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What is it about bilingualism that affects Boston Naming Test performance? A reply to commentaries

  • TAMAR H. GOLLAN (a1) (a2) (a3) and CHRISTINE FENNEMA-NOTESTINE (a1) (a2)

Abstract

We reported that bilingualism affects BNT performance, and that people who are “more bilingual” show larger “bilingual effects” on naming. The commentators suggested the interesting possibilities that degree of bilingualism may not be as critical as immersion in two different language environments over the course of a lifetime (Bialystok & Craik, this issue), and that proficiency in Spanish (or lack thereof in English-dominant speakers; Acevedo & Lowenstein, this issue) may be more powerful predictors of the effects we reported. In our response, we use the literature on bilingualism, and additional exploratory analyses of the data we published in this issue to predict that our findings will generalize (a) to bilinguals who speak languages other than Spanish and English, and perhaps even to (b) English-dominant bilinguals who were educated in an English speaking environment. (JINS, 2007, 13, 215–218.)

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Corresponding author

Correspondence and reprint requests to: Tamar H. Gollan, Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, 0949, La Jolla, CA 92093-0949. E-mail: tgollan@ucsd.edu

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REFERENCES

Acevedo, A. & Lowenstein, D.A. (2007, this issue). Performance on the Boston Naming Test in English-Spanish bilingual older adults: Some considerations. The Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 13. 212214.
Allegri, R.F., Mangone, C.A., Fernandez Villavicencio, A., Rymberg, S., Taragano, F.E., & Baumann, D. (1997). Spanish Boston Naming Test norms. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 11, 416420.
Bialystok, E. & Craik, F.I.M. (2007, this issue). Bilingualism and naming: Implications for cognitive assessment. The Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 13, 209211.
Costa, A., Caramazza, A., & Sebastian-Galles, N. (2000). The cognate facilitation effect: Implications for models of lexical access. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 26, 12831296.
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Gollan, T.H., Fennema-Notestine, C., Montoya, R.I., & Jernigan, T.L. (2007, this issue). The Bilingual Effect on Boston Naming Test performance. The Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 13, 197208.
Gollan, T.H., Forster, K.I., & Frost, R. (1997). Translation priming with different scripts: Masked priming with cognates and noncognates in Hebrew-English bilinguals. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 23, 11221139.
Gollan, T.H. & Silverberg, N.B. (2001). Tip-of-the-tongue states in Hebrew-English bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 4, 6384.
Kohnert, K. (2004). Cognitive and cognate-based treatments for bilingual aphasia: A case study. Brain and Language, 91, 294302.
Roberts, P.M. & Deslauriers, L. (1999). Picture naming of cognate and non-cognate nouns in bilingual aphasia. Journal of Communication Disorders, 32, 123.
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Van Hell, J.G. & Dijkstra, T. (2002). Foreign language knowledge can influence native language performance in exclusively native contexts. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9, 780789.

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What is it about bilingualism that affects Boston Naming Test performance? A reply to commentaries

  • TAMAR H. GOLLAN (a1) (a2) (a3) and CHRISTINE FENNEMA-NOTESTINE (a1) (a2)

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