Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Apatite Particles in the Test Wall of the Large Agglutinated Foraminifer Bathysiphon Major (Protista)

  • A. J. Gooday (a1), J.A. Nott (a2), S. Davis (a3) and S. Mann (a3)

Extract

In the North Atlantic, the tubular agglutinated foraminifer Bathysiphon major occurs at bathyal depths off the coasts of North Carolina and north-west Africa. Apart from its large size (up to almost 10 cm long), the most distinctive feature of this species is the appearance of the test wall which has a sooty black outer layer, about 20μm thick, overlying a much thicker layer, pure white in colour and consisting of sponge spicules and small quartz grains. The black layer is composed of irregularly shaped, plate-like particles, 1–25 (xm in size. The nature and composition of these particles has been studied using light and electron microscopy, x-ray microanalysis, electron diffraction analysis and infrared spectroscopy. The particles contain calcium and phosphorous and have electron diffraction patterns and infrared spectra consistent with a hydroxyapatite composition. Minor amounts of iron are probably responsible for their black colour. We believe that this represents the first report of apatite-like (phosphorite) particles occurring in the test of an agglutinated foraminifer. The particles are most likely to originate as phosphorite grains which are agglutinated by the foraminifer, although the possibility of authigenic precipitation cannot be eliminated. The function of the outer black layer is unknown.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Baturin, G.N., Kochenov, A.V. & Peletin, V.P., 1970. Phosphorite formation on the shelf of southwest Africa. Litologija i Poleznye Islopaemye, 3, 1526.
Bender, H., 1989. Gehäuseaufbau, Gehäusegenese und Biologie agglutinierte Foraminiferen (Sarcodina, Textulariina). Jahrbuch des Geologischen Bundesanstalts, Wein, 132, 259347.
Bender, H., 1992. Chamber formation and biomineralization in Textularia candeiana d'Orbigny (Sarcodina: Textulariina). Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 22, 229241.
Boltovskoy, & Wright, R., 1976. Recent Foraminifera. The Hague: Dr W. Junk.
Bowser, S.S. & Bernhard, J.M., 1993. Structure, bioadhesive distribution and elastic properties of the agglutinated test of Astrammina rara (Protozoa: Foraminiferida). Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 40, 121131.
Brönnimann, P., 1986. Asarotammina, a new trochamminid genus from the Brazilian shelf. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 16, 8997.
Brönnimann, P. & Whittaker, J.E., 1988a. The trochamminaceous test and the taxonomic criteria used in the classification of the superfamily Trochamminacea. Abhandlungen Geologischen Bundesanstalt, 41, 2339.
Brönnimann, P. & Whittaker J.E., 1988b. The Trochamminacea of the ‘Discovery’ Reports. London: British Museum (Natural History).
Burnett, W.C., 1977. Geochemistry and origin of phosphorite deposits from off Peru and Chile. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 88, 813823.
Carpenter, W.B., 1875. The microscope and its revelations, 5th ed.London: J. & A. Churchill.
Commeau, R.F., Reynolds, L.A. & Poag, C.W., 1985. Elemental x-ray mapping of agglutinated foraminifer tests: a nondestructive technique for determining compositional characteristics. Micropaleontology, 31, 380386.
Doyle, L.J., Blake, N.J., Woo, C.C. & Yevich, P., 1978. Recent biogenic phosphorite: concretions in mollusk kidneys. Science, New York, 199, 14311433.
Featherstone, J.D.B., Pearson, S. & Legeros, R.Z., 1984. An infra-red method for quantification of carbonate in carbonated apatites. Caries Research, 18, 6366.
Gooday, A.J., 1988. The genus Bathysiphon (Protista, Foraminiferida) in the northeast Atlantic: revision of some species described by de Folin (1886). Journal of Natural History, 22, 7193.
Gooday, A.J. & Claugher, D., 1989. The genus Bathysiphon (Protista, Foraminiferida) in the northeast Atlantic: SEM observations on the wall structure of seven species. Journal of Natural History, 23, 591611.
Gooday, A.J., Levin, L.A., Thomas, C.L. & Hecker, B., 1992. The distribution and ecology of Bathysiphon filiformis Sars and B. major de Folin (Protista, Foraminiferida) on the continental slope off North Carolina. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 22, 129146.
Hardy, A.C., 1959. The open sea: its natural history. Part II. Fish and fisheries. London: Collins. Haynes, J.R., 1981. Foraminifera. London: Macmillan.
Hedley, R.H., 1964. The biology of Foraminifera. In International review of general and experimental zoology (ed. W.J.L., Fett and R.J., Harrison), pp. 145. New York: Academic Press.
