Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-559fc8cf4f-x5fd4 Total loading time: 0.337 Render date: 2021-03-02T14:22:01.711Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

The utility of wax replicas as a measure of crab attack frequency in the rocky intertidal

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 September 2014

Carrie L. Tyler
Affiliation:
Florida Museum of Natural History, Museum Road, PO Box 117800, Gainesville, FL 32611-7800, USA
E.S. Stafford
Affiliation:
Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6E 4J5, Canada
L.R. Leighton
Affiliation:
Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6E 4J5, Canada
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Crabs are thought to play a vital role in structuring gastropod populations. Studies quantifying the frequencies with which crabs attack gastropods in natural settings are, however, scarce. Although a wide variety of techniques exist with which predator–prey interactions can be investigated (e.g. laboratory experiments, exclusion caging, tethering and population surveys), there is a need for methods that can provide large amounts of quantitative data, particularly documenting the frequency with which crabs attack gastropods. This study examines the utility of using wax replicas of gastropods to determine crab attack frequencies. Replicas of Chlorostoma funebralis, Nucella ostrina and Nucella lamellosa were bolted to mesh screens and deployed in the rocky intertidal. Crabs attacked wax replicas of gastropods, leaving characteristic marks in the wax. In most cases, the appendage used in the attack could be identified from the marks (i.e. chelae vs walking legs). The effectiveness of this technique was verified using surveys of repair scar frequencies of the gastropod populations; patterns in attack frequency, determined from the number of marked wax replicas, were consistent with those of repair frequency, in that both were greater at the wave protected, quiet water locality. This study confirms the value of wax replicas in investigations of crab predation to determine the frequency and type of attack, and illustrates the potential of this method for quantifying predation intensity. The development of techniques that quantify the magnitude and exact nature of the effects of crab predation on intertidal communities is pivotal, given the intensity of commercial fishing of some species of crabs.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 2014 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Abbott, D.P. and Haderlie, E.C. (1980) Prosobranchia: marine snails. In Morris, R.H., Abbott, D.P. and Haderlie, E.C. (eds) Intertidal invertebrates of California. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, pp. 230307.Google Scholar
Alexander, R.R. and Dietl, G.P. (2003) The fossil record of shell-breaking predation on marine bivalves and gastropods. In Kelley, P.H.Kowalewski, M. and Hansen, T.A. (eds) Predator–prey interactions in the fossil record. (Topics in Geobiology, Volume 20). New York: Springer, pp. 141179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Appleton, R.D. and Palmer, A.R. (1988) Water-borne stimuli released by predatory crabs and damaged prey induce more predator-resistant shells in a marine gastropod. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 85, 43874391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barbeau, M.A. and Scheibling, R.E. (1994) Procedural effects of prey tethering experiments-predation of juvenile scallops by crabs and sea stars. Marine Ecology Progress Series 111, 305310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bertness, M.D., Garrity, S.D. and Levings, S.C. (1981) Predation pressure and gastropod foraging: a tropical–temperate comparison. Evolution 35, 9951007.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Boulding, E.G., Holst, M. and Pilon, V. (1999) Changes in selection on gastropod shell size and thickness with wave-exposure on northeastern pacific shores. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 232, 217239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Boulding, E.G. and Van Alstyne, K.L. (1993) Mechanisms of differential survival and growth of two species of Littorina on wave-exposed and on protected shores. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 169, 139166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brazao, S.A.E., Silva, A.C.F. and Boaventura, D.M. (2009) Predation: a regulating force of intertidal assemblages on the central Portuguese coast? Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 89, 15411548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Burrows, M.T., Kawai, K. and Hughes, R.N. (1999) Foraging by mobile predators on a rocky shore: underwater TV observations of movements of blennies Lipophrys pholis and crabs Carcinus maenas. Marine Ecology Progress Series 187, 237250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cadee, G.C., Walker, S.E. and Flessa, K.W. (1997) Gastropod shell repair in the intertidal of Bahia la Choya. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 136, 6778.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cannicci, S., Gomei, M. and Vannini, M. (2002) Feeding habits and natural diet of the intertidal crab Pachygrapsus marmoratus: opportunistic browser or selective feeder? Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 54, 9831001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chapin, D. (1968) Some observations of predation on Acmaea species by the crab Pachygrapsus crassipes. Veliger 11 (Supplement), 6768.Google Scholar
Dietl, G.P. and Kosloski, M.E. (2013) On the measurement of repair frequency: how important is data standardization? Palaios, 28, 394402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frank, P.W. (1975) Latitudinal variation in the life history features of the black turban snail Tegula funebralis (Prosobranchia: Trochidae). Marine Biology 31, 181192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guidetti, P. (2007) Predator diversity and density affect levels of predation upon strongly interactive species in temperate rocky reefs. Oecologia 154, 513520.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heller, J. (1976) The effects of exposure and predation on the shell of two British winkles. Journal of Zoology 179, 201213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Holsman, K.K., McDonald, P.S. and Armstrong, D.A. (2006) Intertidal migration and habitat use by subadult Dungeness crab Cancer magister in a NE Pacific estuary. Marine Ecology Progress Series 308, 183195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hughes, R.N. and Seed, R. (1995) Behavioural mechanisms of prey selection in crabs. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 193, 225238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Huntley, J.W. and Kowalewski, M. (2007) Strong coupling of predation intensity and diversity in the Phanerozoic fossil record. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104, 1500615010.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Iribarne, O., Fernandez, M. and Armstrong, D. (1994) Does space competition regulate density of juvenile Dungeness crab Cancer magister (Dana) in sheltered habitats? Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 183, 259271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Iwasaki, K. (1993) Analyses of limpet defense and predator offense in the field. Marine Biology 116, 277289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kelley, P.H., Kowalewski, M. and Hansen, T.A. (eds) (2003) Predator–prey interactions in the fossil record. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kitching, J.A., Muntz, L. and Ebling, F.J. (1966) The ecology of Lough Ine. XV. The ecological significance of shell and body forms in Nucella. Journal of Animal Ecology 35, 113126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kneib, R.T. and Scheele, C.E.H. (2000) Does tethering of mobile prey measure relative predation potential? An empirical test using mummichogs and grass shrimp. Marine Ecology Progress Series 198, 181190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kowalewski, M. (2002) The fossil record of predation: an overview of analytical methods. In Kowalewski, M. and Kelley, P.H. (eds) The fossil record of predation, Volume 8. New Haven, CT: The Paleontological Society, pp. 342.Google Scholar
Lawton, P. and Hughes, R.N. (1985) Foraging behaviour of the crab Cancer pagurus feeding on the gastropods Nucella lapillus and Littorina littorea: comparisons with optimal foraging theory. Marine Ecology Progress Series 27, 143154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leighton, L.R. (2001) New directions in the paleoecology of Paleozoic brachiopods. In Carlson, S.J. and Sandy, M.R. (eds) Proceedings of the Paleontological Society Short Course, Boston, MA, 2001. Boston, MA: The Paleontological Society Papers, Volume 7, pp. 185–205.Google Scholar
Leighton, L.R. (2002) Inferring predation intensity in the marine fossil record. Paleobiology 28, 328342.2.0.CO;2>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leonard, G.H., Levine, J.M., Schmidt, P.R. and Bertness, M.D. (1998) Flow-driven variation in intertidal community structure in a marine estuary. Ecology 79, 13951411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lowell, R.B. (1986) Crab predation on limpets: predator behaviour and defensive features of the shell morphology of the prey. Biological Bulletin. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole 171, 577596.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Menge, B.A. and Lubchenco, J. (1981) Community organization in temperate and rocky inter-tidal habitats: prey refuges in reation to consumer pressure-gradients. Ecological Monographs 51, 429450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Molinaro, D.J., Stafford, E.S., Collins, B.M.J., Barclay, K.M., Tyler, C.L. and Leighton, L.R. (in press) Peeling out predation: a test of repair scar frequency as a suitable proxy for predation pressure along a modern predation gradient. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology.Google Scholar
Moody, R.M. and Aronson, R.B. (2012) Predator-induced defenses in a salt-marsh gastropod. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 413, 7886.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Paine, R.T. (1966) Food web complexity and species diversity. American Naturalist 100, 6575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pianka, E.R. (1966) Latitudinal gradients in species diversity: a review of concepts. American Naturalist 100, 3346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Preston, S.J. and Roberts, D. (2007) Variation in shell morphology of Calliostoma zizyphinum (Gastropoda: Trochidae). Journal of Molluscan Studies 73, 101104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Raffaelli, D.G. (1982) Recent ecological research on some European species of Littorina. Journal of Molluscan Studies 48, 342354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Raffaelli, D.G. and Hughes, R.N. (1978) The effects of crevice size and availability on populations of Littorina rudis and Littorina neritoides. Journal of Animal Ecology 47, 7183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ray-Culp, M., Davis, M. and Stoner, A.W. (1999) Predation by xanthid crabs on early post-settlement gastropods: the role of prey size, prey density, and habitat complexity. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 240, 303321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rittschof, D. (1992) Chemosensation in the daily life of crabs. American Zoologist 32, 363369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Robles, C., Alvarado, M.A. and Desharnais, R.A. (2001) The shifting balance of littoral predator–prey interaction in regimes of hydrodynamic stress. Oecologia 128, 142152.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Robles, C., Sweetnam, D.A. and Dittman, D. (1989) Diel variation of intertidal foraging by Cancer productus in British Columbia. Journal of Natural History 23, 10411049.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sallan, L.C., Kammer, T.W., Ausich, W.I. and Cook, L.A. (2011) Persistent predator–prey dynamics revealed by mass extinction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 108, 83358338.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schemske, D.W., Mittelbach, G.G., Cornell, H.V., Sobel, J.M. and Roy, K. (2009) Is there a latitudianl gradient in the importance of biotic interactions? Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 40, 245269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schindler, D.E., Johnson, B.M., MacKay, N.A., Bouwes, N. and Kitchell, J.F. (1994) Crab–snail size-structured interactions and salt-marsh predation gradients. Oecologia 97, 4961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Silva, A.C., Hawkins, S.J., Clarke, K.R., Boaventura, D.M. and Thompson, R.C. (2010a) Preferential feeding by the crab Necora puber on differing sizes of the intertidal limpet Patella vulgata. Marine Ecology Progress Series 416, 179188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Silva, A.C., Silva, I.C., Hawkins, S.J., Boaventura, D.M. and Thompson, R.C. (2010b) Cheliped morphological variation of the intertidal crab Eriphia verrucosa across shores of differing exposure to wave action. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 391, 8491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Silva, A.C.F., Hawkins, S.J., Boaventura, D.M. and Thompson, R.C. (2008) Predation by small mobile aquatic predators regulates populations of the intertidal limpet Patella vulgata (L.). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 367, 259265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stafford, E.S. and Leighton, L.R. (2011) Vermeij crushing analysis: a new old technique for estimating crushing predation in gastropod assemblages. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 305, 123137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stafford, E.S., Dietl, G.P., Murray, P.G. and Leighton, L.R. (in press, a) Caedichnus, a new ichnogeus representing predatory attack on the gastropod shell aperture. Ichnos.Google Scholar
Stafford, E.S., Tyler, C.L. and Leighton, L.R. (in press, b) Shell repair frequency tracks predator abundance in intertidal gastropods. Marine Ecology.Google Scholar
Stevens, B.G., Armstrong, D.A. and Hoeman, J.C. (1984) Diel activity of an estuarine population of Dungeness crabs, Cancer magister, in relation to feeding and environmental factors. Journal of Crustacean Biology 4, 390403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thompson, R.C., Jenkins, S.R. and Bussell, J.A. (2000) A method for recording predator–prey encounters between crabs and limpets using wax replicas. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 80, 633638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tyler, C.L., Leighton, L.R. and Kowalewski, M. (2014) The effects of limpet morphology on predation by adult cancrid crabs. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 451, 915.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vermeij, G.J. (1987) Evolution and escalation: an ecological history of life. Lawrenceville, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Vermeij, G.J., Schindel, D.E. and Zipser, E. (1981) Predation through geological time: evidence from gastropod shell repair. Science 214, 10241026.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wootton, J.T. (1992) Indirect effects, prey susceptibility, and habitat selection: impacts of birds on limpets and algae. Ecology 73, 981991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yamada, S.B. and Boulding, E.G. (1996) The role of highly mobile crab predators in the intertidal zonation of their gastropod prey. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 204, 5983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yamada, S.B. and Boulding, E.G. (1998) Claw morphology, prey size selection and foraging efficiency in generalist and specialist shell-breaking crabs. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 220, 191211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zimmer-Faust, R.K., Fielder, D.R., Heck, K.L., Coen, L.D. and Morgan, S.G. (1994) Effects of tethering on predatory escape by juvenile blue crabs. Marine Ecology Progress Series 111, 299303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 12
Total number of PDF views: 79 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 2nd March 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

The utility of wax replicas as a measure of crab attack frequency in the rocky intertidal
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

The utility of wax replicas as a measure of crab attack frequency in the rocky intertidal
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

The utility of wax replicas as a measure of crab attack frequency in the rocky intertidal
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *