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An Early Fragment of Ibn Jazlah's Tabulated Manual “Taqwīm al-Abdān” from the Cairo Genizah (T-S Ar.41.137)

  • EFRAIM LEV (a1)

Abstract

Ibn Jazlah was born and raised as a Christian in Karkh (Baghdad) and died in the year 1100. He acquired his medical education in Baghdad, worked at the ʿAḍuḍi hospital, and was appointed as a registrar and physician for the court at the ʿAbbāsid capital and later became a court physician of Caliph al-Muqtadī. Ibn Jazlah wrote several books on various subjects, mainly on medicine. During the process of reconstructing the medical library of the medieval Jewish practitioners in Cairo, a Genizah fragment of a unique tabular medical book in Arabic was identified as Ibn Jazlah's tabulated manual “Taqwīm al-abdān”, which is most probably part of the earliest known copy of the text. A study of the T-S Ar.41.137 clearly shows that it was an uncompleted draft, and can therefore teach us how the medieval copier worked. The image of the fragment is presented here, as well as its transliteration, translation and analysis.

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7 The most important and biggest Genizah collection; located at Cambridge University Library.

8 Uṣaybiʿa, Ibn Abī, ʿUyūn al-ʾAnbāʾ fī Ṭabaqāt al-ʾAṭibbāʾ (Beirut, 1965), I, pp. 254255 ; al-Qifṭī, Jamāl al-Dīn, Tārīkh al-Ḥukamāʾ (Leipzig, 1903), pp. 365366 ; Graziani, J. S., Arabic Medicine in the Eleventh Century as Represented in the Work of Ibn Jazlah. (Karachi, 1980), pp. ii, 1213 ; Vernet, J., “Ibn Dgazla”, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition (Leiden, 1971), II, p. 754 .

9 Vernet, Ibn Dgazla.

10 On Ibn Jazlah work in relation to other Arab authors works, see de Marco, O., Nebbia, G. and Mazzacane, E.M. P., ‘Ibn Jazla et les Connaissances de l'Islam Médiéval en Sciences Naturelles,’ Revue d'Histoire de la Pharmacie, 26 (1979), pp. 249258 .

11 Garbutt, N., ‘The Forgotten ’Aabbāsid Gastronome,’ Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 39 (1996), pp. 4244 .

12 J. Graziani, Arabic Medicine, pp. ii-iii; Sarton, G., Introduction to the History of Science, (Baltimore, 1931) I, p. 772 ; Brockelmann, C., Geschichte der Arabischen Literatur (Leiden, 1937), I, p. 639 , and Supplement, I, pp. 887–888; Leclerc, L., Histoire de la Medicine Arabe (Paris, 1876), I, pp. 493496 .

13 Graziani, Arabic Medicine, pp. ii-iii.

14 b. Gazla, Taqwīm al-Abdan fi Tadbīr al-Insān (Maṭbāa Rauḍat as-Sām, [1333 A.H] 1915 A.D).

15 Graziani, Arabic Medicine, pp. 53–54.

16 Savage-Smith, E., Ibn Biklarish in the Arabic Tradition of Synonymatic Texts and Tabular Presentations, in Burnett, C. (ed.), Ibn Baklārish's Book of Simples – Medical Remedies between Three Faiths in Twelfth-Century Spain (New York, 2008), pp. 113131 .

17 Vernet, Ibn Dgazla.

18 Graziani, Arabic Medicine, p. 51.

19 Ibid, p. v.

20 Ibid, p. iii.

21 Isaacs, Medical, p.32, no. 405.

22 WMS Arabic 418 was helpful with the transcription and the comparing process of the fragment. Sigla: ? = uncertain reading, [ ] editorial emendation, [. . .] continued.

23 Ibid.

24 Stern, S. M., Ten Autographs by Maimonides, Fragments of Medical Works, Response, Letters and Prescriptions, in: Edelmann, R. (ed.) Corpus Codicum Hebraicorum Medii Aevi (Copenhagen, 1956). Part I, Vol. III, pp. 1221 .

25 Lev, E., Work in Progress – the Research of Medical Knowledge in the Cairo Genizah – Past, Present and Future. in: Reif, S. (ed.), The Written Word Remains – The Archive and the Achievement, Taylor-Schechter Genizah Research Unit at Cambridge University Library, (Cambridge, 2004), pp. 3751 .

26 Chipman and Lev, Syrup; Lev and Chipman, Fragments; Lev, Chipman, and Niessen, Hospital; Chipman and Lev, Take.

27 Graziani, Arabic Medicine, p. 51.

28 Savage-Smith, Ibn Biklarish.

29 Ibid, pp. 116–117. See a reference to the source in note 3.

30 Y. Serri, Arabic Medical Dictionaries from the Ninth to the Thirteenth Centuries: Their Development, Components and Sources and their Reflection in Ibn Biklārish's and Ibn Al-Suwaydī's Treatises. Ph.D. Thesis submitted to the Senate of Bar-Ilan University (Ramat Gan, Israel, 2007).p. 233.

31 Haddad, F. S., ‘Tabular Form in Four Arabic Medical Texts from the 11th Century,’ Journal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine 2 (2002), pp. 5357 .

32 Graziani, Arabic Medicine, p. 51.

33 al-Qifti, Tārīkh, 298; Schacht, J., “Ibn Ibn Buṭlān”, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition (Leiden, 1971), III, p. 741743 ; Ullmann, M., Die Medizin im Islam (Leiden, 1970). pp. 157158 .

34 Savage-Smith, Ibn Biklarish.

35 Ibn Abī Uṣaybiʿa, ʿUyūn, 340; Ullmann, Die Medizin, pp. 160–161.

36 Schacht, J., “ , Ismāʿīl.” Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition (Leiden, 1971), II, p. 603 ; Ullmann, Die Medizin, p. 161.

37 bin Ḥusain al-Jurjānī, Ismāʻil. (ed.) Bār-i cahārum Tarjumah Zakhīrah-i Khvarzamshāhī: Manāfiʻ Tibbīyah va Ikhlāt kā Bayān (Lakhnau, 1903).

38 Savage-Smith, Ibn Biklarish.

39 Ullmann, Die Medizin, p. 161.

40 Savage-Smith, Ibn Biklarish.

41 Ullmann, Die Medizin, pp. 201, 275; Burnett, C., (ed.), Medical Remedies Between Three Faiths in Twelfth-Century Spain: Ibn Baklarish's Book of Simples (New York, 2008); Serri and Lev, A Judaeo-Arabic.

42 Ullmann, Die Medizin, p. 169.

43 Ullmann, Die Medizin, p. 275.

44 Savage-Smith, Ibn Biklarish.

45 Vernet, Ibn Dgazla; Graziani, Arabic Medicine, pp.12–13.

46 Serri and Lev, A Judaeo-Arabic.

47 b. Gazla, Taqwīm.

48 Dols, M. W., “Malāryā.” Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition (Leiden, 1971), VI, p. 229 .

49 W. H. S. Jones, Malaria and Greek History (Manchester, 1909).

50 Browne, E. G., Arabian Medicine (Cambridge, 1921), p. 51 ; Ullmann, Die Medizin, pp. 42, 137, 214; Pormann, P. E. and Savage-Smith, E., Medieval Islamic Medicine, (Cairo, 2007), pp. 5657 ; Latham, J.D. and Isaacs, H. D. (trans. & eds.), Kitāb al-Hummayāt li-Ishāq ibn Sulaymān al-Isrā’īlī : On fevers. (Cambridge, 1981); Meyerhof, M., ‘ʿAlī at-Ṭabarī's “Paradise of Wisdom”, one of the oldest Arabic compendiums of medicine,’ Isis, 16 (1931), pp. 654 ; Meyerhof, M., ‘The “Book of Treasure”, an Early Arabic treatise on medicine’. Isis, 14 (1930), pp. 5576 .

