Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Continuous forest has greater taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic plant diversity than an adjacent naturally fragmented forest

  • Miguel A. Munguía-Rosas (a1), Selmy G. Jurado-Dzib (a1), Candy R. Mezeta-Cob (a1), Salvador Montiel (a1), Armando Rojas (a1) and Juan M. Pech-Canché (a2)...

Abstract:

Several studies have evaluated the short-term effects of tropical forest fragmentation on plant taxonomic diversity, while only a few have evaluated its effects on functional or phylogenetic diversity. To our knowledge no study has looked at the long-term consequences of tropical forest fragmentation on the three main components of plant diversity simultaneously: taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity. We sampled the vascular flora using belt transects (50 × 4 m) in a continuous tropical semi-evergreen forest (16 transects) and in an adjacent naturally fragmented forest (fragments of 1.7-My-old semi-evergreen forest immersed in a mangrove/sedge matrix) (18 transects), and compared their taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic plant diversity. There were 36 species in the continuous forest and 28 in the fragmented forest. Continuous forest was taxonomically more diverse (25%) than the fragmented forest. All functional diversity metrics were greater (6–33%) in the continuous than in the fragmented forest. Phylogenetic diversity was 19% greater and phylogenetically more overdispersed in the continuous forest than in the fragmented forest. The results suggest that in the fragmented forest not only is taxonomic plant diversity lower, but functional and phylogenetic diversity are as well. The negative effects of forest fragmentation on plant diversity seem to be chronic.

