Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Introduction, dispersal and naturalization of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum in British estuaries, 1980–2010

  • John Humphreys (a1), Matthew R. C. Harris (a1), Roger J. H. Herbert (a2), Paul Farrell (a1), Antony Jensen (a3) and Simon M. Cragg (a1)...

Abstract

The introduction of the Manila clam into British coastal waters in the 1980s was contested by conservation agencies. While recognizing the value of the clam for aquaculture, the government decided that it posed no invasive risk, as British sea temperatures would prevent naturalization. This proved incorrect. Here we establish the pattern of introduction and spread of the species over the first 30 years of its presence in Britain. We report archival research on the sequence of licensed introductions and examine their relationship in time and space to the appearance of wild populations as revealed in the literature and by field surveys. By 2010 the species had naturalized in at least 11 estuaries in southern England. These included estuaries with no history of licensed introduction. In these cases activities such as storage of catch before market or deliberate unlicensed introduction represent the probable mechanisms of dispersal. In any event naturalization is not an inevitable consequence of introduction and the chances of establishment over the period in question were finely balanced. Consequently in Britain the species is not currently aggressively invasive and appears not to present significant risk to indigenous diversity or ecosystem function. However it is likely to gradually continue its spread should sea surface temperatures rise as predicted.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence should be addressed to: J. Humphreys, Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Ferry Road, Southsea, Portsmouth PO4 9LY, UK email: jhc@jhc.co

References

Hide All
Beukema, J.J. and Dekker, R. (2014) Variability in predator abundance links winter temperatures and bivalve recruitment: correlative evidence from long term data in a tidal flat. Marine Ecology Progress Series 513, 115.
Bidegain, G. and Juanes, J.A. (2013) Does expansion of the introduced Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum cause competitive displacement of the European native clam Ruditapes decussatus? Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 445, 4452.
Boesch, D.F., Wass, M.L. and Virnstein, R.W. (1976) The dynamics of estuarine benthic communities. In Wiley, M. (ed.) Estuarine processes. Volume 1. London: Academic Press.
Breber, P. (2002) Introduction and acclimatisation of the Pacific carpet clam Tapes philippinarum, to Italian waters. In Leppakoski, E., Gollasch, S. and Olenin, S. (eds) Invasive aquatic species of Europe. Distribution, impacts and management. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic, pp. 120126.
Bryan, A. (1919) A Hawaiian form of Tapes philippinarum. Nautilus 32, 124125.
Caldow, R.W.G., McGrorty, S., West, A.D., Durell, S.E.A.leV.dit, Stillman, R.A. and Anderson, S. (2005) Macro-invertebrate fauna in the intertidal mudflats. In Humphreys, J. and May, V. (eds) The ecology of Poole Harbour. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 91108.
Caldow, W.G., Stillman, R.A., Durell, S.E.A.leV.dit, West, A.D., McGrorty, S., Goss-Custard, J.D., Wood, P.J. and Humphreys, J. (2007) Benefits to shorebirds from invasion of a non-native shellfish. Proceedings of the Royal Society Series B 274, 14491455.
Cefas (2010). Record of sites holding Manila clams. Weymouth: Cefas Fish Health Inspectorate.
Clout, M.N. and Williams, P.A. (eds) (2009) Invasive species management: a handbook of principles and techniques. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Colautti, R.I., Grigorovich, I.A. and MacIssac, H.J. (2006) Propagule pressure: a null model for invasions. Biological Invasions 8, 10231037.
Davidson, N.C., d'A Laffoley, D., Doody, J.P., Way, L.S., Gordon, J., Key, R., Pienkowski, M.W., Mitchell, R. and Duff, K.L. (1991) Nature conservation and estuaries in Great Britain. Peterborough: Nature Conservancy Council.
Dit Durell, S.E.A.leV., Stillman, R.A., Caldow, R.W.G., McGrorty, S., West, A.D. and Humphreys, J. (2006) Modelling the effect of environmental change on shorebirds: a case study on Poole Harbour, UK. Biological Conservation 131, 459473.
Emu (2007) Chichester Harbour survey of invertebrate fauna for the assessment of bird prey value. Report 06/j/1/03/0995/0652 for Chichester Harbour Conservancy, West Sussex.
Flassch, J. P. and Leborgne, Y. (1992) Introduction in Europe from 1972 to 1980 of the Japanese Manila clam (Tapes philippinarum) and the effects on aquaculture production and natural settlement. ICES Marine Symposium 194, 9296.
Gosling, E. (2003) Bivalve molluscs: biology, ecology and culture. Oxford: Blackwell Science.
Grice, T. (2009) Principles of containment and control of invasive species. In Clout, M.N. and Williams, P.A. (eds) Invasive species management: a handbook of principles and techniques. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 6176.
Hansard (1985) Fish farming: alien species. House of Lords. Hansard 466, 315318.
Herbert, R.J.H. (2009) Isle of Wight marine biological reports for 2007 and 2008. Proceedings of the Isle of Wight Natural History and Archaeological Society 24, 6775.
Herbert, R.J.H., Ross, K., Hübner, R. and Stillman, R. (2010) Intertidal invertebrates and biotopes of Poole Harbour SSSI. Report to Natural England. Bournemouth: Bournemouth University.
Herbert, R.J.H., Willis, J., Jones, E., Ross, K., Huebner, R., Humphreys, J., Jensen, A. and Baugh, J. (2012) Invasion in tidal zones on complex coastlines: modeling larvae of the non-native Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum in the UK. Journal of Biogeography 39, 585599.
Hiscock, K. (ed.) (1996) Marine nature conservation review: rationale and methods. (Coasts and Seas of the United Kingdom, MNCR series). Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee.
Humphreys, J. (2005) Salinity and tides in Poole Harbour: estuary or lagoon? In Humphreys, J. and May, V. (eds) The ecology of Poole Harbour. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 3548.
Humphreys, J. (2010) The introduction of the Manila clam to British coastal waters. Biologist 57, 134138.
Humphreys, J. and May, V. (eds) (2005) The ecology of Poole Harbour. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Humphreys, J., Caldow, R.W.G., McGrorty, S., West, A.D. and Jenson, A.C. (2007). Population dynamics of naturalised Manila clams in British coastal waters. Marine Biology 151, 22552270.
Humphreys, J., Herbert, R.J.H., Roberts, C. and Fletcher, S. (2014) A reappraisal of the history and economics of the Pacific oyster in Britain. Aquaculture 428, 117124.
Humphreys, J., Ningsheg, Y., Quyang, H. and Yan, C. (2011) Ruditapes philippinarum (Japanese carpet shell). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford: CAB International (http://www.cabi.org/isc).
IFREMER (1988) La Palourde: Dossier d’élevage. France: IFREMER.
Jensen, A., Humphreys, J., Caldow, R. and Cesar, C. (2005a) The Manila clam in Poole Harbour. In Humphreys, J. and May, V. (eds) The ecology of Poole Harbour. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 163173.
Jensen, A., Carrier, I. and Richardson, N. (2005b) Marine fisheries of Poole Harbour. In Humphreys, J. and May, V. (eds) The ecology of Poole Harbour. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 195204.
Jensen, A.C., Humphreys, J., Caldow, R.W.G., Grisley, C. and Dyrynda, P.E.J. (2004) Naturalisation of the Manila clam (Tapes philippinarum), an alien species, and establishment of a clam fishery within Poole Harbour, Dorset. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 84, 10691073.
JNCC Archive. Wildlife Introductions- Mercenaria (Manila clam). File C10 16 08 (part 3). Joint Nature Conservation Committee.
Juanes, J.A., Bidegain, G., Echavarri-Erasun, B., Puente, A., García, A., García, A., Bárcena, J.F., Álvarez, C. and García-Castillo, G. (2012) Differential distribution pattern of native Ruditapes decussatus and introduced Ruditapes phillippinarum clam populations in the Bay of Santander (Gulf of Biscay): Considerations for fisheries management. Ocean & Coastal Management 69, 316326.
Kaiser, M.J., Attrill, M.J., Jennings, S., Thomas, D.N., Barnes, D.K.A., Brierley, A.S., Polunin, N.V.C., Raffaelli, D.G. and Williams, P.J.le, B. (2005) Marine ecology: processes, systems and impacts. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lake, N.C.H. (1992) Assessment of the potential for Manila clam (Tapes philippinarum) cultivation on the Scottish west coast. Ardtoe: Sea Fish Industry Authority Report, 400 pp.
Lin, B.S., Wu, T.M. and Huang, B.Z. (1983) The effects of temperature and salinity on the growth and development of the spats of the clam R. philippinarum. Journal of Fisheries, China 7, 1523.
Lockwood, L.J., Cassey, P. and Blackburn, T. (2005) The role of propagule pressure in explaining species invasions. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 20, 223228.
Magoon, C. and Vining, R. (1981) Introduction to shellfish aquaculture. Seattle, WA: Department of Natural Resources.
MAFF (1987) Letter from B.E. Spencer to M.A. Vincent. NCC, 2 February 1987.
Maynard, G. and Nowell, D. (2009) Biosecurity and quarantine for preventing invasive species. In Clout, M.N. and Williams, P.A. (eds) Invasive species management: a handbook of principles and techniques. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 118.
Mclusky, D.S. and Elliot, M. (2004) The estuarine ecosystem: ecology, threats and management. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
McTaggart, K.A., Tipple, J.R., Sherlock, M., Cogan, S.M., Joyce, A.E. and Clyne, F.J. (2004) Radiological habits. Survey: Winfrith, 2003. Projects C1659, RB103 and C1666. RL02/04. Lowestoft: Cefas.
Miller, A.W., Ruiz, G.M., Minton, M.S., and Ambrose, R.F. (2007) Differentiating successful and failed molluscan invaders in estuarine ecosystems. Marine Ecology Progress Series 332, 4151.
Millican, P.F. and Williams, D.R. (1985) The seasonal variations in the level of meat content, lipid and carbohydrate in Mercenaria mercenaria L. and Tapes semidecussata Reeve grown in fertilised and unfertilised water. CM 1985 K5110. Copenhagen: International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.
Mitchell, R. (1974) Aspects of the ecology of the lamellibranch Mercenaria mercenaria (L.) in British waters. Hybrobiological Bulletin, 8, 124138.
UKCPO9. United Kingdom Climate Projections. http://ukclimateprojections.metoffice.gov.uk/
Quayle, D.B. (1949) Movements in Venerupis (Paphia) pullastra (Montagu). Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London 28, 3137.
Short, H. (2010) Population characteristics of Tapes decussatus in The Fleet, Weymouth. B.Sc. Undergraduate dissertation, School of Applied Sciences, Bournemouth University.
Spencer, B.E. (2002) Molluscan shellfish farming. Oxford: Blackwell Science.
Spencer, B.E., Edwards, D.B. and Millican, P.F. (1991) Cultivation of Manila clams. Laboratory leaflet No 65. Lowestoft: MAFF Directorate of Fisheries Research.
Williamson, M. (1996) Biological invasions. London: Chapman and Hall.
Wimbledon, T. (2003) Manila clams in Britain. Mollusc World 2, 1216.
WoRMS (2014) World register of marine species. http://www.marinespecies.org.
Yap, W.G. (1977) Population biology of the Japanese little-neck clam, Tapes philippinarum in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands. Pacific Science 31, 223244.

Keywords

Introduction, dispersal and naturalization of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum in British estuaries, 1980–2010

  • John Humphreys (a1), Matthew R. C. Harris (a1), Roger J. H. Herbert (a2), Paul Farrell (a1), Antony Jensen (a3) and Simon M. Cragg (a1)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed