Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

A global approach to hierarchical classification of coastal waters at different spatial scales: the NEA case

  • José A. Juanes (a1), Araceli Puente (a1) and Elvira Ramos (a1)

Abstract

Ecological classification of coastal waters has become increasingly important as one of the basic issues in the biology of conservation. Management and protection of coastal areas take place at different spatial scales. Thus, proper classification schemes should integrate equivalent information at various levels of definition in order to show its feasibility as a useful tool for assessment of coastal environments at the required scales. In this work, a global approach applied to the classification of the NE Atlantic coast is analysed in order to discuss pros and cons regarding different conceptual and technical issues for effective implementation of such a management tool. Using the hierarchical system applied at three different geographic scales: Biogeographic (NE Atlantic coast), Regional (Bay of Biscay) and Local (Cantabria region), five different topics were considered for debating strengths and weaknesses of the methodological alternatives at those spatial scales, using for validation the rocky shore macroalgae as a representative biological element of benthic communities. These included: (i) the spatial scales; (ii) the physical variables and indicators; (iii) the classification methodologies; (iv) the biological information; and (v) the validation procedure. Based on that analysis, the hierarchical support system summarized in this paper provides a management framework for classification of coastal systems at the most appropriate resolution, applicable to a wide range of coastal areas. Further applications of the physical classification for management of biodiversity in different environmental scenarios are also analysed.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence should be addressed to: J.A. Juanes, Environmental Hydraulics Institute (IHCantabria), Universidad de Cantabria, Santander, Spain email: juanesj@unican.es

References

Hide All
Allee, R.J., Kurtz, J., Gould, R.W. Jr., Ko, D.S., Finkbeiner, M. and Goodin, K. (2014) Application of the coastal and marine ecological classification standard using satellite-derived and modeled data products for pelagic habitats in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Ocean & Coastal Management 88, 1320.
Bermejo, R., Ramírez-Romero, E., Vergara, J.J. and Hernández, I. (2015) Spatial patterns of macrophyte composition and landscape along the rocky shores of the Mediterranean Atlantic transition region (northern Alboran Sea). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 155, 1728.
Bianchi, C., Parravicini, V., Montefalcone, M., Rovere, A. and Morri, C. (2012) The challenge of managing marine biodiversity: a practical toolkit for a cartographic, territorial approach. Diversity 4, 419452.
Boyer, T.P., Antonov, J.I., Garcia, H.E., Johnson, D.R., Locarnini, R.A., Mishonov, A.V., Pitcher, M.T., Baranova, O.K. and Smolyar, I.V. (2006) World ocean database 2005. In Levitus, S. (ed.) NOAA Atlas NESDIS 60. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 182 pp.
Breeman, A.M. (1988) Relative importance of temperature and other factors in determining geographic boundaries of seaweeds: experimental and phonological evidence. Helgoländer Meeresunters 42, 199241.
Briceño, H.O., Boyer, J.N., Castro, J. and Harlem, P. (2013) Biogeochemical classification of South Florida's estuarine and coastal waters. Marine Pollution Bulletin 75, 187204.
Burrows, M. (2012) Influences of wave fetch, tidal flow and ocean colour on subtidal rocky communities. Marine Ecology Progress Series 445, 193207.
Burrows, M., Harvey, R., Robb, L., Poloczanska, E.S., Mieszkowska, N., Moore, P., Leaper, R., Hawkins, S.J. and Benedetti-Cecchi, L. (2009) Spatial scales of variance in abundance of intertidal species: effects of region, dispersal mode and trophic level. Ecology 90, 12421254.
Camus, P., Mendez, F.J., Medina, R., Tomas, A. and Izaguirre, C. (2013) High resolution downscaled ocean waves (DOW) reanalysis in coastal areas. Coastal Engineering 72, 5668.
Céréghino, R., Santoul, F., Compin, A. and Mastrorillo, S. (2005) Using self-organizing maps to investigate spatial patterns of non-native species. Biological Conservation 125, 459465. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2005.04.018.
Chapman, M.G. (1999) Improving sampling designs for measuring restoration in aquatic habitats. Journal of Aquatic Ecosystem Stress and Recovery 6, 235251.
Chappuis, E., Terradas, M., Cefalí, M.E., Mariani, S. and Ballesteros, E. (2014) Vertical zonation is the main distribution pattern of littoral assemblages on rocky shores at a regional scale. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 147, 113122.