Copyright

Corresponding author

References

Hide All
APG (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group). 2009. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161:105121.
ARROYO-RODRÍGUEZ, V., PINEDA, E., ESCOBAR, F. & BENÍTEZ-MALVIDO, J. 2008. Value of small patches in the conservation of plant-species diversity in highly fragmented rainforest. Conservation Biology 23:729739.
ARROYO-RODRÍGUEZ, V., CAVENDER-BARES, J., ESCOBAR, F., MELO, F. P. L., TABARELLI, M. & SANTOS, B. 2012. Maintenance of tree phylogenetic diversity in a highly fragmented rain forest. Journal of Ecology 100:702711.
BALUN, L. B. 2011. Functional diversity of the hyper-diverse mangrove communities in Papua New Guinea. PhD dissertation, University of Tennessee, Knoxville. 321 pp.
BARRAGÁN, F., MORENO, C. E., ESCOBAR, F., HALFFTER, G. & NAVARRETE, D. 2011. Negative impacts of human land use on dung beetle functional diversity. PloS One 6: e17976.
BARRERA, A. 1982. Los petenes del noroeste de Yucatán: su exploración ecológica en perspectiva. Biótica 2:163169.
BOTTA-DUKÁT, Z. 2005. Rao's quadratic entropy as a measure of functional diversity based on multiple traits. Journal of Vegetation Science 16:533540.
BROKAW, N., BONILLA, N., KNAPP, S., MACVEAN, A., ORTÍZ, J. J., PEÑA-CHAMORRO, M., PÖLL, E. & TUN-GARRIDO, J. 2011. Arboles del mundo maya. Natural History Museum, Mérida. 263 pp.
COLEY, P. D. 1983. Herbivory and defensive characteristics of tree species in a lowland tropical environment. Ecological Monographs 53:209233.
CONANP-SEMARNAT. 2006. Programa de conservación y manejo de la Reserva de la Biosfera Los Petenes. Comisión Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas, México DF. 206 pp.
CORNELISSEN, J. H. C., LAVOREL, S., GARNIER, E., DÍAZ, S., BUCHMANN, N., GURVICH, D. E., REICH, P. B., TER STEEGE, H., MORGAN, H. D., VAN DER HEIDEN, M. G. A., PAUSAS, J. G. & POORTER, H. 2003. A handbook of protocols for standardized and easy measurements of plant functional traits worldwide. Australian Journal of Botany 51:335380.
DAVIS, T. J., BARRACLOUGH, T. G., CHASE, M. W., SOLTIS, P. S., SOLTIS, D. E. & SAVOLAINEN, V. 2004. Darwin's abominable mystery: insights from a supertree of the angiosperms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 101:19041909.
DIXON, P. 2003. VEGAN, a package of R functions for community ecology. Journal of Vegetation Science 14:927930.
DURÁN, R. 1987a. Descripción y análisis de la estructura y composición de la vegetación de los petenes del noroeste de Campeche, México. Biótica 12:191198.
DURÁN, R. 1987b. Lista florística de la región de los petenes Campeche, México. Biótica 12:199208.
FAHRIG, L. 2003. Effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 34:487515.
FAITH, D. 1992. Conservation evaluation and phylogenetic diversity. Biological Conservation 61:110.
FAITH, D., MAGALLÓN, S., HENDRY, A. P., CONTI, E., YAHARA, T. & DONOGHUE, M. J. 2010. Ecosystem services: an evolutionary perspective on the links between biodiversity and human well-being. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 2:6674.
FEENY, P. P. 1970. Seasonal changes in oak leaf tannins and nutrients as a cause of spring feeding by winter moth caterpillars. Ecology 51:565581.
GIRÃO, L. C., LOPES, A. V., TABARELLI, M. & BRUNA, E. M. 2007. Changes in tree reproductive traits reduce functional diversity in a fragmented Atlantic forest landscape. PloS One 2: e908.
GOTELLI, N. J. & COLWELL, R. K. 2011. Estimating species richness. Pp. 3954 in Magurran, A. E. & McGill, B. J. (eds.). Biological diversity: frontiers in measurement and assessment. Oxford University Press, New York.
HELM, A., HANSKI, I. & PÄRTEL, M. 2006. Slow response of plant species richness to habitat loss and fragmentation. Ecology Letters 9:7277.
HOOPER, D. U. & VITOUSEK, P. M. 1997. The effects of plant composition and diversity on ecosystem processes. Science 277:13021305.
HORTAL, J., BORGES, P. A. & GASPAR, C. 2006. Evaluating the performance of species richness estimators: sensitivity to sample grain size. Journal of Animal Ecology 75:274287.
JOST, L. 2006. Entropy and diversity. Oikos 113:363375.
KEMBEL, S. W., COWAN, P. D., HELMUS, M. R., CORNWELL, W. K., MORLON, H., ACKERLY, D. D., BLOMBER, S. P. & WEBB, C. O. 2010. Picante: R tools for integrating phylogenies and ecology. Bioinformatics 26:14631464.
LAURANCE, W. F. 1990. Comparative responses of five arboreal marsupials to tropical forest fragmentation. Journal of Mammalogy 71:641653.
LAURANCE, W. F. 1991. Edge effects in tropical forest fragments: application of a model for the design of natural reserves. Biological Conservation 57:205219.
LAURANCE, W. F. & BIERREGAARD, R. O. 1997. Tropical forest remnants: ecology, management and conservation of fragmented communities. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 616 pp.
LAURANCE, W. F. & PERES, C.A. 2006. Emerging threats to tropical forest. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 541 pp.
LAURANCE, W. F., DELAMONICA, P., LAURANCE, S. G., VASCONCELOS, H. L. & LOVEJOY, T. E. 2000. Conservation: rain forest fragmentation kills big trees. Nature 404:836.
LAURANCE, W. F., NASCIMIENTO, H. E., ANDRADE, A. C., FEARNSIDE, P. M., RIBEIRO, J. E. & CAPRETZ, R. L. 2006. Rain forest fragmentation and the proliferation of successional trees. Ecology 87:469482.
LAVOREL, S., GRIGULIS, K., MCINTYRE, S., WILLIAMS, N. S. G., GARDEN, D., DORROUGH, J., BERMAN, S., QUÉTIER, F., THEBAULT, A. & BONIS, A. 2008. Assessing functional diversity in the field – methodology matters! Functional Ecology` 18;22:134147.
LOVEJOY, T. E., BIERREGAARD, R. O., RYLANDS, A. B., MALCOLM, J. R., QUINTELA, C. E., HARPER, L. H., BROWN, K. S., POWELL, A. H., POWELL, G. V. N., SCHUBART, H. O. R. & HAYS, M. 1986. Edge and other effects of isolation on Amazon forest fragments. Pp. 257285 in Soule, M. E. (ed.). Conservation biology: the science of scarcity and diversity, Sinauer Associates Inc., Sunderland.
MAYFIELD, M. M., BONI, M. E., DAILY, G. C. & ACKERLY, D. 2005. Species and functional diversity of native and human-dominated plant communities. Ecology 86:23652372.
MONTIEL, S., ESTRADA, A. & LEÓN, P. 2006. Bat assemblages in a naturally fragmented ecosystem in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico: species richness, diversity and spatio-temporal dynamics. Journal of Tropical Ecology 22:267276.
MOUCHET, M. A., VILLEGÉR, S., MASON, N. W. H. & MOUILLOT, D. 2010. Functional diversity measures: an overview of their redundancy and their ability to discriminate community assembly rules. Functional Ecology 24:867876.
MURCIA, C. 1995. Edge effects in fragmented forest: implications for conservation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 10:5862.
NIINEMETS, Ü. 2001. Global-scale climatic control of leaf dry mass per area, density and thickness in trees and shrub. Ecology 82:453466.
PENNINGTON, T. D. & SARUKHÁN, J. 2005. Arboles tropicales de México: Manual para la identificación de las principales especies. UNAM Fondo de Cultura Económica, México DF. 523 pp.
RICO-GRAY, V. 1982. Estudio de la vegetación de la zona costera inundable del noreste del estado de Campeche, México: Los Petenes. Biótica 7:171188.
SANTOS, B. A., PERES, C. A., OLIVEIRA, A., GRILLO, A., ALVES-ACOSTA, C. P. & TABARELLI, M. 2007. Drastic erosion in functional attributes of tree assemblages in Atlantic forest fragments of northeastern Brazil. Biological Conservation 141:249260.
SANTOS, B. A., ARROYO-RODRÍGUEZ, V., MORENO, C. E. & TABARELLI, M. 2010. Edge-related loss of tree phylogenetic diversity in the severely fragmented Brazilian Atlantic forest. PloS One 5: e12625.
SWENSON, N. 2011. The role of evolutionary processes in producing biodiversity patterns, and the interrelationship between taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity. American Journal of Botany 98:472480.
TABARELLI, M., PERES, C. A. & MELO, P. F. L. 2012. The “few winners and many losers” paradigm revisited: emerging prospects for tropical forest biodiversity. Biological Conservation 155:136140.
TERBORGH, J., LOPEZ, L., TELLO, J., YU, D. & BRUNI, A. R. 1997. Transitory states in relaxing ecosystems of land bridge islands. Pp. 256274 in Laurance, W. F. & Bierregaard, R. O. (eds.). Tropical forest remnants: ecology, management, and conservation of fragmented communities. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
TILMAN, D. & DOWNING, J. A. 1994. Biodiversity and stability in grasslands. Nature 367:363365.
TILMAN, D., MAY, R. M., LEHMAN, C. L. & NOWAK, M. A. 1994. Habitat destruction and the extinction debt. Nature 371:6566.
TILMAN, D., KNOPS, J., WEDIN, D., REICH, P., RITCHIE, M. & SIEMANN, E. 1997. The influence of functional diversity and composition on ecosystem processes. Science 277:13001302.
VAMOSI, J. C. & WILSON, J. R. U. 2008. Nonrandom extinction leads to elevated loss of angiosperm evolutionary history. Ecology Letters 11:10471053.
VAMOSI, S. M., HEARD, S. B., VAMOSI, J. C. & WEBB, C. O. 2009. Emergent patterns in the comparative analysis of phylogenetic community structure. Molecular Ecology 18:572592.
VILLÉGER, S., MASON, N. W. H. & MOUILLOT, D. 2008. New multidimensional functional diversity indices for a multifaceted framework in functional ecology. Ecology 89:22902301.
WATSON, D. M. & PETERSON, A. T. 1999. Determinants of biodiversity in a naturally fragmented landscape: humid montane forest avifaunas of Mesoamerica. Ecography 22:582589.
WEBB, C. O., ACKERLY, D. D., MCPEEK, M. A. & DONOGHUE, M. J. 2002. Phylogenies and community ecology. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 33:475505.
WEBB, C. O., ACKERLY, D. D. & KEMBEL, S. W. 2008. Phylocom: software for the analysis of phylogenetic community structure and character evolution. Bioinformatics 24:20982100.
ZAMORA, C. 1999. Vegetación y flora de la unidad de evaluación y monitoreo de la biodiversidad de Hampolol, Campeche, México. La Ciencia y el Hombre 33:2752.

Keywords

Continuous forest has greater taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic plant diversity than an adjacent naturally fragmented forest

  • Miguel A. Munguía-Rosas (a1), Selmy G. Jurado-Dzib (a1), Candy R. Mezeta-Cob (a1), Salvador Montiel (a1), Armando Rojas (a1) and Juan M. Pech-Canché (a2)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed