Anderson, M.J., Gorley, R.N. and Clarke, K.R. (2008) PERMANOVA+ for PRIMER. Guide to software and statistical methods. Plymouth: PRIMER-E.
Cairns, J. Jr. and Henebry, M.S. (1982) Interactive and noninteractive protozoa colonization process. In Cairns, J. Jr. (ed.) Artificial substrates. Ann Arbor, MI: Ann Arbor Science Publishers, pp. 23–70.
Cairns, J. Jr., Lanza, G.R. and Parker, B.C. (1972) Pollution related to structural and functional changes in aquatic communities with emphasis on freshwater algae and protozoa. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia 124, 79–127.
Clarke, K.R. and Gorley, R.N. (2015) PRIMER 7; user manual/tutorial. Plymouth: PRIMER-E.
Coppellotti, O. and Matarazzo, P. (2000) Ciliate colonization of artificial substrates in the Lagoon of Venice. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 80, 419–427.
Franco, C., Esteban, G. and Téllez, C. (1998) Colonization and succession of ciliated protozoa associated with submerged leaves in a river. Limnologica 28, 275–283.
Früh, D., Norf, H. and Weitere, M. (2011) Response of biofilm-dwelling ciliate communities to enrichment with algae. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 63, 299–309.
Geesey, G.G., Mutch, R., Costerton, J.W. and Green, R.B. (1978) Sessile bacteria – important component of microbial-population in small mountain streams. Limonology and Oceanography 23, 1214–1223.
Hausmann, K. (2002) Food acquisition, food ingestion and food digestion by protists. Japanese Journal of Protozoology 35, 85–95.
Ismael, A.A. and Dorgham, M.M. (2003) Ecological indices as a tool for assessing pollution in EI-Dekaila Harbour (Alexandria, Egypt). Oceanologia 45, 121–131.
Jiang, Y., Xu, H., Hu, X., Zhu, M., Al-Rasheid, K.A.S. and Warren, A. (2011) An approach to analyzing spatial patterns of planktonic ciliate communities for monitoring water quality in Jiaozhou Bay, northern China. Marine Pollution Bulletin 62, 227–235.
Kathol, M., Fischer, H. and Weitere, M. (2011) Contribution of biofilm-dwelling consumers to pelagic-benthic coupling in a large river. Freshwater Biology 56, 1017–1230.
Kathol, M., Norf, H., Arndt, H. and Weitere, M. (2009) Effects of temperature increase on the grazing of planktonic bacteria by biofilm-dwelling consumers. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 55, 65–79.
Kchaou, N., Elloumi, J., Drira, Z., Hamza, A., Ayadi, H., Bouain, A. and Aleya, L. (2009) Distribution of ciliates in relation to environmental factors along the coastline of the Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia. Estuarine, Coast and Shelf Science 83, 414–424.
Kiørboe, T., Grossart, H.P., Ploug, H., Tang, K. and Auer, B. (2004) Particle associated flagellates: swimming patterns, colonization rates, and grazing on attached bacteria. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 35, 141–152.
Kralj, K., Plenković-Moraj, A., Gligora, M., Primc-Habdija, B. and Sipoš, L. (2006) Structure of periphytic community on artificial substrata: influence of depth, slide orientation and colonization time in karstic Lake Visovačko, Croatia. Hydrobiologia 560, 249–258.
Lind, O.T., Doyle, R., Vodopich, D.S., Trotter, B.G., Limon, J.G. and Davalos-Lind, L. (1992) Clay turbidity: regulation of phytoplankton production in a large, nutrient-rich tropical lake. Limnology and Oceanography 37, 549–565.
Liu, Y., Zhang, W. and Xu, H. (2014) Colonization dynamics of periphytic diatoms in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China. Acta Oceanologica Sinica 33, 160–165.
Mieczan, T. (2010) Periphytic ciliates in three shallow lakes in eastern Poland: a comparative study between a phytoplankton-dominated lake, a phytoplankton-macrophyte lake and a macrophyte-dominated lake. Zoology Studies 49, 589–600.
Morin, S., Duong, T.T., Dabrin, A., Coynel, A., Herlory, O., Baudrimont, M., Delmas, F., Durrieu, G., Schäfer, J., Winterton, P., Blanc, G. and Coste, M. (2008) Long-term survey of heavy-metal pollution, biofilm contamination and diatom community structure in the Riou Mort watershed South-West France. Environmental Pollution 151, 532–542.
Morin, S., Pesce, S., Tlili, A., Coste, M. and Montuelle, B. (2010) Recovery potential of periphytic communities in a river impacted by a vineyard watershed. Ecological Indicators 10, 419–426.
Norf, H., Arndt, H. and Weitere, M. (2009a) Effects of resource supplements on mature ciliate biofilms: an empirical test using a new type of flow cell. Biofouling 25, 769–778.
Norf, H., Arndt, H. and Weitere, M. (2009b) Responses of biofilm-dwelling ciliate communities to planktonic and benthic resource enrichment. Microbial Ecology 57, 687–700.
Pfister, G., Auer, B. and Arndt, H. (2002) Pelagic ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) of different brackish and freshwater lakes: a community analysis at the species level. Limnologica 32, 147–168.
Risse-Buhl, U. and Küsel, K. (2009) Colonization dynamics of biofilm-associated ciliate morphotypes at different flow velocities. European Journal of Protistology 45, 64–76.
Scherwass, A., Fischer, Y. and Arndt, H. (2005) Detritus as a potential food source for protozoans: utilization of fine particulate plant detritus by a heterotrophic flagellate, Chilomonas paramecium, and a ciliate, Tetrahymena pyriformis. Aquatic Ecology 39, 439–455.
Sonntag, B., Posch, T., Klammer, S., Teubner, K. and Psenner, R. (2006) Phagotrophic ciliates and flagellates in an oligotrophic, deep, alpine lake: contrasting variability with seasons and depths. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 43, 193–207.
Wang, Z., Xu, G., Zhao, L., Gao, Y., Abdullah Al, M. and Xu, H. (2017) A new method for evaluating defense of microalgae against protozoan grazing. Ecological Indicators 77, 261–266.
Wey, J.K., Norf, H., Arndt, H. and Weitere, M. (2009) Role of dispersal in shaping communities of ciliates and heterotrophic flagellates within riverine biofilms. Limnology and Oceanography 54, 1615–1626.
Xu, G. and Xu, H. (2016) Use of body-size distinctness of biofilm-dwelling protozoa for marine bioassessment. Ecological Indicators 64, 152–157.
Xu, G., Xu, Y. and Xu, H. (2016) Insights into discriminating water quality status using new biodiversity measures based on a trait hierarchy of body-size units. Ecological Indicators 60, 980–986.
Xu, H., Zhang, W., Jiang, Y. and Yang, E.J. (2014) Use of biofilm-dwelling ciliate communities to determine environmental quality status of coastal waters. Science of the Total Environment 470–471, 511–518.
Xu, H., Zhang, W., Jiang, Y., Zhu, M., Al-Rasheid, K.A.S., Warren, A. and Song, W. (2011) An approach to determining the sampling effort for analyzing biofilm-dwelling ciliate colonization using an artificial substratum in coastal waters. Biofouling 27, 357–366.
Yang, Z., Xu, Y., Xu, G. and Xu, H. (2016) Temporal variation in taxonomic distinctness of biofilm-associated diatoms within the colonization process in the coastal ecosystems. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 96, 1119–1125.
Zhang, W., Liu, Y., Warren, A. and Xu, H. (2014) Insights into assessing water quality using taxonomic distinctness based on a small species pool of biofilm-dwelling ciliate fauna in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China. Marine Pollution Bulletin 89, 121–127.
Zhang, W., Xu, H., Jiang, Y., Zhu, M. and Al-Rasheid, K.A.S. (2012) Influence of enumeration time periods on analyzing colonization features and taxonomic relatedness of periphytic ciliates communities using an artificial substratum for marine bioassessment. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 19, 3619–3627.
Zhang, W., Xu, H., Jiang, Y., Zhu, M. and Al-Rasheid, K.A.S. (2013) Colonization dynamics of periphytic ciliate communities on an artificial substrate in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 91, 91–96.
Zhong, X., Xu, G. and Xu, H. (2017) Use of multiple functional traits of protozoa for bioassessment of marine pollution. Marine Pollution Bulletin 119, 33–38. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.03.043.
Zhong, X., Xu, G., Wang, Y. and Xu, H. (2014) An approach to determination of functional species pool for community research. Ecological Indicators 46, 78–83.