Cheung, W.W.L., Lam, V.W.Y., Sarmiento, J.L., Kearney, K., Watson, R. and Pauly, D. (2009) Projecting global marine biodiversity impacts under climate change scenarios. Fish and Fisheries 10, 235251. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-2979.2008.00315.x.
Commission of the European Communities (1991) CORINE biotopes. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities for Commission of the European Communities.
Connor, D.W., Allen, J.H., Golding, N., Howell, K.L., Lieberknecht, L.M., Northen, K.O. and Reker, J.B. (2004) The marine habitat classification for Britain and Ireland. Version 04.05. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee.
Connor, D.W., Brazier, D.P., Hill, T.O. and Northen, K.O. (1997) Marine nature conservation review: marine biotope classification for Britain and Ireland, Volume 1. Littoral biotopes. Version 97.06. Report No. 229. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee.
Davies, C.E., Moss, D. and Hill, M.O. (2004) EUNIS habitat classification revised 2004. Report to the European Topic Centre on Nature Protection and Biodiversity. European Environment Agency.
Devilliers, P. and Devilliers-Terschuren, J. (1996) A classification of Palaearctic habitats. Nature and Environment, No. 78. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing.
Díez-Tapia, P., Bárbara, I. and Díez, I. (2013) Multi-scale spatial variability in intertidal benthic assemblages: differences between sand-free and sand-covered rocky habitats. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 133, 97108.
Díez, I., Muguerza, N., Santolaria, A., Ganzedo, U. and Gorostiaga, J.M. (2012) Seaweed assemblage changes in the eastern Cantabrian Sea and their potential relationship to climate change. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 99, 108120.
Díez, I., Santolaria, A. and Gorostiaga, J.M. (2003) The relationship of environmental factors to the structure and distribution of subtidal seaweed vegetation of the western Basque coast (N Spain). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 56, 10411054.
Dinter, W.P. (2001) Biogeography of the OSPAR Maritime Area. Bonn: German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation.
Douvere, F. and Ehler, C.N. (2009) New perspectives on sea use management: initial findings from European experience with marine spatial planning. Journal of Environmental Management 90, 7788.
Duarte, L., Viejo, R.M., Martínez, B., deCastro, M., Gómez-Gesteira, M. and Gallardo, T. (2013) Recent and historical range shifts of two canopy-forming seaweeds in North Spain and the link with trends in sea surface temperature. Acta Oecologica 51, 110.
ESRI (2002) Digital chart of the world. Redlands, CA: Environmental Systems Research Institute. http://www.esri.com
European Commission (2009) WFD Intercalibration Phase 2: Milestone 2 Report. European Commission (for ECOSTAT meeting 8–9 April 2009). European Commission.
European Commission (2013) Commission Decision 2013/480/EU, of 20 September 2012 establishing, pursuant to Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, the values of the Member State monitoring system classifications as a result of. European Commission.
Fernández, C. (2011) The retreat of large brown seaweeds on the north coast of Spain: the case of Saccorhiza polyschides . European Journal of Phycology 46, 352360.
Gaylord, B. (1999) Detailing agents of physical disturbance: wave-induced velocities and accelerations on a rocky shore. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 239, 85124.
Gilliland, P.M. and Laffoley, D. (2008) Key elements and steps in the process of developing ecosystem-based marine spatial planning. Marine Pollution Bulletin 32, 787796.
Gregr, E.J. and Bodtker, K.M. (2007) Adaptive classification of marine ecosystems: identifying biologically meaningful regions in the marine environment. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 54, 385402.
Guanche, Y., Mínguez, R. and Méndez, F.J. (2013) Climate-based Monte Carlo simulation of trivariate sea states. Coastal Engineering 80, 107121.
Guinda, X., Juanes, J.A. and Puente, A. (2014) The Quality of Rocky Bottoms index (CFR): a validated method for the assessment of macroalgae according to the European Water Framework Directive. Marine Environmental Research 102, 310.
Hastie, T., Tibshirani, R. and Friedman, J. (2001) The elements of statistical learning: data mining, inference, and prediction. New York, NY: Springer Verlag.
Hering, D., Borja, A., Carstensen, J., Carvalho, L., Elliott, M., Feld, C.K., Heiskanen, A.-S., Johnson, R.K., Moe, J., Pont, D., Solheim, A.L. and de Bund, W.V. (2010) The European Water Framework Directive at the age of 10: a critical review of the achievements with recommendations for the future. Science of the Total Environmental Management 408, 40074019.
Jordà, G., Marbà, N. and Duarte, C.M. (2012) Mediterranean seagrass vulnerable to regional climate warming. Nature Climate Change 2, 821824. doi: 10.1038/nclimate1533.
Juanes, J.A., Guinda, X., Puente, A. and Revilla, J.A. (2008) Macroalgae, a suitable indicator of the ecological status of coastal rocky communities in the NE Atlantic. Ecological Indicators 8, 351359.
Kautsky, H. and van der Maarel, E. (1990) Multivariate approaches to the variation in phytobenthic communities and environmental vectors in the Baltic Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 60, 169184.
Kohonen, T. (2001) Self-organizing maps, 3rd edition. Berlin: Springer.
Laruelle, G.G., Dürr, H.H., Slomp, C.P. and Borges, A.V. (2010) Evaluation of sinks and sources of CO2 in the global coastal ocean using a spatially-explicit typology of estuaries and continental shelves. Geophysical Research Letters 37, 16.
Legendre, P. and Legendre, L. (1998) Numerical ecology, 2nd English edition. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science BV.
Levin, S.A. (1992) The problem of pattern and scale in ecology. Ecology 73, 19431967.
Lewis, J.R. (1964) The ecology of rocky shores. London: English Universities Press.
Lubchenco, J., Olson, A., Brubaker, L., Carpenter, S.R. and Holland, M.M. (1991) The sustainable biosphere initiative: an ecological research agenda. Ecology 72, 371412.
Lüning, K. (1990) Seaweeds: their environment, biogeography, and ecophysiology. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Madden, C.J., Goodin, K., Allee, R.J., Cicchetti, G., Moses, C., Finkbeiner, M. and Bamford, D. (2009) Coastal and marine ecological classification standard, Version III. Arlington, VA: NOAA and NatureServe.
Martín-García, L., González-Lorenzo, G., Brito-Izquierdo, I.T. and Barquín-Diez, J. (2013) Use of topographic predictors for macrobenthic community mapping in the Marine Reserve of La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain). Ecological Modelling 263, 1931.
McArthur, M.A., Brooke, B.P., Przeslawski, R., Ryan, D.A., Lucieer, V.L., Nichol, S., McCallum, A.W., Mellin, C., Cresswell, I.D. and Radke, L.C. (2010) On the use of abiotic surrogates to describe marine benthic biodiversity. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 88, 2132.
Mount, R., Bricher, P. and Newton, J. (2007) National Intertidal/Subtidal Benthic (NISB) Habitat Classification Scheme. Australian Greenhouse Office; National Land & Water Resources Audit; School of Geography and Environmental Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart.
Negnevitsky, M. (2002) Artificial intelligence: a guide to intelligent systems. Harlow: Addison-Wesley/Pearson Education.
Parravicini, V., Morri, C., Ciribilli, G., Montefalcone, M., Albertelli, G. and Bianchi, C.N. (2009) Size matters more than method: visual quadrats vs photography in measuring human impact on Mediterranean rocky reef communities. Estuarine , Coastal and Shelf Science 81, 359367.
Pittman, S.J., Connor, D.W., Radke, L., and Wright, D.J. (2011) Application of estuarine and coastal classifications in marine spatial management. In Wolanski, E. and McLusky, D.S. (eds) Treatise on estuarine and coastal science, Volume 1. Waltham: Academic Press, pp. 163205.
Ramos, E. (2015a) Physical classification of the intertidal rocky shore and distribution of macroalgae at different spatial scales along the NE Atlantic . PhD thesis. Universidad de Cantabria, Santander, Spain.
Ramos, E., Díaz de Terán, J.R., Puente, A. and Juanes, J. (2015b) The role of geomorphology in the distribution of intertidal rocky macroalgae in the NE Atlantic region. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. doi 10.1016/j.ecss.2015.10.007.
Ramos, E., Juanes, J.A., Galván, C., Neto, J.M., Melo, R., Pedersen, A., Scanlan, C., Wilkes, R., van den Bergh, E., Blomqvist, M., Karup, H.P., Heiber, W., Reitsma, J.M., Ximenes, M.C., Silió, A., Méndez, F. and González, B. (2012) Coastal waters classification based on physical attributes along the NE Atlantic region. An approach for rocky macroalgae potential distribution. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 112, 105114.
Ramos, E., Puente, A. and Juanes, J. (2016) An ecological classification of rocky shores at a regional scale: a predictive tool for management of conservation values. Marine Ecology 37, 311328. doi: 10.1111/maec.12280.
Ramos, E., Puente, A., Guinda, X. and Juanes, J.A. (in press) A hierarchical classification system along the NE Atlantic coast: focusing on the local scale (Cantabria, N Spain). European Journal of Phycology.
Ramos, E., Puente, A., Juanes, J.A., Neto, J.M., Pedersen, A., Bartsch, I., Scanlan, C., Wilkes, R., van den Bergh, E., Ar Gall, E. and Melo, R. (2014) Biological validation of physical coastal waters classification along the NE Atlantic region based on rocky macroalgae distribution. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 147, 103112.
Reguero, B.G., Menéndez, M., Méndez, F.J., Mínguez, R. and Losada, I.J. (2012) A Global Ocean Wave (GOW) calibrated reanalysis from 1948 onwards. Coastal Engineering 65, 3855.
Reis, J. (2014) Introduction to systems approaches in coastal management – the legacy of the SPICOSA project. Marine Policy 43, 12.
Rice, J., Gjerde, K.M., Ardron, J., Arico, S., Cresswell, I., Escobar, E., Grant, S. and Vierros, M. (2011) Policy relevance of biogeographic classification for conservation and management of marine biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction, and the GOODS biogeographic classification. Ocean and Coastal Management 54, 110122.
Roff, J.C. and Taylor, M.E. (2000) National frameworks for marine conservation – a hierarchical geophysical approach. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 10, 209223.
Sales, M. and Ballesteros, E. (2009) Shallow Cystoseira (Fucales: Ochrophyta) assemblages thriving in sheltered areas from Menorca (NW Mediterranean): relationships with environmental factors and anthropogenic pressures. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 84, 476482.
Schoch, G.C. and Dethier, M.N. (1996) Scaling up: the statistical linkage between organismal abundance and geomorphology on rocky intertidal shorelines. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 201, 3772.
Sherman, K. (1986) Introduction to parts one and two: large marine ecosystems as tractable entities for measurement and management. In Sherman, K. and Alexander, L.M. (eds) Variability and management of large marine ecosystems. AAAS Selected Symposium 99. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, pp. 37.
Snelder, T., Leathwick, J., Dey, K., Rowden, A., Weatherhead, M., Fenwick, G., Francis, M., Gorman, R., Grieve, J., Hadfield, M., Hewitt, J., Richardson, K., Uddstrom, M. and Zeldis, J. (2007) Development of an Ecologic Marine Classification in the New Zealand Region. Environmental Management 39, 1229.
Solidoro, C., Bandelj, V., Barbieri, P., Cossarini, G. and Umani, S.F. (2007) Understanding dynamic of biogeochemical properties in the northern Adriatic Sea by using self-organizing maps and k-means clustering. Journal of Geophysical Research 112, C07S90. doi: 10.1029/2006JC003553.
Sousa, W.P. (1984) The role of disturbance in natural communities. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 15, 353391.
Swaney, D.P., Humborg, C., Emeis, K., Kannen, A., Silvert, W., Tett, P., Pastres, R., Solidoro, C., Yamamuro, M., Hénocque, Y. and Nicholls, R. (2012) Five critical questions of scale for the coastal zone. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 96, 921. doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2011.04.010.
Valentine, P.C., Todd, B.J. and Kostylev, V.E. (2005) Classification of marine sublittoral habitats, with application to the northeastern North America region. American Fisheries Society Symposium 41, 183200.
Van den Hoek, C. (1982) The distribution of benthic marine algae in relation to the temperature regulation of their life histories. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 18, 81144.
Verfaillie, E., Degraer, S., Schelfaut, K., Willems, W. and Van Lancker, V. (2009) A protocol for classifying ecologically relevant marine zones, a statistical approach. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 83, 175185.
Vesanto, J. (1999) SOM-based data visualization methods. Intelligent Data Analysis 3, 111126.
Vesanto, J., Himberg, J., Alhoniemi, E. and Parhankangas, J. (2000) SOM Toolbox for Matlab 5, Technical Report A57. Helsinki: University of Technology, Neural Networks Research Centre.
Voerman, S.E., Llera, E. and Rico, J.M. (2013) Climate driven changes in subtidal kelp forest communities in NW Spain. Marine Environmental Research 90, 119127.
Ysebaert, T.J., Meire, P., Herman, P.M.J. and Verbeek, H. (2002) Macrobenthic species response surfaces along estuarine gradients: prediction by logistic regression. Marine Ecology Progress Series 225, 7995. doi: dx.doi.org/ 10.3354/meps225079.
Zacharias, M.A. and Roff, J.C. (2000) A hierarchical ecological approach to conserving marine biodiversity. Conservation Biology 14, 13271334.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed