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Morphogenesis and morphology of Certesia quadrinucleata (Protozoa: Ciliophora) from Japan

  • Xiaozhong Hu (a1)


The morphogenesis and morphology of the marine benthic ciliate Certesia quadrinucleata collected from seawater in Nagasaki Mie Port, Japan, were investigated using microscopic observation of live and protargol-stained specimens. In terms of its morphology, the current isolate possesses diagnostic features of the genus and the species: a row of left marginal cirri, a prominent paroral membrane, 11 frontoventral cirri scattered in frontoventral area, five highly developed transverse cirri, four macronuclear nodules, five dorsal kineties and a caudally located contractile vacuole. Its morphogenesis belongs to the ‘Certesia’ subtype, and main events can be summarized as follow: (1) the oral primordium in the opisthe develops de novo in a subcortical pouch; (2) the old paroral membrane is completely replaced by the new one in the proter, but the parental adoral zone of membranelles is wholly inherited; (3) five streaks of cirral anlagen are formed in a primary mode for the proter and the opisthe, which gives rise to cirri in the pattern of 3:3:3:3:3 from left to right; (4) the leftmost frontoventral cirrus develops de novo on the cell surface in both dividers, and has no connection with the undulating membrane anlage; and (5) the anlagen for marginal cirri and dorsal kineties occur intrakinetally. Current observations confirm the separation of Certesiidae from other euplotids at the familial level.


Corresponding author

Correspondence should be addressed to: X. Hu, Laboratory of Protozoology, Institute of Evolution and Marine Biodiversity, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, People's Republic of China email:


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Morphogenesis and morphology of Certesia quadrinucleata (Protozoa: Ciliophora) from Japan

  • Xiaozhong Hu (a1)


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