Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Differences in foraging times between two feeding guilds within Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae) in southern Thailand

  • Alyssa B. Stewart (a1), Robert Makowsky (a2) and Michele R. Dudash (a1)

Abstract:

Bats are important but understudied pollinators in the Palaeotropics, and much about their interactions with night-blooming, bat-pollinated plant species is still unknown. We compared visitation times to flowering and fruiting plant resources by nectarivorous bat species (obligate pollinators) and frugi-nectarivorous bat species (facultative pollinators) throughout the night to examine the temporal variability that occurs within Pteropodidae foraging. Timing of pollination is an important determinant of plant reproductive success and more temporally restrictive than fruit dispersal. We netted 179 nectarivorous bats and 209 frugi-nectarivorous bats across 367 total mist-net h at five plant species providing floral resources and six plant species providing fruit resources. We found that all three nectarivorous bat species in southern Thailand forage significantly earlier in the evening (20h30 versus 22h00), and over a significantly shorter time interval (1.73 h versus 3.33 h), than do the five most commonly netted frugi-nectarivorous species. These results indicate that the two feeding guilds may be imposing different selective pressures on bat-pollinated plant species and may comprise different functional groups. We propose that the observed differences in bat foraging times are due to temporal constraints imposed by the rewards of the plant species that they visit.

