Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Memory Transformation and Systems Consolidation

  • Gordon Winocur (a1) (a2) (a3) and Morris Moscovitch (a1) (a4) (a5)

Abstract

With time and experience, memories undergo a process of reorganization that involves different neuronal networks, known as systems consolidation. The traditional view, as articulated in standard consolidation theory (SCT), is that (episodic and semantic) memories initially depend on the hippocampus, but eventually become consolidated in their original forms in other brain regions. In this study, we review the main principles of SCT and report evidence from the neuropsychological literature that would not be predicted by this theory. By comparison, the evidence supports an alternative account, the transformation hypothesis, whose central premise is that changes in neural representation in systems consolidation are accompanied by corresponding changes in the nature of the memory. According to this view, hippocampally dependent, episodic, or context-specific memories transform into semantic or gist-like versions that are represented in extra-hippocampal structures. To the extent that episodic memories are retained, they will continue to require the hippocampus, but the hippocampus is not needed for the retrieval of semantic memories. The transformation hypothesis emphasizes the dynamic nature of memory, as well as the underlying functional and neural interactions that must be taken into account in a comprehensive theory of memory. (JINS, 2011, 17, 766–780)

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence and reprint requests to: Gordon Winocur, Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest Centre, 3560 Bathurst Street, Toronto, Ontario, M6A Canada. E-mail: gwinocur@rotman-baycrest.on.ca

References

Hide All
Addis, D.R., Moscovitch, M., Crawley, A.P., McAndrews, M.P. (2004). Recollective qualities modulate hippocampal activation during autobiographical memory retrieval. Hippocampus, 14, 752762.
Addis, D.R., Schacter, D.L. (2008). Constructive episodic simulation: Temporal distance and detail of past and future events modulate hippocampal engagement. Hippocampus, 18, 227237.
Ahles, T.A., Saykin, A.J. (2007). Candidate mechanisms for chemotherapy-induced cognitive changes. Nature Reviews Cancer, 7, 192201.
Albert, M., Butters, N., Levin, J. (1979). Temporal gradients in the retrograde amnesia of patients with alcoholic Korsakoff's disease. Archives of Neurology, 36, 211216.
Barr, W.B., Goldberg, E., Wasserstein, J., Novelly, R.A. (1990). Retrograde amnesia following unilateral temporal lobectomy. Neuropsychologia, 28, 243255.
Barrash, J. (1998). A historical review of topographical disorientation and its neuroanatomical correlates. Journal of Clinical Experimental Neuropsychology, 20, 807827.
Bayley, P.J., Frascino, J.C., Squire, L.R. (2005). Robust habit learning in the absence of awareness and independent of the medial temporal lobe. Nature, 436, 550553.
Bayley, P.J., Hopkins, R.O., Squire, L.R. (2003). Successful recollection of remote autobiographical memories by amnesic patients with medial temporal lobe lesions. Neuron, 38, 135144.
Bayley, P.J., Hopkins, R.O., Squire, L.R. (2006). The fate of old memories after medial temporal lobe damage. Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 1331113317.
Bird, C.M., Burgess, N. (2008). The hippocampus and memory: Insights from spatial processing. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 9, 182194.
Bright, P., Buckman, J., Fradera, A., Yoshimasu, H., Colchester, A.C., Kopelman, M.D. (2006). Retrograde amnesia in patients with hippocampal, medial temporal, temporal lobe, or frontal pathology. Learning and Memory, 13, 545557.
Brunet, A., Orr, S.P., Tremblay, J., Robertson, K., Nader, K., Pitman, R.K. (2008). Effect of post-retrieval propranolol on psychophysiologic responding during subsequent script-driven traumatic imagery in post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 42, 503506.
Burnham, W.H. (1904). Retroactive amnesia: Illustrative cases and a tentative explanation. American Journal of Psychology, 14, 382396.
Cermak, L.S. (1984). The episodic-semantic distinction in memory. In L.R. Squire & N. Butters (Eds.), The neuropsychology of memory (pp. 5562). New York: Guilford Press.
Cermak, L.S., O'Connor, M. (1983). The anterograde and retrograde retrieval ability of a patient with amnesia due to encephalitis. Neuropsychologia, 21, 213234.
Chan, D., Henley, S.M., Rossor, M.N., Warrington, E.K. (2007). Extensive and temporally ungraded retrograde amnesia in encephalitis associated with antibodies to voltage-gated potassium channels. Archives of Neurology, 64, 404410.
Chan, J.C., Thomas, A.K., Bulevich, J.B. (2009). Recalling a witnessed event increases eyewitness suggestibility: The reversed testing effect. Psychological Science, 20, 6673.
Cipolotti, L., Shallice, T., Chan, D., Fox, N., Scahill, R., Harrison, G., Rudge, P. (2001). Long-term retrograde amnesia…the crucial role of the hippocampus. Neuropsychologia, 39, 151172.
Conway, M.A., Pleydell-Pearce, C.W. (2000). The construction of autobiographical memories in the self-memory system. Psychological Review, 107, 261288.
Corkin, S. (1984). Lasting consequences of bilateral medial temporal lobectomy: Clinical course and experimental findings in H.M. Neurology, 4, 249259.
Crovitz, H.F., Schiffman, H. (1974). Frequency of episodic memories as a function of age. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 4, 517518.
Damasio, A.R., Eslinger, P.J., Damasio, H., Van Hoesen, G.W., Cornell, S. (1985). Multimodal amnesic syndrome following bilateral temporal and basal forebrain damage. Archives of Neurology, 42, 252259.
Daselaar, S.M., Rice, H.J., Greenberg, D.L., Cabeza, R., LaBar, K.S., Rubin, D.C. (2008). The spatiotemporal dynamics of autobiographical memory: Neural correlates of recall, emotional intensity, and reliving. Cerebal Cortex, 18, 217229.
D'Esposito, M., Verfaille, M., Alexander, M.P., Katz, D. (1995). Amnesia following traumatic bilateral fornix transaction. Neurology, 45, 15461550.
Eichenbaum, H., Otto, T., Cohen, N.J. (1994). Two functional components of the hippocampal memory system. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 17, 449518.
Eichenbaum, H., Yonelinas, A.P., Ranganath, C. (2007). The medial temporal lobe and recognition memory. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 30, 123152.
Forcato, C., Burgos, V.L., Argibay, P.F., Molina, V.A., Pedreira, M.E., Maldonado, H. (2007). Reconsolidation of declarative memory in humans. Learning and Memory, 14, 295303.
Frankland, P.W., Bontempi, B. (2005). The organization of recent and remote memories. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6, 119130.
Fujii, T., Moscovitch, M., Nadel, L. (2000). Consolidation, retrograde amnesia, and the temporal lobe. In F. Boller, & J. Grafman (Eds.), The handbook of neuropsychology (2nd ed., Vol. 2). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Gaffan, D., Wilson, C.R. (2008). Medial temporal and prefrontal function: Recent behavioural disconnection studies in the macaque monkey. Cortex, 44, 928935.
Gilboa, A., Winocur, G., Grady, C.L., Hevenor, S.J., Moscovitch, M. (2004). Remembering our past: Functional neuroanatomy of recollection of recent and very remote personal events. Cerebral Cortex, 14, 12141225.
Gilboa, A., Winocur, G., Rosenbaum, R.S., Poreh, A., Gao, F., Black, S.E., Moscovitch, M. (2006). Hippocampal contributions to recollection in retrograde and anterograde amnesia. Hippocampus, 16, 966980.
Graham, K.S., Patterson, K., Hodges, J.R. (1999). Episodic memory: New insights from the study of semantic dementia. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 9, 245250.
Graham, K.S., Simons, J.S., Pratt, K.H., Patterson, K., Hodges, J.R. (2000). Insights from semantic dementia on the relationship between episodic and semantic memory. Neuropsychologia, 38, 313324.
Greene, J.D., Hodges, J.R., Baddeley, A.D. (1995). Autobiographical memory and executive function in early dementia of Alzheimer type. Neuropsychologia, 33, 16471670.
Hassabis, D., Kumaran, D., Vann, S.D., Maguire, E.A. (2007). Patients with hippocampal amnesia cannot imagine new experiences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of United States of America, 104, 17261731.
Hepner, I.J., Mohamed, A., Fulham, M.J., Miller, L.A. (2007). Topographical, autobiographical and semantic memory in a patient with bilateral mesial temporal and retrosplenial infarction. Neurocase, 13, 97114.
Hirano, M., Noguchi, K. (1998). Dissociation between specific personal episodes and other aspects of remote memory in a patient with hippocampal amnesia. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 87, 99107.
Hirshhorn, M., Newman, L., Moscovitch, M. (2010). Detailed descriptions of routes travelled, but not map-like knowledge correlate with tests of hippocampal function. Hippocampus [Epub ahead of print].
Hodges, J.R., Carpenter, K. (1991). Anterograde amnesia with fornix damage following removal of IIIrd ventricle colloid cyst. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 54, 633638.
Hou, C.E., Miller, B.L., Kramer, J.H. (2005). Patterns of autobiographical memory loss in dementia. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20, 809815.
Hupbach, A., Gomez, R., Hardt, O., Nadel, L. (2007). Reconsolidation of episodic memories: A subtle reminder triggers integration of new information. Learning and Memory, 14, 4753.
Hupbach, A., Hardt, O., Gomez, R., Nadel, L. (2008). The dynamics of memory: Context-dependent updating. Learning and Memory, 15, 574579.
Ivanoiu, A., Cooper, J.C., Shanks, M.F., Venneri, A. (2004). Retrieval of episodic and semantic autobiographical memories in early Alzheimer's Disease and Semantic Dementia [abstract]. Cortex, 40, 173175.
Kapur, N., Brooks, D.J. (1999). Temporally-specific retrograde amnesia in two cases of discrete bilateral hippocampal pathology. Hippocampus, 9, 247254.
Kartsounis, L.R., Rudge, P., Stevens, J.M. (1995). Bilateral lesion of CA1-CA2 fields of the hippocampus are sufficient to cause a severe amnesic syndrome in humans. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 59, 9598.
Kinsbourne, M., Wood, F. (1975). Short-term memory processes and the amnesic syndrome. In D. Deutsch, & A.J. Deutsch (Eds.), Short-term memory (pp. 258291). New York: Academic Press.
Kirwan, C.B., Bayley, P.J., Galvan, V.V., Squire, L.R. (2008). Detailed recollection of remote autobiographical memory after damage to the medial temporal lobe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of United States of America, 105, 26762680.
Kopelman, M.D. (1989). Remote and autobiographical memory, temporal context memory and frontal atrophy in Korsakoff and Alzheimer patients. Neuropsychologia, 27, 437460.
Kopelman, M.D., Stanhope, N., Kingsley, D. (1999). Retrograde amnesia in patients with diencephalic, temporal lobe or frontal lesions. Neuropsychologia, 37, 939958.
Kopelman, M.D., Wilson, B.A., Baddeley, A.D. (1989). The autobiographical memory interview: A new assessment of autobiographical and personal semantic memory in amnesic patients. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 11, 724744.
Levine, B., Svoboda, E., Hay, J.F., Winocur, G., Moscovitch, M. (2002). Aging and autobiographical memory: Dissociating episodic from semantic retrieval. Psychology and Aging, 17, 677689.
Leyhe, T., Muller, S., Eschweiler, G.W., Saur, R. (2010). Deterioration of the memory for historic events in patients with mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer's disease. Neuropsychologia, 48, 40934101.
Leyhe, T., Muller, S., Milian, M., Eschweiler, G.W., Saur, R. (2009). Impairment of episodic and semantic autobiographical memory in patients with mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer's disease. Neuropsychologia, 47, 24642469.
Loftus, E. (2003). Our changeable memories: Legal and practical implications. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 4, 231234.
Maguire, E.A., Kumaran, D., Hassabis, D., Kopelman, M.D. (2010). Autobiographical memory in semantic dementia: A longitudinal fMRI study. Neuropsychologia, 48, 123136.
Maguire, E.A., Nannery, R., Spiers, H.J. (2006). Navigation around London by a taxi driver with bilateral hippocampal lesions. Brain, 129, 28942907.
