Skip to main content Accessibility help

Allozyme genetics of Mytilus edulis subjected to copper and nutritive stress

  • Andy R. Beaumont (a1) and Jorge E. Toro (a1)


Mytilus edulis (Mollusca: Bivalvia) collected as spat from the wild in 1990 and held in the laboratory for 18 months were divided into four groups: fed (control); starved; fed with 100 ppb added copper; and starved with 100 ppb added copper. Following >60% mortalities in the starved and copper stressed groups (but negligible mortalities in the control) surviving mussels from all four groups were genotyped at seven allozyme loci (Gpi, Lap, Pgtn, Idh, Odh, Gsr and Est). Allele frequencies did not vary significantly between any of the four groups at any loci, except Gsr where fed and starved groups differed. Mortalities were not genotype dependent at the Pgm locus but, in contrast, genotype frequencies at most other loci varied significantly between groups. At the Gpi, Lap, Gsr and Odh loci there were significant changes in proportions of heterozygotes following copper induced mortalities such that, in general, heterozygotes survived longer and homozygotes succumbed sooner. No similar pattern was evident in relation to mortalities caused by starvation; at only one locus (Idh) was there evidence of a significant effect but this was not apparently independent of the effect of copper.



Hide All
Ahmad, M., Skibinski, D.O.F. & Beardmore, J.A., 1977. An estimate of the amount of genetic variation in the common mussel Mytilus edulis. Biochemical Genetics, 15, 833846.
Battaglia, B., Bisol, P.M., Fossato, V.U. & Rodino, E., 1980a. Studies on the genetic effects of pollution in the sea. Rapports et Proces-verbaux des Reunions. Conseil International pour VExploration de la Mer. Copenhague, 179, 267–27A. [Biological effects of marine pollution and the problems of monitoring. Proceedings from the ICES Workshop, Beaufort, North Carolina, 26 February - 2 March 1979 (ed. A.D. Mclntyre and J.B. Pearce).]
Battaglia, B., Bisol, P.M. & Rodino, E., 1980b. Experimental studies on some genetic effects of marine pollution. Helgoldnder Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen, 33, 587595.
Bayne, B.L., Brown, D.A., Harrison, F. & Yevich, P.D., 1980. Mussel health. In The international mussel watch, pp. 163235. Washington DC: National Academy of Sciences.
Beaumont, A.R., Beveridge, Cm., Barnet, E.A., Budd, M.D. & Smyth-Chamosa, M., 1988. Genetic studies of laboratory reared Mytilus edulis. I. Genotype specific selection in relation to salinity. Heredity. London, 61, 389400.
Beaumont, A.R., Beveridge, Cm. & Budd, M.D., 1983. Selection and heterozygosity within single families of the mussel, Mytilus edulis (L.). Marine Biology Letters, 4,151161.
Beaumont, A.R., Day, T.R. & Gade, G., 1980. Genetic variation at the octopine dehydrogenase locus in the adductor muscle of Cerastoderma edule (L.) and six other bivalve species. Marine Biology Letters, 1,137148.
Beaumont, A.R., Tserpes, G. & Budd, M.D., 1987. Some effects of copper on the veliger larvae of the mussel Mytilus edulis and the scallop Pecten maximus (Mollusca, Bivalvia). Marine Environ-mental Research, 21, 299309.
Davenport, J. & Redpath, K.J., 1984. Copper and the mussel Mytilus edulis (L.). In Toxins, drugs and pollutants in marine animals (ed. L., Bolis et al.), pp. 176189. Berlin: Springer Verlag.
Fairbrother, J.E. & Beaumont, A.R., 1993. Heterozygote deficiencies in a cohort of newly settled Mytilus edulis spat. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 73,647653.
Fevolden, S.E. & Garner, S.P., 1986. Population genetics of Mytilus edulis (L.) from Oslofjorden, Norway, in oil-polluted and non oil-polluted water. Sarsia, 71, 247257.
Gillespie, R.B. & Guttman, S.I., 1993. Allozyme frequency analysis of aquatic populations as an indicator of contaminant-induced impacts. In Environmental toxicology and risk assessment, vol. 2 (ed. J.W., Gorsuch et al.), pp. 134145. Philadelphia: American Society for Testing and Materials.
Goldberg, E.D., 1975. The mussel watch - a first step in global monitoring. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 6, 111.
Gosling, E.M., 1992. Genetics of Mytilus. In The mussel Mytilus: ecology, physiology, genetics and culture (ed. E.M., Gosling), pp. 309382. Amsterdam: Elsevier Press.
Hall, J.G., 1985. Temperature-related kinetic differentiation of glucosephosphate isomerase alleloenzymes isolated from the blue mussel Mytilus edulis. Biochemical Genetics, 23, 705728.
Harris, H. & Hopkinson, D.A., 1976. Handbook of enzyme electrophoresis in human genetics. Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing Company.
Hawkins, A.J.S., Rusin, J., Bayne, B.L. & Day, A.J., 1989. The metabolic/physiological basis of genotype-dependent mortality during copper exposure in Mytilus edulis. Marine Environmental Research, 28, 253257.
Hoare, K., Beaumont, A.R. & Davenport, J., 1994. Effects of copper during early life stages on heterozygosity in laboratory-reared mussel (Mytilus edulis L.) populations. In Genetics and evolution of aquatic organisms (ed. A.R., Beaumont), pp. 459466. London: Chapman & Hall.
Hoare, K., Beaumont, A.R. & Davenport, J., 1995a. Variation among populations in the resistance of Mytilus edulis embryos to copper: adaptation to pollution? Marine Ecology Progress Series, 120,155161.
Hoare, K. & Davenport, J., 1994. Size-related variation in the sensitivity of the mussel, Mytilus edulis, to copper. journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 74, 971973.
Hoare, K., Davenport, J. & Beaumont, A.R., 1995b. Effects of exposure and previous exposure to copper on growth of veliger larvae and survivorship of Mytilus edulis juveniles. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 120, 163168.
Hochberg, Y., 1988. A sharper Bonferroni procedure for multiple tests of significance. Biometrika, 75, 800802.
Hummel, H. & Patarnello, T., 1994. Genetic effects of pollutants on marine and estuarine invertebrates. In Genetics and evolution of aquatic organisms (ed. A.R., Beaumont), pp. 425434. London: Chapman & Hall.
Hvilsom, M.M., 1983. Copper-induced differential mortality in the mussel Mytilus edulis. Marine Biology, 76, 291295.
Koehn, R.K., 1991. The genetics and taxonomy of species in the genus Mytilus. Aquaculture, 64, 125147.
Montero, C, Battaglia, B., Stenico, M, Campesan, G. & Patarnello, T., 1994. Effects of heavy metals and temperature on the genetic structure and GPI enzyme activity of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite Darwin (Cirripedia: Thoracica). In Genetics and evolution of aquatic organisms (ed. A.R., Beaumont), pp. 447459. London: Chapman & Hall.
Patarnello, T. & Battaglia, B., 1992. Glucosephosphate isomerase and fitness: effects of temperature on genotype dependent mortality and enzyme activity in two species of the genus Gammarus (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Evolution, 46,15681573.
Patarnello, T., Guinez, R. & Battaglia, B., 1991. Effects of pollution on heterozygosity in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite (Cirripedia: Thoracica). Marine Ecology Progress Series, 70,237243.
Selander, R.K., 1970. Behaviour and genetic variation in natural populations. American Zoologist, 10, 5366.
Silva, P.J.N., Koehn, R.K., Diehl, W.J., Ertl, R.P., Winshell, E.B. & Santos, M., 1989. The effects of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase genotype on in vitro specific activity and in vivo flux in Mytilus edulis. Biochemical Genetics, 27, 451467.
Skibinski, D.O.F., Beardmore, J.A. & Cross, T.F., 1983. Aspects of the population genetics of Mytilus (Mytilidae; Mollusca) in the British Isles. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society of London, 19,137183.
Sokal, R.R. & Rohlf, F.J., 1989. Biometry. The principles and practice of statistics in biological research, 3rd ed. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman.
Swofford, D.L. & Selander, R.B., 1981. BIOSYS-1: a FORTRAN program for the comprehensive analysis of electrophoretic data in population genetics and systematics. Journal of Heredity, 72,281283.
Vanbeneden, R.J. & Powers, D.A., 1989. Structural and functional differentiation of two clinally distributed glucosephosphate isomerase allelic isozymes from the teleost Fundulus heteroclitus. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 6,123130.
Viarengo, A., 1989. Heavy metals in marine invertebrates: mechanisms of regulation and toxicity at the cellular level. Reviews in Aquatic Science, 1, 259317.
Watt, W.B., Cassin, R.C. & Swan, M.S., 1983. Adaptation at specific loci. III. Field behaviour and survivorship differences among Colias PGI genotypes are predictable from in vitro biochemistry. Genetics, 103, 725739.
Zamer, W.E. & Hoffmann, R.J., 1989. Allozymes of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase differentially modulate pentose-shunt metabolism in the sea anemone Metridium senile. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 86, 27372741.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Allozyme genetics of Mytilus edulis subjected to copper and nutritive stress

  • Andy R. Beaumont (a1) and Jorge E. Toro (a1)


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.