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Multicultural China in the Early Middle Ages. By Sanping Chen. pp. xi, 279. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania University Press, 2012.

  • Stephen G. Haw (a1)



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1 Exactly who was “Chinese” and who not is also a debatable question.

2 Chinese Hanhua 漢化

3 白居易

4 拓跋


6 Mackerras, C. (ed. and trans.), The Uighur Empire According to the T'ang Dynastic Histories: a study in Sino-Uighur relations 744 – 840 (Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1972), p. 63.

7 新唐書.

8 安祿山

9 哥舒翰

10 胡. In the case of An Lushan, it certainly means Sogdian, but, at this period, it more generally referred to Central Asians of Eastern Iranian or Indo-Iranic type.

11 Xu, Liu 劉昫, et al. (eds), Jiu Tang shu 舊唐書, 16 vols. (Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju 中華書局, 1975), vol. 10, juan 卷 104, p. 3213.

12 The Old History of the Tang Dynasty (Jiu Tang shu) and the Comprehensive Mirror for Aid in Government (Zizhi tongjian 資治通鉴).

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Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society
  • ISSN: 1356-1863
  • EISSN: 1474-0591
  • URL: /core/journals/journal-of-the-royal-asiatic-society
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