51 Bos, G. (trans & ed.), Ibn Al-Jazzar on Fevers: a Critical Edition of Zād al-Musāfir wa-Qūt al-Ḥāḍir (London, New York, 2000).

52 Oumeish, O. Y., ‘The Philosophical, Cultural, and Historical Aspects of Complementary, Alternative, Unconventional, and Integrative Medicine in the Old World,’ Archives of Dermatology 134 (1998), pp. 13731386 .

53 b. Gazla, Taqwīm.

54 N. Serikoff, Beobachtungen Ǚber die Marginalien- und Schnittitel in Christlich-Arabischen und Islamischen Büchersammlungen’, (in Press).

55 ʿAbd al-Laṭīf b. Muḥammad Riyaḍī zādah (died 1667–8), in his al-Kutub, Asmāʾ, (ed.) Muhammad Tūnji (Cairo, 1978), p. 155 , gives a list of similar book titles written by different authors – according to Serikof, due to their “bookshelf” titles (Ibid).

56 It is important to note that the information that comes from prescriptions and lists of materia medica found in the Genizah is original, unique and testified directly to its practical uses in medieval Egypt. Lev and Amar, Fossils. Lev, E. and Chipman, L., Medical Prescriptions in the Cambridge Genizah Collection: Practical Medicine and Pharmacology in Medieval Egypt, (Leiden, 2012).

57 Oumeish, The philosophical; Calvert, R. N.. The History of Massage: An Illustrated Survey from around the World (Rochester, Vt., 2002).

58 Levey, M., ‘Ibn Māsawayh and his Treatise on Simple Aromatic Substances,’ Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Science, 6 (1961), pp. 394410 .

59 Bey, A. Issa, Dictionnaire des Noms des Plantes (Cairo, 1930), p, 189 , no. 18.

60 Lev and Amar, Practical, pp. 299–301.

61 Gunther, R. T. (trans.), The Greek Herbal of Dioscorides (New York, 1959), IV.122 . Beck, L. Y. (trans.), Pedanius Dioscorides of Anarzarbus, De Materia Medica (Hildesheim-Zürich-New York, 2005), IV, 121 .

62 Levey, M., The Medical Formulary or the ʾAqrābādhīn of al–Kindī (Madison, 1966), nos. 9, 60 , 78, 125, 169, 247, no. 47.

63 Maimon, Moshe Ben (Maimonides), Medical Responses, Muntner, S. (ed.) (Jerusalem, 1969), p, 5 ; Maimon, Moshe Ben (Maimonides), Sexual Life (On the Increase of Physical Vigour), (Muntner, S., (ed.) (Hebrew, Jerusalem, 1965), 18:1

64 Maimon, Moshe Ben (Maimonides), Regimen Sanitatis (ed.) Muntner, S. (Hebrew; Jerusalem, 1957), 2:7 , 9, 20; 3:4; Maimon, Moshe Ben (Maimonides), Poisons and their Antidotes, (ed.) Muntner, S. (Hebrew, Jerusalem, 1942), p. 97 ; Ben Maimon, Aphorisms, 21:74.

65 al-Bayṭār, Ibn, Kitāb al-Jāmiʿ li-Mufradāt al-ʾAdwiya wa-l-ʾAghdhiya (Arabic; Cairo, 1874), I, pp. 114115 .

66 Ibn al-Bayṭār, Kitāb, II, p. 107.

67 al-Qazwīnī, ʿAjāʾib al-Makhlūqāt (Arabic, Beirut, 1981), p, 242.

68 Y. Reiani, Medicinal Substances of the Yemenite Jews. Unpublished M.Sc. thesis, The Hebrew University (Hebrew, Jerusalem, 1963), p, 51, no. 123.

69 Hooper, D., Useful Plants and Drugs of Iran and Iraq. Field Museum of Natural History, Publ. 387. (Chicago, 1937), p, 185 ; al-Rawi, A. and Chaakravarty, H. L., Medicinal Plants of Iraq, Ministry of Agriculture Technology, Bulletin No. 146. (Baghdad, 1964), p, 97 .

