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Pretending to be venomous: is a snake's head shape a trustworthy signal to a predator?

  • Murilo Guimarães (a1) and Ricardo J. Sawaya (a2)


The difficulty of observing interactions between predators and their prey in natural systems has promoted the use of artificial replicas (Exnerová et al. 2006, Smith 1977). Plasticine replicas have been successfully used because they retain imprints of predation attempts and enable the identification of the predator (Brodie 1993).


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