Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Decreased White Matter Integrity in Neuropsychologically Defined Mild Cognitive Impairment Is Independent of Cortical Thinning

  • Nikki H. Stricker (a1) (a2), David H. Salat (a3) (a4) (a5) (a6), Jessica M. Foley (a1) (a6), Tyler A. Zink (a1), Ida L. Kellison (a1), Craig P. McFarland (a1), Laura J. Grande (a1) (a2), Regina E. McGlinchey (a4) (a6), William P. Milberg (a4) (a6) and Elizabeth C. Leritz (a3) (a4) (a6) (a7)...

Abstract

Improved understanding of the pattern of white matter changes in early and prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD) states such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is necessary to support earlier preclinical detection of AD, and debate remains whether white matter changes in MCI are secondary to gray matter changes. We applied neuropsychologically based MCI criteria to a sample of normally aging older adults; 32 participants met criteria for MCI and 81 participants were classified as normal control (NC) subjects. Whole-head high resolution T1 and diffusion tensor imaging scans were completed. Tract-Based Spatial Statistics was applied and a priori selected regions of interest were extracted. Hippocampal volume and cortical thickness averaged across regions with known vulnerability to AD were derived. Controlling for cortical thickness, the MCI group showed decreased average fractional anisotropy (FA) and decreased FA in parietal white matter and in white matter underlying the entorhinal and posterior cingulate cortices relative to the NC group. Statistically controlling for cortical thickness, medial temporal FA was related to memory and parietal FA was related to executive functioning. These results provide further support for the potential role of white matter integrity as an early biomarker for individuals at risk for AD and highlight that changes in white matter may be independent of gray matter changes. (JINS, 2013, 19, 1–13)

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Decreased White Matter Integrity in Neuropsychologically Defined Mild Cognitive Impairment Is Independent of Cortical Thinning
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Decreased White Matter Integrity in Neuropsychologically Defined Mild Cognitive Impairment Is Independent of Cortical Thinning
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Decreased White Matter Integrity in Neuropsychologically Defined Mild Cognitive Impairment Is Independent of Cortical Thinning
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence and reprint requests to: Nikki H. Stricker, VA Boston Medical Center (116B), 150 S. Huntington Avenue, Jamaica Plain, MA 02130. E-mail: stricker@bu.edu

References

Hide All
Albert, M.S., DeKosky, S.T., Dickson, D., Dubois, B., Feldman, H.H., Fox, N.C., Phelps, C.H. (2011). The diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease: Recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers & Dementia, 7(3), 270279.
Albert, M.S., Moss, M.B., Tanzi, R., Jones, K. (2001). Preclinical prediction of AD using neuropsychological tests. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 7(5), 631639.
Bakkour, A., Morris, J.C., Dickerson, B.C. (2009). The cortical signature of prodromal AD: Regional thinning predicts mild AD dementia. Neurology, 72(12), 10481055.
Behrens, T.E., Woolrich, M.W., Jenkinson, M., Johansen-Berg, H., Nunes, R.G., Clare, S., Smith, S.M. (2003). Characterization and propagation of uncertainty in diffusion-weighted MR imaging. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, 50(5), 10771088.
Bosch, B., Arenaza-Urquijo, E.M., Rami, L., Sala-Llonch, R., Junque, C., Sole-Padulles, C., Bartres-Faz, D. (2012). Multiple DTI index analysis in normal aging, amnestic MCI and AD. Relationship with neuropsychological performance. Neurobiology of Aging, 33(1), 6174.
Braak, H., Braak, E. (1996). Evolution of the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica Supplement, 165, 312.
Brown, A.D., McMorris, C.A., Longman, R.S., Leigh, R., Hill, M.D., Friedenreich, C.M., Poulin, M.J. (2008). Effects of cardiorespiratory fitness and cerebral blood flow on cognitive outcomes in older women. Neurobiology of Aging, 31(12), 20472057.
Brun, A., Englund, E. (1986). A white matter disorder in dementia of the Alzheimer type: A pathoanatomical study. Annals of Neurology, 19(3), 253262.
Buckner, R.L., Andrews-Hanna, J.R., Schacter, D.L. (2008). The brain's default network: Anatomy, function, and relevance to disease. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1124, 138.
Catheline, G., Periot, O., Amirault, M., Braun, M., Dartigues, J.F., Auriacombe, S., Allard, M. (2010). Distinctive alterations of the cingulum bundle during aging and Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiology of Aging, 31(9), 15821592.
Chang, Y.L., Bondi, M.W., Fennema-Notestine, C., McEvoy, L.K., Hagler, D.J. Jr., Jacobson, M.W., Dale, A.M. (2010). Brain substrates of learning and retention in mild cognitive impairment diagnosis and progression to Alzheimer's disease. Neuropsychologia, 48(5), 12371247.
Chen, T.F., Chen, Y.F., Cheng, T.W., Hua, M.S., Liu, H.M., Chiu, M.J. (2009). Executive dysfunction and periventricular diffusion tensor changes in amnesic mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer's disease. Human Brain Mapping, 30(11), 38263836.
Chua, T.C., Wen, W., Chen, X., Kochan, N., Slavin, M.J., Trollor, J.N., Sachdev, P.S. (2009). Diffusion tensor imaging of the posterior cingulate is a useful biomarker of mild cognitive impairment. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 17(7), 602613.
Chua, T.C., Wen, W., Slavin, M.J., Sachdev, P.S. (2008). Diffusion tensor imaging in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: A review. Current Opinion in Neurology, 21(1), 8392.
Craig-Schapiro, R., Fagan, A.M., Holtzman, D.M. (2009). Biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiology of Disease, 35(2), 128140.
Dale, A.M., Fischl, B., Sereno, M.I. (1999). Cortical surface-based analysis. I. Segmentation and surface reconstruction. Neuroimage, 9(2), 179194.
de la Torre, J.C. (2002). Vascular basis of Alzheimer's pathogenesis. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 977, 196215.
Delano-Wood, L., Bondi, M.W., Jak, A.J., Horne, N.R., Schweinsburg, B.C., Frank, L.R., Salmon, D.P. (2010). Stroke risk modifies regional white matter differences in mild cognitive impairment. Neurobiology of Aging, 31(10), 17211731.
Delano-Wood, L., Stricker, N.H., Sorg, S.F., Nation, D.A., Jak, A.J., Woods, S.P., Bondi, M.W. (2012). Posterior cingulum white matter disruption and its associations with verbal memory and stroke risk in mild cognitive impairment. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 29(3), 589603.
Delis, D.C., Kramer, J.H., Kaplan, E., Ober, B.A. (2000). California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.
Desikan, R.S., Cabral, H.J., Hess, C.P., Dillon, W.P., Glastonbury, C.M., Weiner, M.W., Fischl, B. (2009). Automated MRI measures identify individuals with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Brain, 132(Pt 8), 20482057.
Desikan, R.S., Segonne, F., Fischl, B., Quinn, B.T., Dickerson, B.C., Blacker, D., Killiany, R.J. (2006). An automated labeling system for subdividing the human cerebral cortex on MRI scans into gyral based regions of interest. Neuroimage, 31(3), 968980.
Devanand, D.P., Bansal, R., Liu, J., Hao, X., Pradhaban, G., Peterson, B.S. (2012). MRI hippocampal and entorhinal cortex mapping in predicting conversion to Alzheimer's disease. Neuroimage, 60(3), 16221629.
Dhikav, V., Anand, K.S. (2012). Are vascular factors linked to the development of hippocampal atrophy in Alzheimer's disease? Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 32(3), 711718.
Dickerson, B.C., Bakkour, A., Salat, D.H., Feczko, E., Pacheco, J., Greve, D.N., Buckner, R.L. (2009). The cortical signature of Alzheimer's disease: Regionally specific cortical thinning relates to symptom severity in very mild to mild AD dementia and is detectable in asymptomatic amyloid-positive individuals. Cerebral Cortex, 19(3), 497510.
Dickerson, B.C., Stoub, T.R., Shah, R.C., Sperling, R.A., Killiany, R.J., Albert, M.S., Detoledo-Morrell, L. (2011). Alzheimer-signature MRI biomarker predicts AD dementia in cognitively normal adults. Neurology, 76(16), 13951402.
Fellgiebel, A., Muller, M.J., Wille, P., Dellani, P.R., Scheurich, A., Schmidt, L.G., Stoeter, P. (2005). Color-coded diffusion-tensor-imaging of posterior cingulate fiber tracts in mild cognitive impairment. Neurobiology of Aging, 26(8), 11931198.
Fennema-Notestine, C., Hagler, D.J. Jr., McEvoy, L.K., Fleisher, A.S., Wu, E.H., Karow, D.S., Dale, A.M. (2009). Structural MRI biomarkers for preclinical and mild Alzheimer's disease. Human Brain Mapping, 30(10), 32383253.
Fischer, P., Jungwirth, S., Zehetmayer, S., Weissgram, S., Hoenigschnabl, S., Gelpi, E., Tragl, K.H. (2007). Conversion from subtypes of mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer dementia. Neurology, 68(4), 288291.
Fischl, B., Salat, D.H., Busa, E., Albert, M., Dieterich, M., Haselgrove, C., Dale, A.M. (2002). Whole brain segmentation: Automated labeling of neuroanatomical structures in the human brain. Neuron, 33(3), 341355.
Fischl, B., Sereno, M.I., Dale, A.M. (1999). Cortical surface-based analysis. II: Inflation, flattening, and a surface-based coordinate system. Neuroimage, 9(2), 195207.
Fjell, A.M., Walhovd, K.B., Amlien, I., Bjornerud, A., Reinvang, I., Gjerstad, L., Fladby, T. (2008). Morphometric changes in the episodic memory network and tau pathologic features correlate with memory performance in patients with mild cognitive impairment. AJNR American Journal of Neuroradiology, 29(6), 11831189.
Goldstein, F.C., Mao, H., Wang, L., Ni, C., Lah, J.J., Levey, A.I. (2009). White matter integrity and episodic memory performance in mild cognitive impairment: A diffusion tensor imaging study. Brain Imaging and Behavior, 3(2), 132141.
Gomez-Isla, T., Price, J.L., McKeel, D.W. Jr., Morris, J.C., Growdon, J.H., Hyman, B.T. (1996). Profound loss of layer II entorhinal cortex neurons occurs in very mild Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Neuroscience, 16(14), 44914500.
Grambaite, R., Reinvang, I., Selnes, P., Fjell, A.M., Walhovd, K.B., Stenset, V., Fladby, T. (2011). Pre-dementia memory impairment is associated with white matter tract affection. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 17(1), 143153.
Greve, D.N., Fischl, B. (2009). Accurate and robust brain image alignment using boundary-based registration. Neuroimage, 48(1), 6372.
Griffith, H.R., Netson, K.L., Harrell, L.E., Zamrini, E.Y., Brockington, J.C., Marson, D.C. (2006). Amnestic mild cognitive impairment: Diagnostic outcomes and clinical prediction over a two-year time period. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 12(2), 166175.
Guo, X., Pantoni, L., Simoni, M., Bengtsson, C., Bjorkelund, C., Lissner, L., Skoog, I. (2009). Blood pressure components and changes in relation to white matter lesions: A 32-year prospective population study. Hypertension, 54(1), 5762.
Heaton, R.K., Chelune, G.J., Talley, J.L., Kay, G.G., Curtis, G. (1993). Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) manual, revised and expanded. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Heaton, R.K., Miller, S.W., Taylor, M.J., Grant, I. (2004). Revised comprehensive norms for an expanded Halstead-Reitan Battery: Demographically adjusted neuropsychological norms for African American and Caucasian Adults. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.
Holm, L., Cassidy, J.D., Carroll, L.J., Borg, J. (2005). Summary of the WHO Collaborating Centre for Neurotrauma Task Force on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 37(3), 137141.
Huang, H., Fan, X., Weiner, M., Martin-Cook, K., Xiao, G., Davis, J., Diaz-Arrastia, R. (2012). Distinctive disruption patterns of white matter tracts in Alzheimer's disease with full diffusion tensor characterization. Neurobiology of Aging, 33(9), 20292045.
Huang, J., Auchus, A.P. (2007). Diffusion tensor imaging of normal appearing white matter and its correlation with cognitive functioning in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1097, 259264.
Jack, C.R. Jr., Knopman, D.S., Jagust, W.J., Shaw, L.M., Aisen, P.S., Weiner, M.W., Trojanowski, J.Q. (2010). Hypothetical model of dynamic biomarkers of the Alzheimer's pathological cascade. Lancet Neurology, 9(1), 119128.
Jacobs, H.I., Van Boxtel, M.P., Jolles, J., Verhey, F.R., Uylings, H.B. (2012). Parietal cortex matters in Alzheimer's disease: An overview of structural, functional and metabolic findings. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 36(1), 297309.
Jak, A.J., Bangen, K.J., Wierenga, C.E., Delano-Wood, L., Corey-Bloom, J., Bondi, M.W. (2009). Contributions of neuropsychology and neuroimaging to understanding clinical subtypes of mild cognitive impairment. International Review of Neurobiology, 84, 81103.
Jak, A.J., Bondi, M.W., Delano-Wood, L., Wierenga, C., Corey-Bloom, J., Salmon, D.P., Delis, D.C. (2009). Quantification of five neuropsychological approaches to defining mild cognitive impairment. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 17(5), 368375.
Kim, S.H., Park, J.S., Ahn, H.J., Seo, S.W., Lee, J.M., Kim, S.T., Na, D.L. (2011). Voxel-based analysis of diffusion tensor imaging in patients with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment: Correlates with cognitive and motor deficits. Journal of Neuroimaging, 21(4), 317324.
Lawton, M.P., Brody, E.M. (1969). Assessment of older people: Self-maintaining and instrumental activities of daily living. Gerontologist, 9(3), 179186.
Leritz, E.C., Salat, D.H., Milberg, W.P., Williams, V.J., Chapman, C.E., Grande, L.J., McGlinchey, R.E. (2010). Variation in blood pressure is associated with white matter microstructure but not cognition in African Americans. Neuropsychology, 24(2), 199208.
Leritz, E.C., Salat, D.H., Williams, V.J., Schnyer, D.M., Rudolph, J.L., Lipsitz, L., Milberg, W.P. (2010). Thickness of the human cerebral cortex is associated with metrics of cerebrovascular health in a normative sample of community dwelling older adults. Neuroimage, 54(4), 26592671.
Leszek, J., Sochocka, M., Gasiorowski, K. (2012). Vascular factors and epigenetic modifications in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 323(1-2), 2532.
Liu, Y., Spulber, G., Lehtimaki, K.K., Kononen, M., Hallikainen, I., Grohn, H., Soininen, H. (2011). Diffusion tensor imaging and tract-based spatial statistics in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. Neurobiology of Aging, 32(9), 15581571.
Medina, D., DeToledo-Morrell, L., Urresta, F., Gabrieli, J.D., Moseley, M., Fleischman, D., Stebbins, G.T. (2006). White matter changes in mild cognitive impairment and AD: A diffusion tensor imaging study. Neurobiology of Aging, 27(5), 663672.
O'Dwyer, L., Lamberton, F., Bokde, A.L., Ewers, M., Faluyi, Y.O., Tanner, C., Hampel, H. (2011). Multiple indices of diffusion identifies white matter damage in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. PLoS One, 6(6), e21745.
Parente, D.B., Gasparetto, E.L., da Cruz, L.C. Jr., Domingues, R.C., Baptista, A.C., Carvalho, A.C., Domingues, R.C. (2008). Potential role of diffusion tensor MRI in the differential diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. AJR American Journal of Roentgenology, 190(5), 13691374.
Pedraza, O., Clark, J.H., O'Bryant, S.E., Smith, G.E., Ivnik, R.J., Graff-Radford, N.R., Lucas, J.A. (2012). Diagnostic validity of age and education corrections for the Mini-Mental State Examination in older African Americans. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 60(2), 328331.
Richard, F., Pasquier, F. (2012). Can the treatment of vascular risk factors slow cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease patients? Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 32(3), 765772.
Rose, S.E., McMahon, K.L., Janke, A.L., O'Dowd, B., de Zubicaray, G., Strudwick, M.W., Chalk, J.B. (2006). MRI diffusion indices and neuropsychological performance in amnestic mild cogntive impairment. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 77(10), 11221128.
Rountree, S.D., Waring, S.C., Chan, W.C., Lupo, P.J., Darby, E.J., Doody, R.S. (2007). Importance of subtle amnestic and nonamnestic deficits in mild cognitive impairment: Prognosis and conversion to dementia. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 24(6), 476482.
Ruff, R.M., Allen, C.C. (1996). Ruff 2 & 7 Selective Attention Test: Professional Manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.
Salat, D.H., Lee, S.Y., van der Kouwe, A.J., Greve, D.N., Fischl, B., Rosas, H.D. (2009). Age-associated alterations in cortical gray and white matter signal intensity and gray to white matter contrast. Neuroimage, 48(1), 2128.
Salat, D.H., Tuch, D.S., van der Kouwe, A.J., Greve, D.N., Pappu, V., Lee, S.Y., Rosas, H.D. (2010). White matter pathology isolates the hippocampal formation in Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiology of Aging, 31(2), 244256.
Salat, D.H., Williams, V.J., Leritz, E.C., Schnyer, D.M., Rudolph, J.L., Lipsitz, L.A., Milberg, W.P. (2012). Inter-individual variation in blood pressure is associated with regional white matter integrity in generally healthy older adults. Neuroimage, 59(1), 181192.
Salmon, D.P., Thomas, R.G., Pay, M.M., Booth, A., Hofstetter, C.R., Thal, L.J., Katzman, R. (2002). Alzheimer's disease can be accurately diagnosed in very mildly impaired individuals. Neurology, 59(7), 10221028.
Schneider, J.A., Arvanitakis, Z., Leurgans, S.E., Bennett, D.A. (2009). The neuropathology of probable Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment. Annals of Neurology, 66(2), 200208.
Scola, E., Bozzali, M., Agosta, F., Magnani, G., Franceschi, M., Sormani, M.P., Falini, A. (2010). A diffusion tensor MRI study of patients with MCI and AD with a 2-year clinical follow-up. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 81(7), 798805.
Selnes, P., Aarsland, D., Bjornerud, A., Gjerstad, L., Wallin, A., Hessen, E., Fladby, T. (2013). Diffusion tensor imaging surpasses cerebrospinal fluid as predictor of cognitive decline and medial temporal lobe atrophy in subjective cognitive impairment and mild cognitive impairment. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 33(3), 723736.
Selnes, P., Fjell, A.M., Gjerstad, L., Bjornerud, A., Wallin, A., Due-Tonnessen, P., Fladby, T. (2012). White matter imaging changes in subjective and mild cognitive impairment. Alzheimer's & Dementia, 8(5 Suppl), S112S121.
Shi, F., Liu, B., Zhou, Y., Yu, C., Jiang, T. (2009). Hippocampal volume and asymmetry in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: Meta-analyses of MRI studies. Hippocampus, 19(11), 10551064.
Shim, Y.S., Yoon, B., Shon, Y.M., Ahn, K.J., Yang, D.W. (2008). Difference of the hippocampal and white matter microalterations in MCI patients according to the severity of subcortical vascular changes: Neuropsychological correlates of diffusion tensor imaging. Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, 110(6), 552561.
Shu, N., Wang, Z., Qi, Z., Li, K., He, Y. (2011). Multiple diffusion indices reveals white matter degeneration in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment: A tract-based spatial statistics study. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 26(Suppl 3), 275285.