70 Levey, Medical, p. 247, no. 47.

71 Lev, E. and Amar, Z., Ethnic Medicinal Substances of the Land of Israel (Hebrew, Jerusalem, 2002), p. 162 .

72 Lev and Amar, Practical, pp. 210–211.

73 Gunther, Dioscorides, III, p. 148; Beck, Dioscorides, III, p. 132.

74 Ben Maimon, Regimen, 2:20; Maimon, Moshe Ben (Maimonides), The Medical Aphorisms of Moses Maimonides, eds. Rosner, F. and Muntner, S. (New York, 1970), 9:106 ; 13:51; 21:74; Ben Maimon, Sexual, 5:5; 7:1.

75 Al-Qazwīnī, ʿAjāʾib, p. 261.

76 Uphof, J. C., Dictionary of Economic Plants (New York, 1968), p. 363 .

77 Hooper, Useful, pp. 144–145.

78 Astrup, P., Bie, P. and Engell, H. C., Salt and Water in Culture and Medicine (Copenhagen, 1995); Dvorzetsky, E., ‘Healing Spas in the Land of Israel in Ancient Times: Holy Sites or Popular Healing Sites?,’ Jerusalem Studies in Jewish Folklore, 16 (1994), pp. 727 (Hebrew).

79 Oumeish, The philosophical.

80 Pormann and Savage-Smith, Medieval, p. 136.

81 Maimon, Moshe Ben (Maimonides), Un Glossaire de Matiere Medicale Compose par Maimonide, (ed.) Meyerhof, M., Memoires Presentes a l`Institut d`Egypte, 41 (Cairo, 1940), no. 20; Issa, Dictionnaire, p. 17, no. 18; 18, no. 108.

82 Lev and Amar, Practical, pp. 378–379.

83 Gunther, Dioscorides, III.154; Beck, Dioscorides, III, 137.

84 Muntner, S., ‘Assaph (Harofe) the Physician, ‘Sefer Refuoth’,’ Korot, IV (1967–1969), p. 401 .

85 Levey, Medical, nos. 6, 8, 32, 36, 37, 47, 51, 55, 60.

86 Ben Maimon, Aphorisms, 23:99.

87 Ibn al-Bayṭār, Kitāb, I, pp. 48–49.

88 Ibn al-Bayṭār, Kitāb, I, p. 121.

89 Hamarneh, S., ‘Medical Plants, Therapy and Ecology in Al–Ghazzi's Book on Agriculture,’ Studies in the History of Medicine, 2 (1978), pp. 223263 .

90 Grieve, M., A Modern Herbal (London, 1994), pp. 185187 ; Uphof, Dictionary, p. 40; al-Rawi and Chaakravarty Medicinal, p. 14; Lev and Amar Practical, pp. 378–379.

91 Ben Maimon, Glossaire, p. 74, no. 253; Issa, Dictionnaire, p. 157, no. 1.

92 Lev and Amar, Practical, pp. 261–266.

93 Goitein, Mediterranean, IV, p. 261

94 Gunther, Dioscorides, I.123; Beck, Dioscorides, I, 94, 99.

95 Levey, Medical, nos. 23,47,60,70,145.

96 Ben Maimon, Aphorisms, 21:67, 69; Ben Maimon, Poisons, pp. 111, 125; Ben Maimon, Glossaire, No. 107; Said, Book, I, p. 132.

97 Kamal, H., Dictionary of Pharaonic Medicine, Second Edition, (Cairo, 1967).

98 Singer, C. and Underwood, A., A Short History of Medicine, Second Edition, (Oxford, 1962).

99 R. Reynolds, “Baths and Bathing” The Encyclopedia Americana (U.S.A, 1982), Vol. 3, p. 346.

100 Issa, Dictionnaire, p. 130, no. 2, Ben Maimon, Glossaire, no. 236.

101 Lev and Amar, Practical, pp. 494–495.

102 Gunther, Dioscorides, III.30; Beck, Dioscorides, III, 39.

103 Gunther, Dioscorides, I.58.

104 Muntner, Assaph, IV, p. 408.

105 Ben Maimon, Aphorisms, 20:84.

106 Al-Qazwīnī, ʿAjāʾib, p. 262.

107 Palevitch, D., Yaniv, Z., Dafni, A. and Friedman, J., Ethnobotanical Survey of the Flora of Israel as a Source for Drugs (Hebrew, Jerusalem, 1985), p. 21 ; Crowfoot, G. M. and Baldensperger, L., From Cedar to Hyssop (London, 1932), p. 78 .

108 Reiani, Medicinal, p. 30, no. 64; Ben-Yaʿakov, A., The Traditional Medicine of the Babylonian Jews (Hebrew; Jerusalem, 1992), pp. 77 , 103, 116, 129.

109 Pormann and Savage-Smith, Medieval, pp. 120–121.

110 Spink, M. S. and Lewis, G. L., Albucasis, On Surgery and Instruments: A Definitive Edition of the Arabic Text; with English Translation and Commentary (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1973).

111 Ben Maimon, Glossaire, no.349.

112 Lev and Amar, Practical, pp. 494–495.

113 Ibn al-Bayṭār,, Kitāb, III, p. 24.

114 Hamarneh, Medical, p. 253.

115 al-Antaki, Daud, Tadhkirat Ula li-’Lbab wa ’l-Jami‛ al-‛Ujab al-‛Ujab (Arabic; Cairo, 1935), p. 260 .

116 al-Rawi and Chaakravarty, Medicinal, pp. 48–49; compare Uphof, Dictionary, p. 248; Grieve, Modern, p. 228.

117 Ullmann, Die Medizin, p, 97; Pormann and Savage-Smith, Medieval, pp. 49, 181.

118 Marin, M. and Waines, D., ‘The Balanced Way: Food for Pleasure and Health in Medieval Islam,’ Manuscripts of the Middle East, 4 (1989), pp. 123132 .

119 Lev and Amar, Practical, pp. 141–143.

120 Lev, Medieval.

121 Lev, E., Chipman, L. and Neissen, F., ‘Chicken and Chicory are Good for You: A Unique Family Prescription from the Cairo Genizah (T-S NS 223.82–83),’ Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam, 35 (2008), pp. 335352 .

122 Goitein, S. D., A Mediterranean Society: The Jewish Communities of the Arab world as Portrayed in the Documents of the Cairo Genizah (Berkeley, 1967–1988), I, pp. 124 , 261, II, p. 100, No. 228; III, p. 194, IV, pp. 230–238, 247–250, 422, 433–434, 443, 250.

123 Rosner, F., Medical Encyclopeadia of Moses Maimonides (New Jersey, 1994), pp. 5556 .

124 Lev and Amar, Practical, pp. 261–266.

125 Waines, D., ‘Cereals, Bread and Society’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, 30 (1987), pp. 255285 .

126 Ashtor, E., ‘An Essay on the Diet of the Various Classes in the Medieval Levant’, in Forster, R. and Ranum, O. (eds), Biology of Man in History: Selections from the Annales (Baltimore, 1975), pp. 125162 , especially pp. 125–126

127 Ben Maimon, Glossaire, no. 114, 285; Issa Dictionnaire, p. 48, No. 12

128 Lev and Amar, Practical, pp. 164–165.

129 Gunther, Dioscorides, II.132; Beck, Dioscorides, II, 132.

130 Levey, Medical, Nos. 42, 52, 54, 173–174.

131 Said, H. M. (ed.), Al–Bīrūnī's Book on Pharmacy and Materia Medica (Karachi, 1973), II, p. 60 .

132 Ben Maimon, Sexual, 7:1.

133 Ben Maimon, Aphorisms, 9:71, 106; 21:74.

134 Al-Qazwīnī, ʿAjāʾib, p. 264.

135 Al-Antaki, Tadhkirat, p. 336.

136 Issa, Dictionnaire, p. 103. no. 26.

137 Lev and Amar, Practical, pp. 437–438.

138 Goitein, S. D., Palestinian Jewry in Early Islamic and Crusader Times (Hebrew, Jerusalem 1980), p. 270 .

139 Lev and Amar, Ethnic, p. 112.

140 Issa, Dictionnaire, 138, no. 1; 188, no. 18; Said, Book, I, p. 300.

141 al-Baghdādī, ʿAbd al-Laṭīf, Kitāb al-ʾIfāda wa-l-ʾIʿtibār (Arabic, London, 1965), p. 68 .

142 Levey, Medical, nos. 31, 58, 207.

143 Levey, Medical, no. 58.

144 Ben Maimon, Aphorisms, 21:73; Ben Maimon, Glossaire, no. 210; Ben Maimon, Aphorisms, 21:72; Said, Book, I, p. 291

145 al-Antaki, Tadhkirat, p. 288.

146 Issa, Dictionnaire, p. 148, no. 15.

147 Lev and Amar, Practical, pp. 91–94.

148 Gunther, Dioscorides, I.176; Beck, Dioscorides, I, 33, 123.

149 Muntner, Assaph, IV, p. 399.

150 Ben Maimon, Responses, 4:20; Ben Maimon, Aphorisms, 13:44, 51; 20:77; 21:72; Ben Maimon, Regimen, 3:4, 9, 11; Ben Maimon, Poisons, 130.

151 Ibn al-Bayṭār, Kitāb, II, pp. 111–112.

152 Reiani, Medicinal, p. 43, No. 98.

153 Ben-Yaʿakov, Traditional, p. 761

154 Hooper, Useful, p. 157.

155 Uphof, Dictionary, p. 33; Grieve, Modern, pp. 21–26.

156 Lev and Amar, Practical, pp. 353–354.

157 Gunther, Dioscorides, II, no. 108; Beck, Dioscorides, II, 86.

158 Levey, Medical, p. 293, no. 168.

159 Ibn al-Bayṭār, Kitāb, III, p. 62.

160 Reiani, Medicinal, p. 26, no. 53.

161 Ben Maimon, Glossaire, no. 59; Issa Dictionnaire, 147, no. 10.

162 Lev and Amar, Practical, pp. 253–255.

163 Gunther, Dioscorides, II.151; Beck, Dioscorides, II, 124.

164 Alon, A. (ed.), Plants and Animals of the Land of Israel: Practical and Illustrated Encyclopedia, 12 vols. (Hebrew, Tel-Aviv, 1982–1990), X, p. 48 .

165 Levey, Medical, nos. 88–90, 116, 179, 214.

166 Ben Maimon, Regimen, 2:10; Ben Maimon, Aphorisms, 20:47; Ben Maimon, Responses no. 6; 19(3).

167 Ben Maimon, Aphorisms, 9:106; 20:84; 21:84.

168 Ben Maimon, Poisons, pp. 124, 150.

169 Ibn al-Bayṭār, Kitāb, I, pp. 102–103.

170 Lev and Amar, Practical, pp. 176–180.

171 Levey, Medical, p. 306, No. 207.

172 Gunther, Dioscorides, V.3; Beck, Dioscorides, V, 13.

173 Gunther, Dioscorides, V, 22; Beck, Dioscorides, V, 14.

174 Levey, Medical, p. 284, no. 149.

175 Ben Maimon, Poisons, pp. 102, 105; Ben Maimon, Regimen, 3:5, 6; Ben Maimon, Aphorisms, 9:77; 21:19–27.

176 Lev, Medieval.

177 Ben Maimon Regimen, 4:14; Ibn al-Bayṭār, Kitāb, II, pp. 22–23.

178 Lev and Amar, Practical, pp. 200–202.

179 Goitein, Palestinian, p. 270.

180 Goitein, Mediterranean, I, p. 151; IV, pp. 230–231; M. Gil, In the Kingdom of Ishmael, 4 Vols. (Jerusalem, 1997), II, pp. 662–663, no. 226; III, p. 293, no. 380; IV, p. 758, no. 526.

181 Ben Maimon, Aphorisms, 3:2; 4:14; Ben Maimon Regimen, 2:9.

182 Ben Maimon, Poisons, p. 135; Ben Maimon, Aphorisms, 22:45.

183 Ben Maimon, Regimen, 1:6,7; Ben Maimon, Aphorisms, 2:2; 9:116; 15:14, 28; 20:19, 20, 22, 58; 22:61. On the importance of chicken soup in medieval medicine according to Maimonides, see: Rosner Encyclopaedia, pp. 55–56.

184 Al-Qazwīnī, ʿAjāʾib, p. 233.

185 Al-Antaki, Tadhkirat, pp. 285–286.

186 Alon, Plants, XII, p. 126. In detail: Grieve, Modern, pp. 474–476.

187 P. Tal, Medicinal Plants (Hebrew, Tel-Aviv, 1981), p. 151.

188 Reiani, Medicinal, no. 29.

189 Ben-Yaʿakov, Traditional, p. 726.

190 Al-Rawi and Chaakravarty, Medicinal, p. 28; Hooper, Useful, pp. 101–102.

191 Ben Maimon, Glossaire, nos. 75, 243, 324; Issa, Dictionnaire, p. 151, no. 3.

192 Lev and Amar, Practical, pp. 248–250.

193 M. Levey, Chemistry and Chemical Technology in Ancient Mesopotamia (Amsterdam, 1959), pp. 51, 73, 108, 112.

194 Gunther, Dioscorides, I.151; Beck, Dioscorides, I, 110, 111.

195 Levey, Medical, nos. 36, 38, 42, 55, 59, 77, 86, 91, 102, 211.

196 Dāwud Ibn Abī al-Bayān, al-Dustūr al-Bīmāristānī (Arabic). In: P. Sbath (ed.), ‘Le Formulaire des Hôpitaux d'Ibn Abil Bayan, Médicin du Bimaristan Annacery au Caire au XIIIe siècle,’ Bullétin de l'Institut d'Egypte 15 (1932–33): pp. 9–78. p. 42.

197 Crowfoot and Baldensperger, Cedar, p. 111.

198 S. Levey, Medicine, Hygiene and Health among the Sinai Beduins (Hebrew, Tel-Aviv, 1978), p. 83.

199 Reiani, Medicinal, no. 101.

200 Hooper, Useful, p. 160; al-Rawi and Chaakravarty, Medicinal, p. 79.

201 Issa, Dictionnaire, p. 173, no. 14.

202 Lev and Amar, Practical, pp. 486, 546.

203 Ben Maimon, Glossaire, no. 289; Issa, Dictionnaire, p. 159, no. 6.

204 Lev and Amar, Practical, pp. 294–296.

205 Gunther, Dioscorides, II.104.

206 Levey, Medical, nos. 149, 215.

207 Levey, Medical, nos. 9, 15–16, 64, 77, 91, 99, 104, 109, 115–117, 157, 175.

208 Ben Maimon, Regimen, 2:9; Ben Maimon, Aphorisms, 22:55.

209 Ben Maimon, Regimen, 3:2, 4, 11; Ben Maimon, Aphorisms, 13:6; 20:78; 21:69; 22:40.

210 Ben Maimon, Responses, 4:20.

211 Al-Qazwīnī, ʿAjāʾib, p. 230.

212 Lev and Amar Practical, p. 555.

213 Amar, Z., ‘Like Snow in Summer; A luxury Product in the land of Israel and Syria’, Cathedra, 102 (2001), pp. 5162 [Hebrew].

Keywords

An Early Fragment of Ibn Jazlah's Tabulated Manual “Taqwīm al-Abdān” from the Cairo Genizah (T-S Ar.41.137)

  • EFRAIM LEV (a1)

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