Manns, J.R., Hopkins, R.O., Squire, L.R. (2003). Semantic memory and the human hippocampus. Neuron, 38, 127133.
Marslen-Wilson, W., Teuber, H.L. (1975). Memory for remote events in anterograde amnesia: Recognition of public figures from news photographs. Neuropsychologia, 13, 353364.
Maviel, T., Durkin, T.P., Menzaghi, F., Bontempi, B. (2004). Sites of neocortical reorganization critical for remote spatial memory. Science, 305, 9699.
Mayes, A.R., Montaldi, D. (1997). Neuroradiological approaches to the study of organic amnesia. In A.J. Parkin (Ed.), Studies in the neuropsychology of memory (pp. 733). East Sussex: Psychology Press.
McKinnon, M.C., Black, S.E., Miller, B., Moscovitch, M., Levine, B. (2006). Autobiographical memory in semantic dementia: Implication for theories of limbic-neocortical interaction in remote memory. Neuropsychologia, 44, 24212429.
Moscovitch, M. (1992). Memory and working-with-memory: A component process model based on modules and central systems. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 4, 257267.
Moscovitch, M., Nadel, L., Winocur, G., Gilboa, A., Rosenbaum, R.S. (2006). The cognitive neuroscience of remote episodic, semantic and spatial memory. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 16, 179190.
Moscovitch, M., Rosenbaum, R.S., Gilboa, A., Addis, D.R., Westmacott, R., Grady, C., Nadel, L. (2005). Functional neuroanatomy of remote episodic, semantic and spatial memory: A unified account based on multiple trace theory. Journal of Anatomy, 207, 3566.
Moscovitch, M., Winocur, G. (2002). The frontal cortex and working with memory. In D.T. Stuss, & R.T. Knight (Eds.), Principles of frontal lobe function (pp. 188209). London: Oxford University Press.
Moses, S.N., Ryan, J.D. (2006). A comparison and evaluation of the predictions of relational and conjunctive accounts of hippocampal function. Hippocampus, 16, 4365.
Murphy, K.J., Troyer, A.K., Levine, B., Moscovitch, M. (2008). Episodic, but not semantic, autobiographical memory is reduced in amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Neuropsychologia, 46, 31163123.
Nadel, L. (2008). The hippocampus and context revisited. In S.J.Y. Mizumori (Ed.), Hippocampal place fields: Relevance to learning and memory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Nadel, L., Moscovitch, M. (1997). Memory consolidation, retrograde amnesia and the hippocampal complex. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 7, 217227.
Nader, K., Hardt, O. (2009). A single standard for memory: The case for reconsolidation. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10, 224234.
Noulhiane, M., Piolino, P., Hasboun, D., Clemenceau, S., Baulac, M., Samson, S. (2007). Autobiographical memory after temporal lobe resection: Neuropsychological and MRI volumetric findings. Brain, 130, 31843199.
O'Connor, M., Butters, N., Miliotis, P., Eslinger, P., Cermak, L.S. (1992). The dissociation of anterograde and retrograde amnesia in a patient with herpes encephalitis. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 14, 159178.
O'Keefe, J., Nadel, L. (1978). The hippocampus as a cognitive map. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Park, S.A., Hahn, J.H., Kim, J.I., Na, D.L., Huh, K. (2000). Memory deficits after bilateral anterior fornix infarction. Neurology, 54, 13791382.
Petrican, R., Gopie, N., Leach, L., Chow, T.W., Richards, B., Moscovitch, M. (2010). Recollection and familiarity for public events in neurologically intact older adults and two brain-damaged patients. Neuropsychologia, 48, 945960.
Piolino, P., Desgranges, B., Belliard, S., Matuszewski, V., Lalevee, C., De la Sayette, V., Eustache, F. (2003). Autobiographical memory and autonoetic consciousness: Triple dissociation in neurodegenerative diseases. Brain, 126, 22032219.
Piolino, P., Desgranges, B., Clarys, D., Guillery-Girard, B., Taconnat, L., Isingrini, M., Eustache, F. (2006). Autobiographical memory, autonoetic consciousness, and self-perspective in aging. Psychology and Aging, 21, 510525.
Piolino, P., Desgranges, B., Eustache, F. (2009). Episodic autobiographical memories over the course of time: Cognitive, neuropsychological and neuroimaging findings. Neuropsychologia, 47, 23142329.
Poreh, A., Winocur, G., Moscovitch, M., Backon, M., Goshen, E., Ram, Z., Feldman, Z. (2006). Anterograde and retrograde amnesia in a person with bilateral fornix lesions following removal of a colloid cyst. Neuropsychologia, 44, 22412248.
Reed, J.M., Squire, L.R. (1998). Retrograde amnesia for facts and events: Findings from four new cases. Journal of Neuroscience, 18, 39433954.
Rekkas, P.V., Constable, R.T. (2005). Evidence that autobiographic memory retrieval does not become independent of the hippocampus: An fMRI study contrasting very recent with remote events. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 17, 19501961.
Rempel-Clower, N., Zola-Morgan, S., Squire, L.R., Amaral, D.G. (1996). Three cases of enduring memory impairment following bilateral damage limited to the hippocampal formation. Journal of Neuroscience, 16, 52335255.
Rosenbaum, R.S., Kohler, S., Schacter, D.L., Moscovitch, M., Westmacott, R., Black, S.E., Tulving, E. (2005). The case of K.C.: Contributions of a memory-impaired person to memory theory. Neuropsychologia, 43, 9891021.
Rosenbaum, R.S., Moscovitch, M., Foster, J.K., Schnyer, D.M., Gao, F., Kovacevic, N., Levine, B. (2008). Patterns of autobiographical memory loss in medial-temporal lobe amnesic patients. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20, 14901506.
Rosenbaum, R.S., Winocur, G., Moscovitch, M. (2001). New views on old memories: Re-evaluating the role of the hippocampal complex. Behavioural Brain Research, 127, 183197.
Sackeim, H.E., Prudic, J., Devanand, D.P., Nobler, M.S., Lisanby, S.H., Peyser, S., Clark, J. (2000). A prospective, randomized, double-blind comparison of bilateral and right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy at different stimulus intensities. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 425434.
Sanders, H.I., Warrington, E.K. (1971). Memory for remote events in amnesic patients. Brain, 94, 6168.
Schnider, A., Bassetti, C., Gutbrod, K., Ozdoba, C. (1995). Very severe amnesia with acute onset after isolated hippocampal damage due to systemic lupus erythematosus. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 59, 644646.
Scoville, W., Milner, B. (1957). Loss of recent memory after bilateral hippocampal lesions. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 20, 1121.
Sharon, T., Moscovitch, M., Gilboa, A. (2011). Rapid neocortical acquisition of long-term arbitrary associations independent of the hippocampus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U S A, 108, 11461151.
Squire, L.R. (1992). Memory and the hippocampal region: A synthesis of findings with rats, monkeys, and humans. Psychological Review, 99, 195231.
Squire, L.R., Alvarez, P. (1995). Retrograde amnesia and memory consolidation: A neurobiological perspective. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 5, 169177.
Squire, L.R., Bayley, P.J. (2007). The neuroscience of remote memory. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 17, 185196.
Squire, L.R., Slater, P.C., Chace, P.M. (1975). Retrograde amnesia: Temporal gradient in very long term memory following electroconvulsive therapy. Science, 187, 7779.
Squire, L.R., Wixted, J.T., Clark, R.E. (2007). Recognition memory and the medial temporal lobe: A new perspective. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 8, 872883.
Squire, L.R., Zola, S.M. (1998). Episodic memory, semantic memory, and amnesia. Hippocampus, 8, 205211.
Steinvorth, S., Levine, B., Corkin, S. (2005). Medial temporal lobe structures are needed to re-experience remote autobiographical memories: Evidence from H.M. and W.R. Neuropsychologia, 43, 479496.
Takehara, K., Kawahara, S., Kirino, Y. (2003). Time-dependent reorganization of the brain components underlying memory retention in trace eyeblink conditioning. Journal of Neuroscience, 23, 98979905.
Takehara, K., Nakao, K., Kawahara, S., Matsuki, N., Kirino, Y. (2006). Systems consolidation requires postlearning activation of NMDA receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex in trace eyeblink conditioning. Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 50495058.
Tulving, E., Schacter, D.L., McLachlan, D.R., Moscovitch, M. (1988). Priming of semantic autobiographical knowledge: A case study of retrograde amnesia. Brain and Cognition, 8, 320.
Victor, M., Agamanolis, D. (1990). Amnesia due to lesions confined to the hippocampus: A clinical-pathologic study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 2, 246257.
Viskontas, I.V., Carr, V.A., Engel, S.A., Knowlton, B.J. (2009). The neural correlates of recollection: Hippocampal activation declines as episodic memory fades. Hippocampus, 19, 265272.
Viskontas, I.V., McAndrews, M.P., Moscovitch, M. (2000). Remote episodic memory deficits in patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy and excisions. Journal of Neuroscience, 20, 58535857.
Warrington, E.K., Duchen, L.W. (1992). A re-appraisal of a case of persistent global amnesia following right temporal lobectomy: A clinico-pathological study. Neuropsychologia, 30, 437450.
Warrington, E.K., McCarthy, R.A. (1988). The fractionation of retrograde amnesia. Brain and Cognition, 7, 184200.
Westmacott, R., Black, S.E., Freedman, M., Moscovitch, M. (2004). The contribution of autobiographical significance to semantic memory: Evidence from Alzheimer's disease, semantic dementia, and amnesia. Neuropsychologia, 42, 2548.
Westmacott, R., Leach, L., Freedman, M., Moscovitch, M. (2001). Different patterns of autobiographical memory loss in semantic dementia and medial temporal lobe amnesia: A challenge to consolidation theory. Neurocase, 7, 3755.
Westmacott, R., Moscovitch, M. (2003). The contribution of autobiographical significance to semantic memory. Memory and Cognition, 31, 761774.
Wiltgen, B.J., Silva, A.J. (2007). Memory for context becomes less specific with time. Learning and Memory, 14, 313317.
Wiltgen, B.J., Zhou, M., Cai, Y., Balaji, J., Karlsson, M.G., Parivash, S.N., Silva, A.J. (2010). The hippocampus plays a selective role in the retrieval of detailed contextual memories. Current Biology, 20, 13361344.
Winocur, G., Frankland, P.W., Sekeres, M., Fogel, S., Moscovitch, M. (2009). Changes in context-specificity during memory reconsolidation: Selective effects of hippocampal lesions. Learning and Memory, 16, 722729.
Winocur, G., Moscovitch, M., Bontempi, B. (2010). Memory formation and long-term retention in humans and animals: Convergence towards a transformation account of hippocampal-neocortical interactions. Neuropsychologia, 48, 23392356.
Winocur, G., Moscovitch, M., Fogel, S., Rosenbaum, R.S., Sekeres, M. (2005). Preserved spatial memory after hippocampal lesions: Effects of extensive experience in a complex environment. Nature Neuroscience, 8, 273275.
Winocur, G., Moscovitch, M., Rosenbaum, R.S., Sekeres, M. (2010). An investigation of the effects of hippocampal lesions in rats on pre- and postoperatively acquired spatial memory in a complex environment. Hippocampus, 20, 13501365.
Winocur, G., Moscovitch, M., Sekeres, M. (2007). Memory consolidation or transformation: Context manipulation and hippocampal representations of memory. Nature Neuroscience, 10, 555557.
Wolbers, T., Buchel, C. (2005). Dissociable retrosplenial and hippocampal contributions to successful formation of survey representations. Journal of Neuroscience, 25, 33333340.
Yasuno, F., Hirata, M., Takimoto, H., Taniguchi, M., Nakagawa, Y., Ikejiri, Y., Takeda, M. (1999). Retrograde temporal order amnesia resulting from damage to the fornix. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 67, 102105.
Yonelinas, A.P. (2002). The nature of recollection and familairity: A review of 30 years of research. Journal of Memory and Language, 46, 441517.
Yoon, S.S., Na, D.L., Park, K.C. (2008). Retrograde amnesia associated with fornix lymphoma. European Journal of Neurology, 60, 155158.

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed