Skip to main content Accessibility help

Neuropsychological and neuropathological effects of anoxic or ischemic induced brain injury

  • RAMONA O. HOPKINS (a1) (a2) and KATHLEEN Y. HAALAND (a3)


In recent years there has been extensive research in neuropsychological sequelae of a variety of etiologies, including traumatic brain injury, dementia, stroke, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and cardiac surgery. With the exception of stroke and cardiac surgery, significantly fewer studies have been published regarding neuropsychological outcome in adults with disorders associated with anoxia or ischemia. Outcomes research in anoxic or ischemic disorders in pediatric patient populations are even more limited.


Corresponding author

Reprint Requests to: Ramona O. Hopkins, Ph.D., Psychology Department, 1122 SWKT, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602. E-mail:


Hide All


Armengol, C.G. (2000). Acute oxygen deprivation: Neuropsychological profiles and implications for rehabilitation. Brain Injury, 14, 237250.
Bachevalier, J. & Meunier, M. (1996). Cerebral ischemia: Are the memory deficits associated with hippocampal cell loss? Hippocampus, 6, 553560.
Bachman, D. & Katz, D.I. (1997). Anoxic-hypotensive brain injury and encephalitis. In V.M. Mills & D.I.E. Katz (Eds.), Neurologic rehabilitation: A guide to diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment planning, (pp. 145176). Malden, MA: Blackwell Science.
Bedard, M.A., Montplaisir, J., Richer, F., Rouleau, I., & Malo, J. (1991). Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: Pathogenesis of neuropsychological deficits. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 13, 950964.
Beilharz, E.J., Williams, C.E., Dragunow, M., Sirimanne, E.S., & Gluckman, P.D. (1995). Mechanisms of delayed cell death following hypoxic-ischemic injury in the immature rat: Evidence for apoptosis during selective neuronal loss. Brain research. Molecular brain research, 29, 114.
Biagas, K. (1999). Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury: Advancements in the understanding of mechanisms and potential avenues for therapy. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 11, 223228.
Brierley, J.B. & Graham, D.I. (1984). Cerebral complications of hypotensive anaesthesia in a healthy adult. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 25, 2430.
Bruno, A., Wagner, W., & Orrison, W.W. (1993). Clinical outcome and brain MRI four years after carbon monoxide intoxication. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 87, 205209.
Caine, D. & Watson, J.D. (2000). Neuropsychological and neuropathological sequelae of cerebral anoxia: A critical review. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 6, 8699.
Chalela, J.A., Wolf, R.L., Maldjian, J.A., & Kasner, S.E. (2001). MRI identification of early white matter injury in anoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Neurology, 56, 481485.
Chapel, J.L. & Husain, A. (1978). The neuropsychiatric aspects of carbon monoxide poisoning. Psychiatric Opinion, 3337.
Diamond, B.J., DeLuca, J., & Kelley, S.M. (1997). Memory and executive functions in amnesic and non-amnesic patients with aneurysms of the anterior communicating artery. Brain, 120 (Pt 6), 10151025.
Farah, M. (1990). Visual Agnosia. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Findley, L.J., Barth, J.T., Powers, D.C., Boyd, D.G., & Surah, P.M. (1986). Cognitive impairment in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and associated hypoxemia. Chest, 90, 686690.
Fink, M.P. (1998). Cytopathic hypoxia: Mitochonrial dysfunction as a potential mechanism contributing to organ failure in sepsis. In W.J. Sibbald, K. Messmer, & M.P. Fink (Eds.), Tissue Oxygenation in Acute Medicine (Vol. 33, pp. 128137). New York: Springer.
Frisk, V. & Whyte, H. (1994). The long-term consequences of periventricular brain damage on language and verbal memory. Developmental Neuropsychology, 10, 313333.
Gadian, D.G., Aicardi, J., Watkins, K.E., Porter, D.A., Mishkin, M., & Vargha-Khadem, F. (2000). Developmental amnesia associated with early hypoxic-ischaemic injury. Brain, 123(Pt 3), 499507.
Gale, S.D., Hopkins, R.O., Weaver, L.K., Bigler, E.D., Booth, E.J., & Blatter, D.D. (1999). MRI, quantitative MRI, SPECT, and neuropsychological findings following carbon monoxide poisoning. Brain Injury, 13, 229243.
Gislason, T. & Benediktsdottir, B. (1995). Snoring, apneic episodes, and nocturnal hypoxemia among children 6 months to 6 years old. An epidemiologic study of lower limit of prevalence. Chest, 107, 963966.
Gottfried, A.W. (1973). Intellectual consequences of perinatal anoxia. Psychological Bulletin, 80, 231242.
Hopkins, R.O., Gale, S.D., Johnson, S.C., Anderson, C.V., Bigler, E.D., Blatter, D.D., & Weaver, L.K. (1995). Severe anoxia with and without concomitant brain atrophy and neuropsychological impairments. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 1, 501509.
Hopkins, R.O., Myers, C.E., Shohamy, D., Grossman, S., & Gluck, M.A. (2004). Impaired probabilistic category learning in hypoxic subjects with hippocampal damage. Neuropsychologia, 42, 524535.
Hopkins-Golightly, T., Raz, S., & Sander, C.J. (2003). Influence of slight to moderate risk for birth hypoxia on acquisition of cognitive and language function in the preterm infant: A cross-sectional comparison with preterm-birth controls. Neuropsychology, 17, 313.
Johnston, M.V., Nakajima, W., & Hagberg, H. (2002). Mechanisms of hypoxic neurodegeneration in the developing brain. Neuroscientist, 8, 212220.
Kales, A., Caldwell, A.B., Cadieux, R.J., Vela-Bueno, A., Ruch, L.G., & Mayes, S.D. (1985). Severe obstructive sleep apnea—II: Associated psychopathology and psychosocial consequences. Journal of Chronic Diseases, 38, 427434.
Kuroiwa, T. & Okeda, R. (1994). Neuropathology of cerebral ischemia and hypoxia: Recent advances in experimental studies on its pathogenesis. Pathology International, 44, 171181.
Landry, S.H., Fletcher, J.M., Denson, S.E., & Chapieski, M.L. (1993). Longitudinal outcome for low birth weight infants: Effects of intraventricular hemorrhage and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 15, 205218.
Lezak, M.D. (1995). Neuropsychological assessment (3rd. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.
Lishman, W.A. (1998). Organic psychiatry: The psychological consequences of cerebral disorder (3rd ed.). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science.
Lutz, P.L. & Nilsson, G.E. (1994). The brain without oxygen: Causes of failure and mechanisms for survival. Austin, UK: R.G. Landes Company.
Maneru, C., Junque, C., Botet, F., Tallada, M., & Guardia, J. (2001). Neuropsychological long-term sequelae of perinatal asphyxia. Brain Injury, 15, 10291039.
Maneru, C., Serra-Grabulosa, J.M., Junque, C., Salgado-Pineda, P., Bargallo, N., Olondo, M., Botet-Mussons, F., Tallada, M., & Mercader, J.M. (2003). Residual hippocampal atrophy in asphyxiated term neonates. Journal of Neuroimaging, 13, 6874.
Manns, J.R., Hopkins, R.O., Reed, J.M., Kitchener, E.G., & Squire, L.R. (2003). Recognition memory and the human hippocampus. Neuron, 37, 171180.
Martin, J.A., Hamilton, B.E., Ventura, S., & Menacker, F. (2002). Births: Final data for 2000. National Vital Statistics Reports, 50, 1104.
Martin, R.L., Lloyd, H.G., & Cowan, A.I. (1994). The early events of oxygen and glucose deprivation: Setting the scene for neuronal death? Trends in Neurosciences, 17, 251257.
Mascalchi, M., Petruzzi, P., & Zampa, V. (1996). MRI of cerebellar white matter damage due to carbon monoxide poisoning: Case report. Neuroradiology, 38(Suppl 1), S73S74.
Myer, C.E., Bryant, D., DeLuca, J., & Gluck, M.A. (2002). Dissociating basal forebrain and medial temporal amnesic syndromes: Insights from classical conditioning. Integretive Physiology and Behavioral Science, 37, 85102.
Parkinson, R.B., Hopkins, R.O., Cleavinger, H.B., Weaver, L.K., Victoroff, J., Foley, J.F., & Bigler, E.D. (2002). White matter hyperintensities and neuropsychological outcome following carbon monoxide poisoning. Neurology, 58, 15251532.
Perlman, J.M. (2001). Neurobehavioral deficits in premature graduates of intensive care-potential medical and neonatal environmental risk factors. Pediatrics, 108, 13391348.
Porter, S.S., Hopkins, R.O., Weaver, L.K., Bigler, E.D., & Blatter, D.D. (2002). Corpus callosum atrophy and neuropsychological outcome following carbon monoxide poisoning. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 17, 195204.
Robertson, C.M. & Finer, N.N. (1993). Long-term follow-up of term neonates with perinatal asphyxia. Clinics in Perinatology, 20, 483500.
Rubenfeld, G.D. (2003). Epidemiology of acute lung injury. Critical Care Medicine, 31(4; Suppl), S276S284.
Schurr, A., Lipton, P., West, C.A., & Rigor, B.M. (1990). The role of energy in metabolism and divalent cations in the neurotoxicity of excitatory amino acids in vitro. In J.E. Krieglstein (Ed.), Pharmacology of Cerebral Ischemia (pp. 217226). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Siesjo, B.K. (1981). Cell damage in the brain: A speculative synthesis. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, 1, 155185.
Siesjo, B.K., Bengtsson, F., Grampp, W., & Theander, S. (1989). Calcium, excitotoxins, and neuronal death in the brain. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 568, 234251.
Steller, H. (1995). Mechanisms and genes of cellular suicide. Science, 267, 14451449.
Whitfield, M.F., Grunau, R.V., & Holsti, L. (1997). Extremely premature (< or = 800 g) schoolchildren: Multiple areas of hidden disability. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 77, F85F90.
Wilson, B.A. (1996). Cognitive functioning of adult survivors of cerebral hypoxia. Brain Injury, 10, 863874.
Young, T., Evans, L., Finn, L., & Palta, M. (1997). Estimation of the clinically diagnosed proportion of sleep apnea syndrome in middle-aged men and women. Sleep, 20, 705706.
Zola-Morgan, S., Squire, L.R., & Amaral, D.G. (1986). Human amnesia and the medial temporal region: Enduring memory impairment following a bilateral lesion limited to field CA1 of the hippocampus. The Journal of Neuroscience, 6, 29502967.


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed