Skip to main content Accessibility help

Modulation of medial temporal lobe activity in epilepsy patients with hippocampal sclerosis during verbal working memory



It has been traditionally assumed that medial temporal lobe (MTL) is not required for working memory (WM). However, animal lesion and electrophysiological studies and human neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have provided increasing evidences of a critical involvement of MTL in WM. Based on previous findings, the central aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of the MTL to verbal WM encoding. Here, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to compare the patterns of MTL activation of 9 epilepsy patients suffering from left hippocampal sclerosis with those of 10 healthy matched controls while they performed a verbal WM task. MEG recordings allow detailed tracking of the time course of MTL activation. We observed impaired WM performance associated with changes in the dynamics of MTL activity in epilepsy patients. Specifically, whereas patients showed decreased activity in damaged MTL, activity in the contralateral MTL was enhanced, an effect that became significant in the 600- to 700-ms interval after stimulus presentation. These findings strongly support the crucial contribution of MTL to verbal WM encoding and provide compelling evidence for the proposal that MTL contributes to both episodic memory and WM. Whether this pattern is signaling reorganization or a normal use of a damaged structure is discussed. (JINS, 2009, 15, 536–546.)


Corresponding author

*Correspondence and reprint requests to: Pablo Campo, Centro de Magnetoencefalografía Dr. Pérez Modrego, Pabellón nº 8 Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain. E-mail:


Hide All
Abrahams, S., Morris, R.G., Polkey, C.E., Jarosz, J.M., Cox, T.C., Graves, M., & Pickering, A. (1999). Hippocampal involvement in spatial and working memory: A structural MRI analysis of patients with unilateral mesial temporal lobe sclerosis. Brain and Cognition, 41(1), 3965.
Aine, C.J., Adair, J.C., Knoefel, J.E., Hudson, D., Qualls, C., Kovacevic, S., Woodruff, C.C., Cobb, W., Padilla, D., Lee, R.R., & Stephen, J.M. (2005). Temporal dynamics of age-related differences in auditory incidental verbal learning. Brain Research. Cognitive Brain Research, 24(1), 118.
Algarabel, S. (1996). Indices de interés psicolinguístico de 1917 palabras castellanas. Cognitiva, 8, 4388.
Amaral, D. & Insausti, R. (1990). Hippocampal formation. In Paxinos, G. (Ed.), The human nervous system (pp. 711755). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Axmacher, N., Mormann, F., Fernandez, G., Cohen, M.X., Elger, C.E., & Fell, J. (2007). Sustained neural activity patterns during working memory in the human medial temporal lobe. The Journal of Neuroscience, 27(29), 78077816.
Axmacher, N., Mormann, F., Fernandez, G., Elger, C.E., & Fell, J. (2006). Memory formation by neuronal synchronization. Brain Research Review, 52(1), 170182.
Axmacher, N., Schmitz, D.P., Wagner, T., Elger, C.E., & Fell, J. (2008). Interactions between medial temporal lobe, prefrontal cortex, and inferior temporal regions during visual working memory: A combined intracranial EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging study. The Journal of Neuroscience, 28(29), 73047312.
Binder, J.R., Bellgowan, P.S., Hammeke, T.A., Possing, E.T., & Frost, J.A. (2005). A comparison of two FMRI protocols for eliciting hippocampal activation. Epilepsia, 46(7), 10611070.
Breier, J.I., Simos, P.G., Zouridakis, G., & Papanicolaou, A.C. (2000). Lateralization of activity associated with language function using magnetoencephalography: A reliability study. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 17(5), 503510.
Cabeza, R., Daselaar, S.M., Dolcos, F., Prince, S.E., Budde, M., & Nyberg, L. (2004). Task-independent and task-specific age effects on brain activity during working memory, visual attention and episodic retrieval. Cerebral Cortex, 14(4), 364375.
Cabeza, R., Dolcos, F., Graham, R., & Nyberg, L. (2002). Similarities and differences in the neural correlates of episodic memory retrieval and working memory. NeuroImage, 16(2), 317330.
Campo, P., Maestu, F., Capilla, A., Fernandez, S., Fernandez, A., & Ortiz, T. (2005a). Activity in human medial temporal lobe associated with encoding process in spatial working memory revealed by magnetoencephalography. The European Journal of Neuroscience, 21(6), 17411748.
Campo, P., Maestu, F., Capilla, A., Morales, M., Fernandez, S., del Rio, D., & Ortiz, T. (2008). Temporal dynamics of parietal activity during word-location binding. Neuropsychology, 22(1), 8599.
Campo, P., Maestu, F., Ortiz, T., Capilla, A., Fernandez, S., & Fernandez, A. (2005b). Is medial temporal lobe activation specific for encoding long-term memories? NeuroImage, 25(1), 3442.
Castillo, E.M., Simos, P.G., Davis, R.N., Breier, J., Fitzgerald, M.E., & Papanicolaou, A. (2003). Temporal dynamics of medial temporal lobe activation during encoding and recognition. A magnetoencephalography study. Revista Española de Neuropsicología, 5(2), 99120.
Castillo, E.M., Simos, P.G., Davis, R.N., Breier, J., Fitzgerald, M.E., & Papanicolaou, A.C. (2001). Levels of word processing and incidental memory: Dissociable mechanisms in the temporal lobe. Neuroreport, 12(16), 35613566.
Cave, C.B. & Squire, L.R. (1992). Intact verbal and nonverbal short-term memory following damage to the human hippocampus. Hippocampus, 2(2), 151163.
Chugani, H.T., Muller, R.A., & Chugani, D.C. (1996). Functional brain reorganization in children. Brain & Development, 18(5), 347356.
Cowan, N. (1995). Attention and memory, and integrated framework. New York: Oxford University Press.
Cowan, N. (1999). An embedded-process model of working memory. In Miyake, A. & Shah, P., (Eds.), Models of working memory (pp. 62101) Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Davachi, L. & Goldman-Rakic, P.S. (2001). Primate rhinal cortex participates in both visual recognition and working memory tasks: Functional mapping with 2-DG. Journal of Neurophysiology, 85(6), 25902601.
Davachi, L. & Wagner, A.D. (2002). Hippocampal contributions to episodic encoding: Insights from relational and item-based learning. Journal of Neurophysiology, 88(2), 982990.
Dupont, S., Van de Moortele, P.F., Samson, S., Hasboun, D., Poline, J.B., Adam, C., Lehericy, S., Le Bihan, D., Samson, Y., & Baulac, M. (2000). Episodic memory in left temporal lobe epilepsy: A functional MRI study. Brain, 123(Pt 8), 17221732.
Eichenbaum, H. (1997). Declarative memory: Insights from cognitive neurobiology. Annual Review of Psychology, 48, 547572.
Fell, J., Klaver, P., Elfadil, H., Schaller, C., Elger, C.E., & Fernandez, G. (2003). Rhinal-hippocampal theta coherence during declarative memory formation: Interaction with gamma synchronization? The European Journal of Neuroscience, 17(5), 10821088.
Fell, J., Klaver, P., Elger, C.E., & Fernandez, G. (2002). The interaction of rhinal cortex and hippocampus in human declarative memory formation. Review in the Neurosciences, 13(4), 299312.
Fernandez, G., Effern, A., Grunwald, T., Pezer, N., Lehnertz, K., Dumpelmann, M., Van Roost, D., & Elger, C.E. (1999). Real-time tracking of memory formation in the human rhinal cortex and hippocampus. Science, 285(5433), 15821585.
Fernandez, G., Klaver, P., Fell, J., Grunwald, T., & Elger, C.E. (2002). Human declarative memory formation: Segregating rhinal and hippocampal contributions. Hippocampus, 12(4), 514519.
Fernandez, G. & Tendolkar, I. (2001). Integrated brain activity in medial temporal and prefrontal areas predicts subsequent memory performance: Human declarative memory formation at the system level. Brain Research Bulletin, 55(1), 19.
Fernandez, G., Weyerts, H., Schrader-Bolsche, M., Tendolkar, I., Smid, H.G., Tempelmann, C., Hinrichs, H., Scheich, H., Elger, C.E., Mangun, G.R., & Heinze, H.J. (1998). Successful verbal encoding into episodic memory engages the posterior hippocampus: A parametrically analyzed functional magnetic resonance imaging study. The Journal of Neuroscience, 18(5), 18411847.
Fontoura, D.R., Branco Dde, M., Anes, M., Costa, J.C., & Portuguez, M.W. (2008). Language brain dominance in patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy: A comparative study between functional magnetic resonance imaging and dichotic listening test. Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria, 66(1), 3439.
Gabrieli, J.D. (1998). Cognitive neuroscience of human memory. Annual Review of Psychology, 49, 87115.
Gazzaley, A., Rissman, J., & Desposito, M. (2004). Functional connectivity during working memory maintenance. Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience, 4(4), 580599.
Giovagnoli, A.R., Erbetta, A., Villani, F., & Avanzini, G. (2005). Semantic memory in partial epilepsy: Verbal and non-verbal deficits and neuroanatomical relationships. Neuropsychologia, 43(10), 14821492.
Glabus, M.F., Horwitz, B., Holt, J.L., Kohn, P.D., Gerton, B.K., Callicott, J.H., Meyer-Lindenberg, A., & Berman, K.F. (2003). Interindividual differences in functional interactions among prefrontal, parietal and parahippocampal regions during working memory. Cerebral Cortex, 13(12), 13521361.
Golby, A.J., Poldrack, R.A., Illes, J., Chen, D., Desmond, J.E., & Gabrieli, J.D. (2002). Memory lateralization in medial temporal lobe epilepsy assessed by functional MRI. Epilepsia, 43(8), 855863.
Gonsalves, B.D., Kahn, I., Curran, T., Norman, K.A., & Wagner, A.D. (2005). Memory strength and repetition suppression: Multimodal imaging of, medial temporal cortical contributions to recognition. Neuron, 47, 751761.
Grippo, A., Pelosi, L., Mehta, V., & Blumhardt, L.D. (1996). Working memory in temporal lobe epilepsy: An event-related potential study. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 99(3), 200213.
Haettig, H., Schepler, P., Lehmann, T.N., & Meencke, H.J. (2004). Short-term memory outcome after temporal lobe surgery for epilepsy: A 12 month follow up. Paper presented at the Human Brain Mapping, Budapest, June, 12–16.
Hanlon, F.M., Weisend, M.P., Huang, M., Lee, R.R., Moses, S.N., Paulson, K.M., Thoma, R.J., Miller, G.A., & Canive, J.M. (2003). A non-invasive method for observing hippocampal function. Neuroreport, 14(15), 19571960.
Haxby, J.V., Ungerleider, L.G., Horwitz, B., Rapoport, S.I., & Grady, C.L. (1995). Hemispheric differences in neural systems for face working memory: A PET-rCBF study. Human Brain Mapping, 3, 6882.
Helenius, P., Salmelin, R., Service, E., & Connolly, J.F. (1998). Distinct time courses of word and context comprehension in the left temporal cortex. Brain, 121(Pt 6), 11331142.
Henke, K., Treyer, V., Weber, B., Nitsch, R.M., Hock, C., Wieser, H.G., & Buck, A. (2003). Functional neuroimaging predicts individual memory outcome after amygdalohippocampectomy. Neuroreport, 14(9), 11971202.
Holscher, C. & Rolls, E.T. (2002). Perirhinal cortex neuronal activity is actively related to working memory in the macaque. Neural Plasticity, 9(1), 4151.
Jones-Gotman, M., Zatorre, R.J., Olivier, A., Andermann, F., Cendes, F., Staunton, H., McMackin, D., Siegel, A.M., & Wieser, H.G. (1997). Learning and retention of words and designs following excision from medial or lateral temporal-lobe structures. Neuropsychologia, 35(7), 963973.
Kapur, S., Craik, F.I., Tulving, E., Wilson, A.A., Houle, S., & Brown, G.M. (1994). Neuroanatomical correlates of encoding in episodic memory: Levels of processing effect. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 91(6), 20082011.
Karlsgodt, K.H., Shirinyan, D., van Erp, T.G., Cohen, M.S., & Cannon, T.D. (2005). Hippocampal activations during encoding and retrieval in a verbal working memory paradigm. NeuroImage, 25(4), 12241231.
Krauss, G.L., Summerfield, M., Brandt, J., Breiter, S., & Ruchkin, D. (1997). Mesial temporal spikes interfere with working memory. Neurology, 49(4), 975980.
Lancelot, C., Samson, S., Ahad, P., & Baulac, M. (2003). Effect of unilateral temporal lobe resection on short-term memory for auditory object and sound location. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 999, 377380.
Lee, A.C., Buckley, M.J., Gaffan, D., Emery, T., Hodges, J.R., & Graham, K.S. (2006). Differentiating the roles of the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex in processes beyond long-term declarative memory: A double dissociation in dementia. The Journal of Neuroscience, 26(19), 51985203.
Lepage, M., Habib, R., Cormier, H., Houle, S., & McIntosh, A.R. (2000). Neural correlates of semantic associative encoding in episodic memory. Brain Research. Cognitive Brain Research, 9(3), 271280.
Levy, D.A., Bayley, P.J., & Squire, L.R. (2004). The anatomy of semantic knowledge: Medial vs. lateral temporal lobe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101(17), 67106715.
Loring, D.W., Strauss, E., Hermann, B.P., Perrine, K., Trenerry, M.R., Barr, W.B., Westerveld, M., Chelune, G.J., Lee, G.P., & Meador, K.J. (1999). Effects of anomalous language representation on neuropsychological performance in temporal lobe epilepsy. Neurology, 53(2), 260264.
Maestu, F., Arrazola, J., Fernandez, A., Simos, P.G., Amo, C., Gil-Gregorio, P., Fernandez, S., Papanicolaou, A., & Ortiz, T. (2003). Do cognitive patterns of brain magnetic activity correlate with hippocampal atrophy in Alzheimer’s disease? Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 74(2), 208212.
Maestu, F., Campo, P., Gil-Gregorio, P., Fernandez, S., Fernandez, A., & Ortiz, T. (2006). Medial temporal lobe neuromagnetic hypoactivation and risk for developing cognitive decline in elderly population: A 2-year follow-up study. Neurobiology of Aging, 27(1), 3237.
Maestu, F., Fernandez, A., Simos, P.G., Lopez-Ibor, M.I., Campo, P., Criado, J., Rodriguez-Palancas, A., Ferre, F., Amo, C., & Ortiz, T. (2004). Profiles of brain magnetic activity during a memory task in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and in non-demented elderly subjects, with or without depression. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 75(8), 11601162.
Maestu, F., Garcia-Segura, J., Ortiz, T., Montoya, J., Fernandez, A., Gil-Gregorio, P., Campo, P., Fernandez, S., Viano, J., & Portera, A. (2005). Evidence of biochemical and biomagnetic interactions in Alzheimer’s disease: An MEG and MR spectroscopy study. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 20(2–3), 145152.
Maestu, F., Ortiz, T., Fernandez, A., Amo, C., Martin, P., Fernandez, S., & Sola, R.G. (2002). Spanish language mapping using MEG: A validation study. NeuroImage, 17(3), 15791586.
Manoach, D.S., Greve, D.N., Lindgren, K.A., & Dale, A.M. (2003). Identifying regional activity associated with temporally separated components of working memory using event-related functional MRI. NeuroImage, 20(3), 16701684.
Martin, A. (1999). Automatic activation of the medial temporal lobe during encoding: Lateralized influences of meaning and novelty. Hippocampus, 9(1), 6270.
Miyake, A. & Shah, P. (1999). Models of working memory. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Monk, C.S., Zhuang, J., Curtis, W.J., Ofenloch, I.T., Tottenham, N., Nelson, C.A., & Hu, X. (2002). Human hippocampal activation in the delayed matching- and nonmatching-to-sample memory tasks: An event-related functional MRI approach. Behavioral Neuroscience, 116(4), 716721.
Moré, J. (1977). The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm: Implementation and theory. In Watson, G. (Ed.), Numerical analysis (pp. 105116). New York: Springer Verlag.
Mormann, F., Fernandez, G., Klaver, P., Weber, B., Elger, C.E., & Fell, J. (2007). Declarative memory formation in hippocampal sclerosis: An intracranial event-related potentials study. Neuroreport, 18(4), 317321.
Nichols, E.A., Kao, Y.C., Verfaellie, M., & Gabrieli, J.D. (2006). Working memory and long-term memory for faces: Evidence from fMRI and global amnesia for involvement of the medial temporal lobes. Hippocampus, 16(7), 604616.
Oldfield, R.C. (1971). The assessment and analysis of handedness: the Edinburgh inventory. Neuropsychologia, 9, 97113.
Olson, I.R., Moore, K.S., Stark, M., & Chatterjee, A. (2006). Visual working memory is impaired when the medial temporal lobe is damaged. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18(7), 10871097.
Owen, A.M., Morris, R.G., Sahakian, B.J., Polkey, C.E., & Robbins, T.W. (1996). Double dissociations of memory and executive functions in working memory tasks following frontal lobe excisions, temporal lobe excisions or amygdalo-hippocampectomy in man. Brain, 119(Pt 5), 15971615.
Paller, K.A. & Wagner, A.D. (2002). Observing the transformation of experience into memory. Trends in Neurosciences, 6, 93102.
Papanicolaou, A.C., Simos, P.G., Breier, J.I., Zouridakis, G., Wilmore, L.J., Wheless, J.W., Constantinou, J.C., Gormley, W., & Maggio, W.W. (1999). Magnetoencephalographic mapping of the language specific cortex. Journal of Neurosurgery, 90(1), 8593.
Papanicolaou, A.C., Simos, P.G., Castillo, E.M., Breier, J.I., Katz, J.S., & Wright, A.A. (2002). The hippocampus and memory of verbal and pictorial material. Learn & Memory (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.), 9(3), 99104.
Papanicolaou, A.C., Simos, P.G., Castillo, E.M., Breier, J.I., Sarkari, S., Pataraia, E., Billingsley, R.L., Buchanan, S., Wheless, J., Maggio, V., & Maggio, W.W. (2004). Magnetocephalography: A noninvasive alternative to the Wada procedure. Journal of Neurosurgery, 100(5), 867876.
Petersson, K.M., Gisselgard, J., Gretzer, M., & Ingvar, M. (2006). Interaction between a verbal working memory network and the medial temporal lobe. NeuroImage, 33(4), 12071217.
Petrides, M. & Milner, B. (1982). Deficits on subject-ordered tasks after frontal- and temporal-lobe lesions in man. Neuropsychologia, 20(3), 249262.
Piekema, C., Kessels, R.P., Mars, R.B., Petersson, K.M., & Fernandez, G. (2006). The right hippocampus participates in short-term memory maintenance of object-location associations. NeuroImage, 33(1), 374382.
Powell, H.W., Koepp, M.J., Richardson, M.P., Symms, M.R., Thompson, P.J., & Duncan, J.S. (2004). The application of functional MRI of memory in temporal lobe epilepsy: A clinical review. Epilepsia, 45(7), 855863.
Powell, H.W., Richardson, M.P., Symms, M.R., Boulby, P.A., Thompson, P.J., Duncan, J.S., & Koepp, M.J. (2007). Reorganization of verbal and nonverbal memory in temporal lobe epilepsy due to unilateral hippocampal sclerosis. Epilepsia, 48(8), 15121525.
Rabin, M.L., Narayan, V.M., Kimberg, D.Y., Casasanto, D.J., Glosser, G., Tracy, J.I., French, J.A., Sperling, M.R., & Detre, J.A. (2004). Functional MRI predicts post-surgical memory following temporal lobectomy. Brain, 127(Pt 10), 22862298.
Ranganath, C. & Blumenfeld, R.S. (2005). Doubts about double dissociations between short- and long-term memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9(8), 374380.
Ranganath, C., DeGutis, J., & D’Esposito, M. (2004). Category-specific modulation of inferior temporal activity during working memory encoding and maintenance. Cognitive Brain Research, 20, 3745.
Ranganath, C. & D’Esposito, M. (2001). Medial temporal lobe activity associated with active maintenance of novel information. Neuron, 31(5), 865873.
Rausch, R. & Babb, T.L. (1993). Hippocampal neuron loss and memory scores before and after temporal lobe surgery for epilepsy. Archives of Neurology, 50(8), 812817.
Ribbler, A. & Rausch, R. (1990). Performance of patients with unilateral temporal lobectomy on selective reminding procedures using either related or unrelated words. Cortex, 26(4), 575584.
Richardson, M.P., Strange, B.A., Duncan, J.S., & Dolan, R.J. (2003). Preserved verbal memory function in left medial temporal pathology involves reorganisation of function to right medial temporal lobe. NeuroImage, 20(Suppl 1), S112119.
Richardson, M.P., Strange, B.A., Duncan, J.S., & Dolan, R.J. (2006). Memory fMRI in left hippocampal sclerosis: Optimizing the approach to predicting postsurgical memory. Neurology, 66(5), 699705.
Riggs, L., Moses, S.N., Bardouille, T., Herdman, A.T., Ross, B., & Ryan, J.D. (2009). A complementary analytic approach to examining medial temporal lobe sources using magnetoencephalography. NeuroImage, 45(2), 627642.
Rorden, C. & Brett, M. (2000). Stereotaxic display of brain lesions. Behavioral neurology, 12, 191200.
Sarvas, J. (1987). Basic mathematical and electromagnetic concepts of the biomagnetic inverse problem. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 32(1), 1122.
Sass, K.J., Buchanan, C.P., Kraemer, S., Westerveld, M., Kim, J.H., & Spencer, D.D. (1995). Verbal memory impairment resulting from hippocampal neuron loss among epileptic patients with structural lesions. Neurology, 45(12), 21542158.
Sawrie, S.M., Martin, R.C., Knowlton, R., Faught, E., Gilliam, F., & Kuzniecky, R. (2001). Relationships among hippocampal volumetry, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and verbal memory in temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia, 42(11), 14031407.
Schon, K., Hasselmo, M.E., Lopresti, M.L., Tricarico, M.D., & Stern, C.E. (2004). Persistence of parahippocampal representation in the absence of stimulus input enhances long-term encoding: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of subsequent memory after a delayed match-to-sample task. The Journal of Neuroscience, 24(49), 1108811097.
Springer, J.A., Binder, J.R., Hammeke, T.A., Swanson, S.J., Frost, J.A., Bellgowan, P.S., Brewer, C.C., Perry, H.M., Morris, G.L., & Mueller, W.M. (1999). Language dominance in neurologically normal and epilepsy subjects: A functional MRI study. Brain, 122(Pt 11), 20332046.
Squire, L.R., Stark, C.E., & Clark, R.E. (2004). The medial temporal lobe. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 27, 279306.
Staresina, B.P., Bauer, H., Deecke, L., & Walla, P. (2005). Neurocognitive correlates of incidental verbal memory encoding: A magnetoencephalographic (MEG) study. NeuroImage, 25(2), 430443.
Stern, C.E., Sherman, S.J., Kirchhoff, B.A., & Hasselmo, M.E. (2001). Medial temporal and prefrontal contributions to working memory tasks with novel and familiar stimuli. Hippocampus, 11(4), 337346.
Suzuki, W.A., Miller, E.K., & Desimone, R. (1997). Object and place memory in the macaque entorhinal cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology, 78(2), 10621081.
Tarkiainen, A., Liljestrom, M., Seppa, M., & Salmelin, R. (2003). The 3D topography of MEG source localization accuracy: Effects of conductor model and noise. Clinical Neurophysiology, 114(10), 19771992.
Tendolkar, I., Rugg, M., Fell, J., Vogt, H., Scholz, M., Hinrichs, H., & Heinze, H.J. (2000). A magnetoencephalographic study of brain activity related to recognition memory in healthy young human subjects. Neuroscience Letters, 280(1), 6972.
Tesche, C.D. & Karhu, J. (2000). Theta oscillations index human hippocampal activation during a working memory task. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97(2), 919924.
Thom, M., Zhou, J., Martinian, L., & Sisodiya, S. (2005). Quantitative post-mortem study of the hippocampus in chronic epilepsy: Seizures do not inevitably cause neuronal loss. Brain, 128(Pt 6), 13441357.
Trenerry, M.R., Jack, C.R. Jr., Ivnik, R.J.,, Sharbrough, F.W., Cascino, G.D., Hirschorn, K.A., Marsh, W.R., Kelly, P.J., & Meyer, F.B. (1993). MRI hippocampal volumes and memory function before and after temporal lobectomy. Neurology, 43(9), 18001805.
Ver Hoef, L.W., Sawrie, S., Killen, J., & Knowlton, R.C. (2008). Left mesial temporal sclerosis and verbal memory: A magnetoencephalography study. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 25(1), 16.
Wagner, D.D., Sziklas, V., Garver, K.E., & Jones-Gotman, M. (2008). Material-specific lateralization of working memory in the medial temporal lobe. Neuropsychologia, 47(1), 112122.
Young, B.J., Otto, T., Fox, G.D., & Eichenbaum, H. (1997). Memory representation within the parahippocampal region. The Journal of Neuroscience, 17(13), 51835195.



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed