Coastal areas, in general, are affected more and more by anthropogenic activities. Benthic macrofauna assemblages react to this disturbance and constitute, then, an effective biological tool to study the degree of contamination of the biotope. For this study three coastal sites, more or less exposed to anthropogenic activities but differing according to their opening to the sea, were studied. Sediments were sampled aboard a research vessel and using a 0.1 m2 Van Veen grab. Results show that Tunis bay and Dkhila coast, which are more open to the sea, appear more balanced on the trophic plan, and the biodiversity state is more satisfactory. However, Bizerte lagoon is closed, except for a limited communication with the sea via a narrow ship canal. So, the ecosystem presents some eutrophication signs and a great trophic imbalance in which carnivores largely dominate the benthic assemblages. In this situation, the herbivore chain is substituted by a microbial chain and only some opportunistic species can survive in these anoxic sediments related to the strong fluctuations of the environment factors during the year.