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Mangrove sponges from Bangka Island (North Sulawesi, Indonesia) with the description of a new species

  • Barbara Calcinai (a1), Azzurra Bastari (a1), Daisy M. Makapedua (a2) and Carlo Cerrano (a1)


Mangroves create unique ecological environments, furnishing a habitat opportunity for many species. The majority of published information on mangrove sponges comes from the Caribbean while few data are available from Indo-Pacific mangrove sponges. In general, species diversity of sponges in mangroves is lower than adjacent subtidal habitats in both the Caribbean and Indo-Pacific. The aim of this study is to report the first data about sponge species diversity of two mangrove forests from Bangka Island (North Sulawesi, Indonesia) and to describe a new sponge species associated with the mangroves. The survey found 19 species, belonging to 11 families and 15 genera; the samples were collected on mangrove trunks, on the roots or on the surrounding bottom. The majority of the species are typical of coral reef but two of them have been previously found only in lagoons or in mangrove habitats. These new data enlarge our knowledge about Indonesian sponges diversity and suggest the urgency to consider Indonesian mangroves as an important but underestimated element in coral reef ecological dynamics.


Corresponding author

Correspondence should be addressed to: A. Bastari, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche 60131, Ancona, Italy email:


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Mangrove sponges from Bangka Island (North Sulawesi, Indonesia) with the description of a new species

  • Barbara Calcinai (a1), Azzurra Bastari (a1), Daisy M. Makapedua (a2) and Carlo Cerrano (a1)


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