Copyright

Corresponding author

1 Corresponding author. Email: aly55a@umd.edu

References

Hide All
AGUIAR, L. M. S. & MARINHO-FILHO, J. 2004. Activity patterns of nine phyllostomid bat species in a fragment of the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 21:385390.
ANDERSSON, L. 1998. Musaceae. Pp. 296301 in Kubitzki, K. (ed.). Flowering plants: Monocotyledons. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
BALASINGH, J., KOILRAJ, J. & KUNZ, T. H. 1995. Tent construction by the short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) in southern India. Ethology 100:210229.
BARRETT, S. C. H. & HARDER, L. D. 1996. Ecology and evolution of plant mating. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 11:7379.
BUREAU OF MANGROVE RESOURCES CONSERVATION. 2009. Mangrove plants of Thailand. The Agricultural Co-operative Federation of Thailand Press, Bangkok. 167 pp.
BUMRUNGSRI, S., LEELAPAIBUL, W. & RACEY, P. A. 2007. Resource partitioning in sympatric Cynopterus bats in lowland tropical rain forest, Thailand. Biotropica 39:241248.
BUMRUNGSRI, S., HARBIT, A., BENZIE, C., CARMOUCHE, K., SRIDITH, K. & RACEY, P. A. 2008. The pollination ecology of two species of Parkia (Mimosaceae) in southern Thailand. Journal of Tropical Ecology 24:467475.
BUMRUNGSRI, S., SRIPAORAYA, E., CHONGSIRI, T., SRIDITH, K. & RACEY, P. A. 2009. The pollination ecology of durian (Durio zibethinus, Bombacaceae) in southern Thailand. Journal of Tropical Ecology 25:8592.
BUMRUNGSRI, S., LANG, D., HARROWER, C., SRIPAORAYA, E., KITPIPIT, K. & RACEY, P. A. 2013. The dawn bat, Eonycteris spelaea Dobson (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) feeds mainly on pollen of economically important food plants in Thailand. Acta Chiropterologica 15:95104.
CAMPBELL, P., REID, N. M., ZUBAID, A., ADNAN, A. M. & KUNZ, T. H. 2006. Comparative roosting ecology of Cynopterus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) fruit bats in peninsular Malaysia. Biotropica 38:725734.
CASTRO-ARELLANO, I., PRESLEY, S. J., WILLIG, M. R., WUNDERLE, J. M. & SALDANHA, L. N. 2009. Reduced-impact logging and temporal activity of understorey bats in lowland Amazonia. Biological Conservation 142:21312139.
CIPOLLINI, M. L. & LEVEY, D. J. 1997. Secondary metabolites of fleshy vertebrate-dispersed fruits: adaptive hypotheses and implications for seed dispersal. American Naturalist 150:346372.
CRUDEN, R. W., HERMANN, S. M. & PETERSON, S. 1983. Patterns of nectar production and plant-pollinator coevolution. Pp. 80125 in Bentley, B. & Elias, T. S. (eds.). The biology of nectaries. Columbia University Press, New York.
DARWIN, C. 1862. On the various contrivances by which British and foreign orchids are fertilized. J. Murray, London. 365 pp.
ELANGOVAN, V., MARIMUTHU, G. & KUNZ, T. H. 2000. Nectar feeding behavior in the short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx (Pteropodidae). Acta Chiropterologica 2:15.
ELMQVIST, T., COX, P. A., RAINEY, W. E. & PIERSON, E. D. 1992. Restricted pollination on oceanic islands: pollination of Ceiba pentandra by flying foxes in Samoa. Biotropica 24:1523.
FAEGRI, K. & VAN DER PIJL, L. 1966. The principles of pollination ecology. Pergamon Press, Oxford. 248 pp.
FENSTER, C. B., ARMBRUSTER, W. S., WILSON, P., DUDASH, M. R. & THOMSON, J. D. 2004. Pollination syndromes and floral specialization. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 35:375403.
FISCHER, E. A. 1992. Foraging of nectarivorous bats on Bauhinia ungulata . Biotropica 24:579582.
FLEMING, T. H., GEISELMAN, C. & KRESS, W. J. 2009. The evolution of bat pollination: a phylogenetic perspective. Annals of Botany 104:10171043.
FRANCIS, C. M. 2008. A field guide to the mammals of Thailand and South-east Asia. New Holland Publishers Ltd., London. 392 pp.
FRICK, W. F., PRICE, R. D., HEADY, P. A. & KAY, K. M. 2013. Insectivorous bat pollinates columnar cactus more effectively per visit than specialized nectar bat. American Naturalist 181:137144.
FUNAKOSHI, K. & AKBAR, Z. 1997. Behavioural and reproductive ecology of the dog-faced fruit bats, Cynopterus brachyotis and C. horsfieldi, in a Malaysian rainforest. Mammal Study 22:95108.
GOULD, E. 1978. Foraging behavior of Malaysian nectar-feeding bats. Biotropica 10:184193.
GROMAN, J. D. & PELLMYR, O. 1999. The pollination biology of Manfreda virginica (Agavaceae): relative contribution of diurnal and nocturnal visitors. Oikos 87:373381.
HODGKISON, R., BALDING, S. T., ZUBAID, A. & KUNZ, T. H. 2004a. Temporal variation in the relative abundance of fruit bats (Megachiroptera: Pteropodidae) in relation to the availability of food in a lowland Malaysian rain forest. Biotropica 36:522533.
HODGKISON, R., BALDING, S. T., ZUBAID, A. & KUNZ, T. H. 2004b. Habitat structure, wing morphology, and the vertical stratification of Malaysian fruit bats (Megachiroptera: Pteropodidae). Journal of Tropical Ecology 20:667673.
HOWE, H. F. & SMALLWOOD, J. 1982. Ecology of seed dispersal. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 13:201228.
HOWELL, D. J. & ROTH, B. S. 1981. Sexual reproduction in agaves: the benefits of bats; the cost of semelparous advertising. Ecology 62:17.
KUNZ, T. H. & FENTON, M. B. 2003. Bat ecology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 779 pp.
KUNZ, T. H. & PARSONS, S. 2009. Ecological and behavioral methods for the study of bats. (Second edition). Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. 901 pp.
LA VAL, R. K. 1970. Banding returns and activity periods of some Costa Rican bats. The Southwestern Naturalist 15:110.
MANCINA, C. A. & CASTRO-ARELLANO, I. 2013. Unusual temporal niche overlap in a phytophagous bat ensemble of western Cuba. Journal of Tropical Ecology 29:511521.
MARIMUTHU, G., RAJAN, K. E., KOILRAJ, A. J., ISAAC, S. S. & BALASINGH, J. 1998. Observations on the foraging behavior of a tent roosting megachiropteran bat Cynopterus sphinx . Biotropica 30:321324.
MARSHALL, A. G. 1983. Bats, flowers and fruit: evolutionary relationships in the Old World. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 20:115135.
MARSHALL, A. G. 1985. Old World phytophagous bats (Megachiroptera) and their food plants: A survey. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 83:351369.
MARTÉN-RODRÍGUEZ, S., ALMARALES-CASTRO, A. & FENSTER, C. B. 2009. Evaluation of pollination syndromes in Antillean Gesneriaceae: evidence for bat, hummingbird and generalized flowers. Journal of Ecology 97:348359.
MUCHHALA, N. & THOMSON, J. D. 2010. Fur versus feathers: pollen delivery by bats and hummingbirds and consequences for pollen production. American Naturalist 175:717726.
PEDRO, W. A. & TADDEI, V. A. 2002. Temporal distribution of five bat species (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) from Panga Reserve, south-eastern Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 19:951954.
PILLAY, M. & TENKOUANO, A. (eds.) 2011. Banana breeding: progress and challenges. CRC Press, Boca Raton. 383 pp.
PRESLEY, S. J., WILLIG, M. R., CASTRO-ARELLANO, I. & WEAVER, S. C. 2009. Effects of habitat conversion on temporal activity patterns of phyllostomid bats in lowland Amazonian rain forest. Journal of Mammalogy 90:210221.
REYNOLDS, R. J., WESTBROOK, M. J., ROHDE, A. S., CRIDLAND, J. M., FENSTER, C. B. & DUDASH, M. R. 2009. Pollinator specialization and pollination syndromes of three related North American Silene. Ecology 90:20772087.
SINGARAVELAN, N. & MARIMUTHU, G. 2004. Nectar feeding and pollen carrying from Ceiba pentandra by pteropodid bats. Journal of Mammalogy 85:17.
SPRENGEL, C. C. 1793. Das entdeckte Geheimniss der Naturim Bau und in der Befruchtung der Blumen. Vieweg, Berlin. 258 pp.
SRIPAORAYA, E. 2005. The relationship between nectar sources and visits of the Cave Nectar Bat (Eonycteris spelaea Dobson). Master's thesis, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand.
SRITONGCHUAY, T., BUMRUNGSRI, S. & SRIPAORAYA, E. 2008. The pollination ecology of the late-successional tree, Oroxylum indicum (Bignoniaceae) in Thailand. Journal of Tropical Ecology 24:477484.
SRITONGCHUAY, T., BUMRUNGSRI, S., MEESAWAT, U. & MAZER, S. J. 2010. Stigma closure and re-opening in Oroxylum indicum (Bignoniaceae): causes and consequences. American Journal of Botany 97:136143.
START, A. N. 1974. The feeding biology in relation to food sources of nectarivorous bats (Chiroptera: Macroglossinae) in Malaysia. Doctoral thesis, University of Aberdeen, U.K.
SUYANTO, A. & STRUEBIG, M. J. 2007. Bats of the Sangkulirang limestone karst formations, East Kalimantan – a priority region for Bornean bat conservation. Acta Chiropterologica 9:6795.
THOMAS, D. W. & FENTON, M. B. 1978. Notes on the dry season roosting and foraging behavior of Epomophorus gambianus and Rousettus aegyptiacus (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae). Journal of Zoology London 186:403406.
TSCHAPKA, M. 2003. Pollination of the understory palm Calyptrogyne ghiesbreghtiana by hovering and perching bats. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 80:281288.
VIKAS, GAUTAM, M., TANDON, R. & RAM, H. Y. M. 2009. Pollination ecology and breeding system of Oroxylum indicum (Bignoniaceae) in the foothills of the Western Himalaya. Journal of Tropical Ecology 25:9396.
WILLMER, P. 2011. Pollination and floral ecology. Princeton University Press, Princeton. 828 pp.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Journal of Tropical Ecology
  • ISSN: 0266-4674
  • EISSN: 1469-7831
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-tropical-ecology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed