEN-SHAHAR, R. 1993. Patterns of elephant damage in vegetation in northern Botswana. Biological Conservation 65:249–256.
BEUCHNER, H. K. & DAWKINS, H. C. 1961. Vegetation change induced by elephants and fire in Murchison Falls National Park, Uganda. Ecology 42:752–766.
BOND, W. J. & VAN WILGEN, B.W. 1996. Fire and plants. Chapman & Hall, London. 276 pp.
BOVA, A. S. & DICKINSON, M. B. 2005. Linking surface-fire behaviour, stem heating, and tissue necrosis. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 35:814–822.
DEAN, W. R. J., MILTON, S. J. & JELTSCH, F. 1998. Large trees, fertile islands and birds in arid savanna. Journal of Arid Environments 41:61–78.
DUBLIN, H. T., SINCLAIR, A. R. E. & MCGLADE, J. 1990. Elephants and fire as causes of multiple stable states in the Serengeti-Mara woodlands. Journal of Animal Ecology 59:1147–1164.
ECKHARDT, H. C., VAN WILGEN, B. W. & BIGGS, H. C. 2000. Trends in woody vegetation cover in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, between 1940 and 1998. African Journal of Ecology 38:108–113.
GADD, M. E. 2002. The impact of elephants on the marula tree Sclerocarya birrea. African Journal of Ecology 40:328–336.
GERTENBACH, W. P. D. 1983. Landscapes of the Kruger National Park. Koedoe 26:9–21.
GIGNOUX, J., CLOBERT, J. & MENAUT, J. C. 1997. Alternative fire resistance strategies in savanna trees. Oecologia 110:576–583.
GILL, A. & ASHTON, D. 1968. The role of bark type in relative tolerance to fire of three central Victorian eucalypts. Australian Journal of Botany 16:491–498.
GUY, P. R. 1989. The influence of elephants and fire on a Brachystegia–Julbernardia woodland in Zimbabwe. Journal of Tropical Ecology 5:215–226.
HARE, R. C. 1965a. Contribution of bark to fire resistance of southern trees. Journal of Forestry 63:248–251.
HARE, R. C. 1965b. Bark surface and cambium temperatures in simulated forest fires. Journal of Forestry 63:437–440.
HIGGINS, S. I., BOND, W. J. & TROLLOPE, W. S. W. 2000. Fire, resprouting and variability: a recipe for grass-tree coexistence in savanna. Journal of Ecology 88:213–229.
HOFFMANN, W. A & SOLBRIG, O. T. 2003. The role of topkill in the differential response of savanna woody species to fire. Forest Ecology and Management 180:273–286.
HOLDO, R. 2005. Stem mortality following fire in Kalahari sand vegetation: effects of frost, prior damage, and tree neighbourhoods. Plant Ecology 180:77–86.
JONES, J. L., WEBB, B. W., BUTLER, B. W., DICKINSON, M. B., JIMENEZ, D., REARDON, J. & BOVA, A. S. 2006. Prediction and measurement of thermally induced cambial tissue necrosis in tree stems. International Journal of Wildland Fire 15:3–17.
LUDWIG, F., DE KROON, H., BERENDSE, F. & PRINS, H. T. T. 2004. The influence of savanna trees on nutrient, water and light availability and the understorey vegetation. Plant Ecology 170:93–105.
MACGREGOR, S. D. & O'CONNOR, T. G. 2004. Response of Acacia tortilis to utilization by elephants in a semi-arid African savanna. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 34:55–66.
PÉREZ, B. & MORENO, J. M. 1998. Methods for quantifying fire severity in shrubland-fires. Plant Ecology 139:91–101.
RUNDEL, P. W. 1973. The relationship between basal fire scars and crown damage in giant sequoia. Ecology 54:210–213.
SHANNON, G., DRUCE, D. J., PAGE, B. R., ECKHARDT, H, C., GRANT, R. & SLOTOW, R. 2008. The utilization of large savanna trees by elephant in southern Kruger National Park. Journal of Tropical Ecology 24:281–289.
TROLLOPE, W. S. W. 1984. Fire in savanna. Pp. 149–175 in Booysen, P. D. V. & Tainton, N. M. (eds.). Ecological effect of fire in South African ecosystems. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
TYREE, M. T. & SPERRY, J. S. 1988. Vulnerability of xylem to cavitation and embolism. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 40:19–36.
UHL, C. & KAUFFMAN, J. B. 1990. Deforestation, fire susceptibility, and potential tree responses to fire in the Eastern Amazon. Ecology 71:437–439.
VINES, R. G. 1968. Heat transfer through bark, and the resistance of trees to fire. Australian Journal of Botany 16:499–514.
YEATON, R. I. 1988. Porcupines, fires and the dynamics of the tree layer of the Burkea africana savanna. Journal of Ecology 76:1017–1029.