Adams, S.L., Smith, J.F., Roberts, R.D., Janke, A.R., Kaspar, H.F., Tervit, H.R., Pugh, P.A., Webb, S.C. and King, N.G. (2004) Cryopreservation of sperm of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas): development of a practical method for commercial spat production. Aquaculture
Babcock, R.C., Mundy, C.N. and Whitehead, D. (1994) Sperm diffusion models and in situ confirmation of long distance fertilization in the free-spawning asteroid Acanthaster planci
. Biological Bulletin. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole
Bayne, B.L. (1999) Physiological components of growth differences between individual oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and a comparison with Saccostrea commercialis
. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology
Bayne, B.L. and Newell, R.C. (1983) Physiological energetics of marine molluscs. In Salleuddin, S.D.M. and Wilbur, K.M. (eds) The Mollusca. Volume 4 physiology, Part I. New York: Academic Press Inc., pp. 407–515.
Bayne, B.L., Salkeld, P.N. and Worrall, C.M. (1983) Reproductive effort and value in different populations of the marine mussel, Mytilus edulis L. Oecologia (Berlin)
Bell, G. (1980) The costs of reproduction and their consequences. American Naturalist
Berrigan, M., Candies, T., Cirino, J., Dugas, R., Dyer, C., Gray, J., Herrington, T., Keithly, W., Leard, R., Nelson, J.R. and van Hoose, M. (1991) The oyster fishery of the Gulf of Mexico, United States: a regional management plan. Ocean Springs, MS: Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission.
Burkenroad, M.D. (1931) Sex in the Louisiana oyster, Ostrea virginica
. Science (Washington, DC)
Bushek, D., Kornbluh, A., Wang, H., Guo, X., DeBrosse, G. and Quinlan, J. (2008) Fertilization interference between Crassostrea ariakensis and Crassostrea virginica: a gamete sink?
Journal of Shellfish Research
Buxton, C.D. (1993) Life-history changes in exploited reef fishes on the east coast of South Africa. Environmental Biology of Fishes
Calow, P. (1973) The relationship between fecundity, phenology, and longevity: a systems approach. American Naturalist
Carriker, M.R. (1955) Critical review of biology and control of oyster drills Urosalpinx and Eupleura
. United States Fish and Wildlife Service Special Science Report—Fisheries
Castro, E.M., Urpf, O.P., Madriz, E.Z., Quesada, R.Q. and Montoya, J.A. (1985) Tasa de filtración del ostión de manglar, (Crassostrea rhizophorae, Guilding 1828), a diferentes salinidades y temperaturas. Revista de Biologia Tropical
Charnov, E.L. and Hannah, R.W. (2002) Shrimp adjust their sex ratio to fluctuating age distributions. Evolutionary Ecology Research
Choi, K-S., Lewis, D.H., Powell, E.N. and Ray, S.M. (1993) Quantitative measurement of reproductive output in the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Aquaculture and Fishery Management
Choi, K-S., Powell, E.N., Lewis, D.H. and Ray, S.M. (1994) Instantaneous reproductive effort in female American oysters, Crassostrea virginica, measured by a new immunoprecipitation assay. Biological Bulletin. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole
Coe, W.R. (1936) Sex ratios and sex changes in mollusks. Mémoires du Musée Royal d'histoire Naturelle de Belgique Série 10 Fascicule 3, 69–76.
Coe, W.R. (1938) Conditions influencing change of sex in mollusks of the genus Crepidula
. Journal of Experimental Zoology
Collin, R. (2006) Sex ratio, life-history invariants, and patterns of sex change in a family of protandrous gastropods. Evolution
Comfort, A. (1957) The duration of life in mollusks. Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London
Conover, W.J. (1980) Practical nonparametric statistics. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 493 pp.
Custer, J.F. and Doms, K.R. (1990) Analysis of microgrowth patterns of the American oyster (Crassostrea virginica) in the Middle Atlantic region of North America: archaeological applications. Journal of Archaeological Science
Dekshenieks, M.M., Hofmann, E.E., Klinck, J.M. and Powell, E.N. (2000) Quantifying the effects of environmental change on an oyster population: a modeling study. Estuaries
Devillers, N., Eversole, A.G. and Isely, J.J. (1998) A comparison of four growth models for evaluating growth of the northern quahog Mercenaria mercenaria (L.). Journal of Shellfish Research
Dickie, L.M., Kerr, S.R. and Boudreau, P.R. (1987) Size-dependent processes underlying regularities in ecosystem structure. Ecological Monographs
Dinamani, P. (1974) Reproductive cycle and gonadal changes in the New Zealand rock oyster Crassostrea glomerata
. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research
Dong, Q. (2005) Comparative studies of sperm cryopreservation of diploid and tetraploid Pacific oysters. PhD thesis. Louisiana State University, 271 pp.
Engle, J.B. (1953) Effect of Delaware River flow on oysters in the natural seed beds of Delaware Bay. National Shellfisheries Association Convention Addresses, pp. 1–26.
Ford, S.E. (1996) Range extension by the oyster parasite Perkinsus marinus into the northeastern United States: response to climate change. Journal of Shellfish Research
Ford, S.E. and Haskin, H.H. (1982) History and epizootiology of Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX), an oyster pathogen in Delaware Bay, 1957–1980. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Ford, S., Powell, E., Klinck, J. and Hofmann, E. (1999) Modeling the MSX parasite in eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) populations. I. Model development, implementation, and verification. Journal of Shellfish Research
Ford, S.E. and Smolowitz, R. (2007) Infection dynamics of an oyster parasite in its newly expanded range. Marine Biology (Berlin)
Gaffney, P.M. and Bushek, D. (1996) Genetic aspects of disease resistance in oysters. Journal of Shellfish Research
Galindo-Sánchez, C.E., Gaffney, P.M., Pérez-Rostro, C.I., de la Rosa-Vélez, J., Candela, J. and Cruz, P. (2008) Assessment of genetic diversity of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica in Vera Cruz, Mexico using microsatellite markers. Journal of Shellfish Research
Gallager, S.M. and Mann, R. (1986) Growth and survival of larvae of Mercenaria mercenaria (L) and Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin) relative to broodstock conditioning and lipid content of eggs. Aquaculture
Galtsoff, P.S. (1964) The American oyster Crassostrea virginica Gmelin. Fishery Bulletin of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service Bureau of Commercial Fisheries
Gardner, A., Allsop, D.J., Charnov, E.L. and West, S.A. (2005) A dimensionless invariant for relative size at sex change in animals: explanation and implications. American Naturalist
Gunter, G. (1979) Studies of the southern oyster borer, Thais haemastoma
. Gulf Research Reports
Guo, X., Hedgecock, D., Hershberger, W.K., Cooper, K. and Allen, S.K. Jr (1998) Genetic determinants of protandric sex in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas Thunberg. Evolution
Halliday, R.G. and Pinhorn, A.T. (2002) A review of the scientific and technical bases for policies on the capture of small fish in North Atlantic groundfish fisheries. Fisheries Research
Harding, J.M., Mann, R. and Kilduff, C.W. (2007) The effects of female size on fecundity in a large marine gastropod Rapana venosa (Muricidae). Journal of Shellfish Research
Harding, J.M., Mann, R. and Southworth, M.J. (2008) Shell length-at-age relationships in James River, Virginia, oysters (Crassostrea virginica) collected four centuries apart. Journal of Shellfish Research
Haskin, H.H. and Ford, S.E. (1982)
Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX) on Delaware Bay seed oyster beds: a host–parasite relationship along a salinity gradient. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Hawkins, A.J.S. and Bayne, B.L. (1992) Physiological interrelations and the regulation of production. In Gosling, E. (ed.) The mussel Mytilus: ecology, physiology, genetics, and culture. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 171–222.
Hayes, P.F. and Menzel, R.W. (1981) The reproductive cycle of early setting Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin) in the northern Gulf of Mexico, and its implications for population recruitment. Biological Bulletin. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole
Héral, M. and Deslous-Paoli, J.M. (1983) Valeur énergétique de la chain de l'hûrtre Crassostrea gigas estimée par mesures microcalorimetriques et par dosages biochimiques. Oceanologica Acta
Hoagland, K.E. (1978) Protandry and the evolution of environmentally-mediated sex change: a study of the Mollusca. Malacologia
Hodgson, A.N., Quesne, W.J.F. le, Hawkins, S.J. and Bishop, J.D.D. (2007) Factors affecting fertilization success in two species of patellid limpet (Mollusca: Gastropoda) and development of fertilization kinetics models. Marine Biology (Berlin)
Hoenig, J.M. (1983) Empirical use of longevity data to estimate mortality rates. Fishery Bulletin
Hofmann, E., Bushek, D., Ford, S., Guo, X., Haidvogel, D., Hedgecock, D., Klinck, J., Milbury, C., Narváez, D., Powell, E., Wang, Y., Wang, Z., Wilkin, J. and Zhang, L. (2009) Understanding how disease and environment combine to structure resistance in estuarine bivalve populations. Oceanography
Hofmann, E.E., Klinck, J.M., Kraeuter, J.N., Powell, E.N., Grizzle, R.E., Buckner, S.C. and Bricelj, V.M. (2006) A population dynamics model of the hard clam, Mercenaria mercenaria: development of the age- and length-frequency structure of the population. Journal of Shellfish Research
Hofmann, E.E., Powell, E.N., Klinck, J.M. and Wilson, E.A. (1992) Modeling oyster populations. III. Critical feeding periods, growth and reproduction. Journal of Shellfish Research
HSRL (2008) Report of the 2008 Stock Assessment Workshop (10th SAW) for the New Jersey Delaware Bay oyster beds. Port Norris, NJ: Haskin Shellfish Research Laboratory, Rutgers University, 111 pp.
HSRL (2009) Report of the 2009 Stock Assessment Workshop (11th SAW) for the New Jersey Delaware Bay oyster beds. Port Norris, NJ: Haskin Shellfish Research Laboratory, Rutgers University, 128 pp.
Jordan, S.J. and Coakley, J.M. (2004) Long-term projections of eastern oyster populations under various management scenarios. Journal of Shellfish Research
Jordan, S.J., Greenhawk, K.N., McCollough, C.B., Vanisko, J. and Homer, M.L. (2002) Oyster biomass, abundance, and harvest in northern Chesapeake Bay: trends and forecasts. Journal of Shellfish Research
Kang, S-G., Choi, K-S., Bulgakov, A.A., Kim, Y. and Kim, S-Y. (2003) Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) used in quantification of reproductive output in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, in Korea. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology
Kennedy, V.S. (1983) Sex ratios in oysters, emphasizing Crassostrea virginica from Chesapeake Bay, Maryland. Veliger
Kennedy, A.V. and Battle, H.I. (1964) Cyclic changes in the gonad of the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin). Canadian Journal of Zoology
Kennedy, V.S. and Krantz, C.B. (1982) Comparative gametogenic and spawning patterns of the oyster Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin) in central Chesapeake Bay. Journal of Shellfish Research
Kiørboe, T. (2006) Sex, sex-ratios, and the dynamics of pelagic copepod populations. Oecologia (Berlin)
Kimmel, D.G. and Newell, R.I.E. (2007) The influence of climate variation on eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) juvenile abundance in Chesapeake Bay. Limnology and Oceanography
Kirby, M.X. (2000) Paleoecological differences between Tertiary and Quaternary Crassostrea oysters, as revealed by stable isotope sclerochronology. Palaios
Klinck, J.M., Powell, E.N., Kraeuter, J.N., Ford, S.E. and Ashton-Alcox, K.A. (2001) A fisheries model for managing the oyster fishery during times of disease. Journal of Shellfish Research
Koehn, R.K. and Shumway, S.E. (1982) A genetic/physiological explanation for differential growth rate among individuals of the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin). Marine Biology Letters
Kraeuter, J.N., Buckner, S. and Powell, E.N. (2005) A note on a spawner–recruit relationship for a heavily exploited bivalve: the case of northern quahog (hard clams), Mercenaria mercenaria in Great South Bay New York. Journal of Shellfish Research
Kraeuter, J.N., Ford, S. and Canzonier, W. (2003) Increased biomass yield from Delaware Bay oysters (Crassostrea virginica) by alteration of planting season. Journal of Shellfish Research
Kraeuter, J.N., Ford, S. and Cummings, M. (2007) Oyster growth analysis: a comparison of methods. Journal of Shellfish Research
Langdon, C., Evans, F., Jacobson, D. and Blouin, M. (2003) Yields of cultured Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas Thunberg improved after one generation of selection. Aquaculture
Lango-Reynoso, F., Chávez-Villaba, J. and Pennec, M. le (2006) Reproductive patterns of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas in France. Invertebrate Reproduction & Development
Levitan, D.R. (2005) The distribution of male and female reproductive success in a broadcast spawning marine invertebrate. Integrative and Comparative Biology
Lundberg, S. and Persson, L. (1993) Optimal body size and resource density. Journal of Theoretical Biology
Mace, P.M. and Sissenwine, M.P. (1993) How much spawning per recruit is enough?
Canadian Special Publications of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
Malley, A.L. and Haley, L.E. (1983) Growth rate and survival in pure population matings and crosses of the oyster Crassostrea virginica
. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
Mancera, E. and Mendo, J. (1996) Population dynamics of the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae from the Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombia. Fisheries Research
Mann, R. (2000) Restoring the oyster reef communities in the Chesapeake Bay: a commentary. Journal of Shellfish Research
Mann, R. and Evans, D.A. (1998) Estimation of oyster, Crassostrea virginica, standing stock, larval production and advective loss in relation to observed recruitment in the James River, Virginia. Journal of Shellfish Research
McCormick, M.I. (2006) Mothers matter: crowding leads to stressed mothers and smaller offspring in marine fish. Ecology
McCuaig, J.M. and Green, R.H. (1983) Unionid growth curves derived from annual rings: a baseline model for Long Point Bay, Lake Erie. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
McNamara, J.M. (1993) State-dependent life-history equations. Acta Biotheoretica
Nelson, T.C. (1959) Oyster seed production on Cape May's tidal flats. Cape May Geographic Society
Newell, R.I.E., Alspach, G.S. Jr, Kennedy, V.S. and Jacobs, D. (2000) Mortality of newly metamorphosed eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) in mesohaline Chesapeake Bay. Marine Biology (Berlin)
Ngo, T.T.T., Kang, S-G., Kang, D-H., Sorgeloos, P. and Choi, K-S. (2006) Effect of culture depth on the proximate composition and reproduction of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas from Gosung Bay, Korea. Aquaculture
Noreen, E.W. (1989) Computer-intensive methods for testing hypotheses: an introduction. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 229 pp.
O'Beirn, F.X., Heffernan, P.B., Walker, R.L. and Jansen, M.L. (1996) Young-of-the-year oyster, Crassostrea virginica, reproduction in coastal Georgia. Estuaries
O'Beirn, F.X., Walker, R.L. and Jansen, M.L. (1998) Microgeographical variation in gametogenesis and sex ratios in the eastern oyster at two marsh sites in Georgia. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society
Ohnishi, S. and Akamine, T. (2006) Extension of von Bertalanffy growth model incorporating growth patterns of soft and hard tissues in bivalve molluscs. Fisheries Science
Orton, J.H. (1927) Observations and experiments on sex-change in the European oyster (O. edulis) Part I. The change from female to male. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom
Orton, J.H. (1936) Observations and experiments on sex-change in the European oyster (O. edulis) Part V. A simultaneous study of spawning in 1927 in two distinct geographical localities. Mémoires du Musée Royal d'histoire Naturelle de Belgique Série 10 Fascicule 3, 997–1056.
Paniagua-Chávez, C.G. and Acosta-Ruiz, M. de J. (1995) Gonadal development of Crassostrea gigas in Bahía San Quintín, Baja California, Mexico. Ciencias Marinas
Paraso, M.C., Ford, S.E., Powell, E.N., Hofmann, E.E. and Klinck, J.M. (1999) Modeling the MSX parasite in Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) populations. II. Salinity effects. Journal of Shellfish Research
Paynter, K.T. and Burreson, E.M. (1991) Effects of Perkinsus marinus infection in the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica: II. Disease development and impact on growth rate at different salinities. Journal of Shellfish Research
Powell, E.N., Ashton-Alcox, K.A., Kraeuter, J.N., Ford, S.E. and Bushek, D. (2008) Long-term trends in oyster population dynamics in Delaware Bay: regime shifts and response to disease. Journal of Shellfish Research
Powell, E.N., Gendek, J.J. and Ashton-Alcox, K.A. (2005) Fisherman choice and incidental catch: size frequency of oyster landings in the New Jersey oyster fishery. Journal of Shellfish Research
Powell, E.N., Hofmann, E.E., Klinck, J.M. and Ray, S.M. (1992) Modeling oyster populations I. A commentary on filtration rate. Is faster always better?
Journal of Shellfish Research
Powell, E.N., Klinck, J.M. and Hofmann, E.E. (1996) Modeling diseased oyster populations. II. Triggering mechanisms for Perkinsus marinus epizootics. Journal of Shellfish Research
Powell, E.N., Klinck, J.M., Ashton-Alcox, K.A. and Kraeuter, J.N. (2009a) Multiple stable reference points in oyster populations: biological relationships for the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) in Delaware Bay. Fishery Bulletin
Powell, E.N., Klinck, J.M., Ashton-Alcox, K.A. and Kraeuter, J.N. (2009b) Multiple stable reference points in oyster populations: implications for reference point-based management. Fishery Bulletin
Powell, E.N., Klinck, J.M. and Hofmann, E.E. (2011a) Generation time and the stability of sex-determining alleles in oyster populations as deduced using a gene-based population dynamics model. Journal of Theoretical Biology
Powell, E.N., Morson, J. and Klinck, J.M. (2011b) Application of a gene-based population dynamics model to the optimal egg size problem: why do bivalve planktotrophic eggs vary in size?
Journal of Shellfish Research
Powell, E.N., Klinck, J.M., Ashton-Alcox, K.A., Hofmann, E.E. and Morson, J.A. (in press) The rise and fall of Crassostrea virginica oyster reefs: the role of disease and fishing in their demise and a vignette on their management. Journal of Marine Research.
Provenzano, A.J. Jr (1961) Effects of the flatworm Stylochus ellipticus (Girard) on oyster spat in two salt water ponds in Massachusetts. Proceedings of the National Shellfisheries Association
Rago, P.J., Sosebee, K.A., Brodziak, J.K.T., Murawski, S.A. and Anderson, E.D. (1998) Implications of recent increases in catches on the dynamics of northwest Atlantic spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias). Fisheries Research
Ragone Calvo, L.M., Wetzel, R.L. and Burreson, E.M. (2001) Development and verification of a model for the population dynamics of the protistan parasite, Perkinsus marinus, within its host, the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, in Chesapeake Bay. Journal of Shellfish Research
Rothschild, B.J., Ault, J.S., Goulletquer, P. and Héral, M. (1994) Decline of the Chesapeake Bay oyster populations: a century of habitat destruction and overfishing. Marine Ecology Progress Series
Sattar, S.A., Jørgensen, C. and Fiksen, Ø. (2008) Fisheries-induced evolution of energy and sex allocation. Bulletin of Marine Science
Shumway, S.E. (1982) Oxygen consumption in oysters: an overview. Marine Biology Letters
Siddiqui, G. and Ahmed, M. (2002) Gametogenic patterns of the larviparous oyster Ostrea nomades from Karachi, Pakistan (northern Arabian Sea). Aquaculture Research
Sinclair, A.F., Swain, D.P. and Hanson, J.M. (2002a) Measuring changes in the direction and magnitude of size-selective mortality in a commercial fish population. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
Sinclair, A.F., Swain, D.P. and Hanson, J.M. (2002b) Disentangling the effects of size-selective mortality, density, and temperature on length-at-age. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
Sissenwine, M.P. and Shepherd, J.G. (1987) An alternative perspective on recruitment overfishing and biological reference points. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
Soniat, T.M. and Brody, M.S. (1988) Field validation of a habitat suitability index model for the American oyster. Estuaries
Spight, T.M. and Emlen, J. (1976) Clutch size of two marine snails with a changing food supply. Ecology
Swain, D.P., Sinclair, A.F. and Hanson, J.M. (2007) Evolutionary response to size-selective mortality in an exploited fish population. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B—Biological Sciences
Taris, N., Batista, F.M. and Boudry, P. (2007) Evidence of response to unintentional selection for faster development and inbreeding depression in Crassostrea gigas larvae. Aquaculture
272 (Supplement 1), S69–S79.
Thomas, F.I.M. (1994) Transport and mixing of gametes in three free-spawning polychaete annelids, Phragmatopoma californica (Fewkes), Sabellaria cementarium (Moore), and Schizobranchia insignis (Bush). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology
Vølstad, J.H., Dew, J. and Tarnowski, M. (2008) Estimation of annual mortality rates for eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) in Chesapeake Bay based on box counts and application of these rates to project population growth of C. virginica and C. ariakensis
. Journal of Shellfish Research
von Bertalanffy, L. (1938) A quantitative theory of organic growth (inquiries on growth laws. II.). Human Biology
Walsh, M.R., Munch, S.B., Chiba, S. and Conover, D.O. (2006) Maladaptive changes in multiple traits caused by fishing: impediments to population recovery. Ecology Letters
Warner, R.R., Robertson, D.R. and Leigh, E.G. Jr (1975) Sex change and sexual selection. Science (Washington, DC)