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On the differences between the two ‘indicator’ species of chaetognath, Sagitta setosa and S. elegans

  • Q. Bone (a1), C. Brownlee (a1), G. W. Bryan (a1), G. R. Burt (a1), P. R. Dando (a1), M. I. Liddicoat (a1), A. L. Pulsford (a1) and K. P. Ryan (a1)...


The suggestion that the two chaetognath species Sagitta setosa and S. elegans were ‘indicators’ of different water masses was first made by Meek (1928), working off Northumberland, and subsequently developed by Russell (1933, 1935, 1939) in his classical work on their distribution as indicators of ‘Channel’ and ‘Western’ water off Plymouth. The alternation in dominance of the two species during the well-known changes in the Western Channel off Plymouth during the past 60 years (which have been termed the ‘Russell’ cycle; Cushing & Dickson, 1976) have most recently been reviewed and discussed by Southward (1984).



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Dando, P., Southward, A. J., Southward, E. C. & Barrett, R. L., 1987. Possible energy sources for chemoautotrophic prokaryotes symbiotic with invertebrates from a Norwegian fjord. Ophelia, 26, 135150.
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Feigenbaum, D. L., 1977. Nutritional Ecology of the Chaetognatha with Particular Reference to External Hair Patterns, Prey Detection, and Feeding. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida.
Feigenbaum, D. L. & Maris, R. C., 1984. Feeding in the Chaetognatha. Oceanography and Marine Biology, an Annual Review, 22, 343392.
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Fraser, J. H., 1952. The Chaetognatha and other zooplankton of the Scottish area and their value as biological indicators of hydrographical conditions. Marine Research, no. 2, 52 pp.
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Ryan, K. P., Purse, D. H. & Wood, J. R., 1985. A transmission cryo-stage with a heater and integral anti-contaminator for a scanning electron microscope. Mikroskopie, 42, 225229.
Savineau, J.-P. & Duvert, M., 1986. Physiological and cytochemical studies of Ca in the primary musculature of the trunk of Sagitta setosa (Chaetognath). Tissue and Cell, 18, 953956.
Southward, A. J., 1984. Fluctuations in the ‘indicator’ chaetognaths Sagitta elegans and Sagitta setosa in the Western Channel. Oceanologica acta, 7, 229239.
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On the differences between the two ‘indicator’ species of chaetognath, Sagitta setosa and S. elegans

  • Q. Bone (a1), C. Brownlee (a1), G. W. Bryan (a1), G. R. Burt (a1), P. R. Dando (a1), M. I. Liddicoat (a1), A. L. Pulsford (a1) and K. P. Ryan (a1)...


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