Smith, S.M., Jenkinson, M., Johansen-Berg, H., Rueckert, D., Nichols, T.E., Mackay, C.E., Behrens, T.E. (2006). Tract-based spatial statistics: Voxelwise analysis of multi-subject diffusion data. Neuroimage, 31(4), 14871505.
Smith, S.M., Jenkinson, M., Woolrich, M.W., Beckmann, C.F., Behrens, T.E., Johansen-Berg, H., Matthews, P.M. (2004). Advances in functional and structural MR image analysis and implementation as FSL. Neuroimage, 23(Suppl 1), S208S219.
Stricker, N.H., Schweinsburg, B.C., Delano-Wood, L., Wierenga, C.E., Bangen, K.J., Haaland, K.Y., Bondi, M.W. (2009). Decreased white matter integrity in late-myelinating fiber pathways in Alzheimer's disease supports retrogenesis. Neuroimage, 45(1), 1016.
Strittmatter, W.J., Roses, A.D. (1995). Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer disease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 92(11), 47254727.
Teng, E., Tingus, K.D., Lu, P.H., Cummings, J.L. (2009). Persistence of neuropsychological testing deficits in mild cognitive impairment. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 28(2), 168178.
Trenerry, M.R., Crosson, B., DeBoe, J., Leber, W.R. (1989). Stroop Neuropsychological Screening Test: Manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Walhovd, K.B., Fjell, A.M., Amlien, I., Grambaite, R., Stenset, V., Bjornerud, A., Fladby, T. (2009). Multimodal imaging in mild cognitive impairment: Metabolism, morphometry and diffusion of the temporal-parietal memory network. Neuroimage, 45(1), 215223.
Wang, L., Goldstein, F.C., Veledar, E., Levey, A.I., Lah, J.J., Meltzer, C.C., Mao, H. (2009). Alterations in cortical thickness and white matter integrity in mild cognitive impairment measured by whole-brain cortical thickness mapping and diffusion tensor imaging. AJNR American Journal of Neuroradiology, 30(5), 893899.
Wechsler, D. (1997a). Wechsler Adult Inteligence Scale - third edition manual. The Psychological Corporation.
Wechsler, D. (1997b). Wechsler Memory Scale - third edition manual. The Psychological Corporation.
Wenham, P.R., Price, W.H., Blandell, G. (1991). Apolipoprotein E genotyping by one-stage PCR. Lancet, 337(8750), 11581159.
Yesavage, J.A., Brink, T.L., Rose, T.L., Lum, O., Huang, V., Adey, M., Leirer, V.O. (1982). Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: A preliminary report. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 17(1), 3749.
Zhang, Y., Schuff, N., Jahng, G.H., Bayne, W., Mori, S., Schad, L., Weiner, M.W. (2007). Diffusion tensor imaging of cingulum fibers in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease. Neurology, 68(1), 1319.
Zhuang, L., Sachdev, P.S., Trollor, J.N., Kochan, N.A., Reppermund, S., Brodaty, H., Wen, W. (2012). Microstructural white matter changes in cognitively normal individuals at risk of amnestic MCI. Neurology, 79(8), 748754.
Zhuang, L., Wen, W., Zhu, W., Trollor, J., Kochan, N., Crawford, J., Sachdev, P. (2010). White matter integrity in mild cognitive impairment: A tract-based spatial statistics study. Neuroimage, 53(1), 1625.

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Decreased White Matter Integrity in Neuropsychologically Defined Mild Cognitive Impairment Is Independent of Cortical Thinning

  • Nikki H. Stricker (a1) (a2), David H. Salat (a3) (a4) (a5) (a6), Jessica M. Foley (a1) (a6), Tyler A. Zink (a1), Ida L. Kellison (a1), Craig P. McFarland (a1), Laura J. Grande (a1) (a2), Regina E. McGlinchey (a4) (a6), William P. Milberg (a4) (a6) and Elizabeth C. Leritz (a3) (a4) (a6) (a7)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.