Hemleben, C. & Kaminski, M. A., 1990. Agglutinated Foraminifera: an introduction. In Paleoecology, biostratigraphy, paleoceanography and taxonomy of agglutinated Foraminifera (ed. C., Hemleben et al.), pp. 3—11. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Heron-Allen, E., 1915. A short statement upon the theory, and the phenomena of purpose and intelligence exhibited by the Protozoa, as illustrated by selection and behaviour in the Foraminifera. Journal of Microscopy, 6, 547557.
Heron-Allen, E. & Earland, A., 1909. On a new species of Technitella from the North Sea, with some observations upon selective power as exercised by certain species of arenaceous Foraminifera. Journal of the Quekett Microscopical Club, Series 2, 10, 403412.
Heron-Allen, E. & Earland, A., 1912. On some Foraminifera from the North Sea, etc., dredged by the fisheries cruiser ‘Goldseeker’ (International North Sea Investigations - Scotland). I. On some new Astrorhizidae and their shell structure. Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society, 1912, 382389.
Hofker, J., 1972. Primitive agglutinated Foraminifera. Leiden: Brill.
Hoglund, H., 1947. Foraminifera in the Gullmar Fjord and the Skagerrak. Zoologiska Bidrag från Uppsala, 26,1328.
Jones, R.W., Bender, H., Charnock, M.A., Kaminski, M.A. & Whittaker, J.E., 1993. Emendation of the foraminiferal genus Cribrostomoides Cushman, 1910, and its taxonomic implications. Journal of Micropalaeontology, 12,181193.
Kolodny, Y., 1981. Phosphorites. In The sea. Vol. 7. The ocean lithosphere (ed. C., Emiliani), pp. 9811023. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Lindenberg, H.G. & Auras, A., 1984. Distribution of arenaceous Foraminifera in depth profiles of the Southern Ocean (Kerguelen Plateau area). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 48, 61106.
Lipps, J.H., 1973. Test structure in Foraminifera. Annual Review of Microbiology, 27, 471488.
Loeblich, A.R. & Tappan, H., 1964. Protista 2. Sarcodina chiefly ‘thecamoebians’ and Foraminiferida. In Treatise on invertebrate paleontology, Part C (ed. R.C., Moore). Boulder, Colorado & Lawrence, Kansas: Geological Society of America and University of Kansas Press.
Manheim, F., Rowe, G.T. & Jipa, D., 1975. Marine phosphorite formation off Peru. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 45, 243251.
Mcllroy, D., Green, O.R. & Brazier, B., 1994. The world's oldest foraminiferans. Microscopy and Analysis, November 1994, 1315.
Murray, J.W., 1973. Wall structure of some agglutinated Foraminiferida. Palaeontology, 16, 777786.
Nott, J. A., 1993. X-ray microanalysis in pollution studies. In X-ray microanalysis in biology (ed. D.C., Sigee et al.), pp. 257281. Cambridge University Press.
Petelin, V.P., 1970. Composition of agglutinated material in the shells of certain modern Foraminifera. Oceanology, 10, 4655.
Pietzner, H. & Richter, G., 1986. Rezente Phosphorit-Bildung im Auftriebsgebiet vor der NWafrikanischen Kiiste. Senckenbergiana Maritima. Frankfurt am Main, 17, 333377.
Pilkey, O.H. & Luternauer, J.L., 1967. A North Carolina shelf phosphate deposit of possible commercial interest. Southeastern Geology, 8, 3351.
Price, N.B. & Calvert, S.E., 1978. The geochemistry of phosphorites from the Namibian shelf. Chemical Geology, 23, 151170.
Riggs, S.R., 1984. Paleoceanographic model of Neogene phosphorite deposition, US Atlantic continental margin. Science, New York, 223, 123131.
Riggs, S.R., Hine, A.C. & Snyder, S.W., 1982. Phosphate exploration and resource potential on the North Carolina continental shelf. Proceedings of the Offshore Technology Conference, May 3–6, 1982, Astrodomain, Houston, Texas, 2, 737742.
Riggs, S.R., Snyder, S.W.P., Hine, A.C., Snyder, S.W., Ellington, M.D., & Mallette, P.M., 1985. Geologic framework of phosphate resources in Onslow Bay, North Carolina continental shelf. Economic Geology, 80, 716738.
Simkiss, K. & Taylor, M.G., 1994. The formation of apatite from crab faecal pellets. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 74, 459462.
Summerhayes, C.P., Nutter, A.H. & Tooms, J.S., 1972. The distribution and origin of phosphate in sediments off northwest Africa. Sedimentary Geology, 8, 328.
Switzer, G. & Boucot, A.J., 1955. The mineral composition of some microfossilis. Journal of Paleontology, 29, 525533.
Tooms, J.S. & Summerhayes, C.P., 1968. Phosphatic rocks from the north-west African continental shelf. Nature, London, 218, 12411242.

Apatite Particles in the Test Wall of the Large Agglutinated Foraminifer Bathysiphon Major (Protista)

  • A. J. Gooday (a1), J.A. Nott (a2), S. Davis (a3) and S. Mann (a3)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed