Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Age-Related Atrophy and Compensatory Neural Networks in Reading Comprehension

  • Megan C. Fitzhugh (a1) (a2), B. Blair Braden (a2), Marwan N. Sabbagh (a3), Corianne Rogalsky (a2) and Leslie C. Baxter (a4)...

Abstract

Objectives: Despite changes to brain integrity with aging, some functions like basic language processes remain remarkably preserved. One theory for the maintenance of function in light of age-related brain atrophy is the engagement of compensatory brain networks. This study examined age-related changes in the neural networks recruited for simple language comprehension. Methods: Sixty-five adults (native English-speaking, right-handed, and cognitively normal) aged 17–85 years underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) reading paradigm and structural scanning. The fMRI data were analyzed using independent component analysis to derive brain networks associated with reading comprehension. Results: Two typical frontotemporal language networks were identified, and these networks remained relatively stable across the wide age range. In contrast, three attention-related networks showed increased activation with increasing age. Furthermore, the increased recruitment of a dorsal attention network was negatively correlated to gray matter thickness in temporal regions, whereas an anterior frontoparietal network was positively correlated to gray matter thickness in insular regions. Conclusions: We found evidence that older adults can exert increased effort and recruit additional attentional resources to maintain their reading abilities in light of increased cortical atrophy.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence and reprint requests to: Dr. Leslie C. Baxter, Department of Neuropsychology, Mayo Clinic Arizona, 5777 E. Mayo Blvd., Phoenix, AZ, 85054. E-mail: baxter.leslie@mayo.edu

References

Hide All
Alexander, G.E., Bergfield, K.L., Chen, K., Reiman, E.M., Hanson, K.D., Lin, L., Bandy, D., Caselli, R.J., & Moeller, J.R. (2012). Gray matter network associated with risk for Alzheimer’s disease in young to middle-aged adults. Neurobiology of Aging, 33(12), 27232732. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2012.01.014.
Alexander, G.E., Chen, K., Merkley, T.L., Reiman, E.M., Caselli, R.J., Aschenbrenner, M., Santerre-Lemmon, L., Lewis, D.J., Pietrini, P., Teipel, S.J., & Moeller, J.R. (2006). Regional network of magnetic resonance imaging gray matter volume in healthy aging. NeuroReport, 17(10), 951. doi: 10.1097/01.wnr.0000220135.16844.b6.
Andrews-Hanna, J.R., Snyder, A.Z., Vincent, J.L., Lustig, C., Head, D., Raichle, M.E., & Buckner, R.L. (2007). Disruption of large-scale brain systems in advanced aging. Neuron, 56(5), 924935. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2007.10.038.
Baltes, P.B. & Lindenberger, U. (1997). Emergence of a powerful connection between sensory and cognitive functions across the adult life span: a new window to the study of cognitive aging? Psychology and Aging, 12(1), 1221.
Beck, A.T., Steer, R.A., & Brown, G.K. (1996). Beck depression inventory-II. San Antonio, 78(2), 490498.
Bergfield, K.L., Hanson, K.D., Chen, K., Teipel, S.J., Hampel, H., Rapoport, S.I., Moeller, J.R., & Alexander, G.E. (2010). Age-related networks of regional covariance in MRI gray matter: reproducible multivariate patterns in healthy aging. NeuroImage, 49(2), 17501759. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.09.051.
Binder, J.R., Frost, J.A., Hammeke, T.A., Bellgowan, P.S.F., Springer, J.A., Kaufman, J.N., & Possing, E.T. (2000). Human temporal lobe activation by speech and nonspeech sounds. Cerebral Cortex, 10(5), 512528. doi: 10.1093/cercor/10.5.512.
Binder, J.R., Desai, R.H., Graves, W.W., & Conant, L.L. (2009). Where is the semantic system? A critical review and meta-analysis of 120 functional neuroimaging studies. Cerebral Cortex, 19(12), 27672796. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhp055.
Burke, D.M. & Shafto, M.A. (2008). Language and aging. In The handbook of aging and cognition. Informa UK Limited. Retrieved from doi: 10.4324/9780203837665.ch8.
Cabeza, R. (2002). Hemispheric asymmetry reduction in older adults: the HAROLD model. Psychology and Aging, 17(1), 85100. http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy1.lib.asu.edu/10.1037/0882-7974.17.1.85.
Calhoun, V.D. & de Lacy, N. (2017). Ten key observations on the analysis of resting-state functional MR imaging data using independent component analysis. Neuroimaging Clinics of North America, 27(4), 561579. doi: 10.1016/j.nic.2017.06.012.
Calhoun, V.D., Kiehl, K.A., & Pearlson, G.D. (2008). Modulation of temporally coherent brain networks estimated using ICA at rest and during cognitive tasks. Human Brain Mapping, 29(7), 828838. doi: 10.1002/hbm.20581.
Campbell, K.L., Samu, D., Davis, S.W., Geerligs, L., Mustafa, A., Tyler, L.K., & others. (2016). Robust resilience of the frontotemporal syntax system to aging. The Journal of Neuroscience, 36(19), 52145227.
Caplan, D., DeDe, G., Waters, G., Michaud, J., & Tripodis, Y. (2011). Effects of age, speed of processing, and working memory on comprehension of sentences with relative clauses. Psychology and Aging, 26(2), 439450. doi: 10.1037/a0021837.
Caplan, D. & Waters, G. (2005). The relationship between age, processing speed, working memory capacity, and language comprehension. Memory, 13(3-4), 403413. doi: 10.1080/09658210344000459.
Choi, W., Desai, R.H., & Henderson, J.M. (2014). The neural substrates of natural reading: a comparison of normal and nonword text using eyetracking and fMRI. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.01024.
Cole, M.W. & Schneider, W. (2007). The cognitive control network: integrated cortical regions with dissociable functions. NeuroImage, 37(1), 343360. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2007.03.071.
Corbetta, M. & Shulman, G.L. (2002). Control of goal-directed and stimulus-driven attention in the brain. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 3(3), 201215. doi: 10.1038/nrn755.
Dale, A.M., Fischl, B., & Sereno, M.I. (1999). Cortical surface-based analysis: I. Segmentation and surface reconstruction. Neuroimage, 9(2), 179194.
Damoiseaux, J.S., Beckmann, C.F., Arigita, E.J.S., Barkhof, F., Scheltens, P., Stam, C.J., Smith, S.M., & Rombouts, S.A.R.B. (2008). Reduced resting-state brain activity in the “default network” in normal aging. Cerebral Cortex, 18(8), 18561864. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhm207.
Davis, S.W., Zhuang, J., Wright, P., & Tyler, L.K. (2014). Age-related sensitivity to task-related modulation of language-processing networks. Neuropsychologia, 63, 107115. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2014.08.017.
DeDe, G. (2014). Sentence comprehension in older adults: evidence for risky processing strategies. Experimental Aging Research, 40(4), 436454. doi: 10.1080/0361073X.2014.926775.
DeDe, G. & Flax, J.K. (2016). Language comprehension in aging. In Cognition, language and aging (pp. 107133). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Démonet, J.-F., Thierry, G., & Cardebat, D. (2005). Renewal of the neurophysiology of language: functional neuroimaging. Physiological Reviews, 85(1), 4995. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00049.2003.
Drag, L.L. & Bieliauskas, L.A. (2010). Contemporary review 2009: cognitive aging. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 23(2), 7593. doi: 10.1177/0891988709358590.
Drag, L.L., Light, S.N., Langenecker, S.A., Hazlett, K.E., Wilde, E.A., Welsh, R., Steinberg, B.A., & Bieliauskas, L.A. (2016). Patterns of frontoparietal activation as a marker for unsuccessful visuospatial processing in healthy aging. Brain Imaging and Behavior, 10(3), 686696. doi: 10.1007/s11682-015-9428-y.
Duncan, J. (2013). The structure of cognition: attentional episodes in mind and brain. Neuron, 80(1), 3550. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2013.09.015.
Eckert, M.A., Walczak, A., Ahlstrom, J., Denslow, S., Horwitz, A., & Dubno, J.R. (2008). Age-related effects on word recognition: reliance on cognitive control systems with structural declines in speech-responsive cortex. JARO, 9(2), 252259. doi: 10.1007/s10162-008-0113-3.
Erb, J. & Obleser, J. (2013). Upregulation of cognitive control networks in older adults’ speech comprehension. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 7. doi: 10.3389/fnsys.2013.00116.
Fernandez, G., Specht, K., Weis, S., Tendolkar, I., Reuber, M., Fell, J., Klaver, P., Ruhlmann, J., Reul, J., & Elger, C.E. (2003). Intrasubject reproducibility of presurgical language lateralization and mapping using fMRI. Neurology, 60(6), 969975. doi: 10.1212/01.WNL.0000049934.34209.2E.
Ferstl, E.C., Neumann, J., Bogler, C., & von Cramon, D.Y. (2008). The extended language network: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies on text comprehension. Human Brain Mapping, 29(5), 581593. doi: 10.1002/hbm.20422.
Fischl, B. (2012). FreeSurfer. NeuroImage, 62(2), 774781. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.01.021.
Fischl, B. & Dale, A.M. (2000). Measuring the thickness of the human cerebral cortex from magnetic resonance images. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97(20), 1105011055.
Fjell, A.M., Westlye, L.T., Amlien, I., Espeseth, T., Reinvang, I., Raz, N., Agartz, I., Salat, D.H., Greve, D.N., Fischl, B., & Walhovd, K.B. (2009). High consistency of regional cortical thinning in aging across multiple samples. Cerebral Cortex, 19(9), 20012012. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhn232.
Folstein, M.F., Folstein, S.E., & McHugh, P.R. (1975). “Mini-mental state”: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12(3), 189198.
Fox, M.D., Corbetta, M., Snyder, A.Z., Vincent, J.L., & Raichle, M.E. (2006). Spontaneous neuronal activity distinguishes human dorsal and ventral attention systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103(26), 1004610051. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0604187103.
Friederici, A.D. (2012). The cortical language circuit: from auditory perception to sentence comprehension. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16(5), 262268. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2012.04.001.
Glisky, E. (2007). Changes in cognitive function in human aging. In Brain aging (pp. 320). Informa UK Limited. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/9781420005523.sec1.
Gordon, P.C., Lowder, M.W., & Hoedemaker, R.S. (2016). Reading in normally aging adults. In Wright, H.H. (Ed.), Cognition, language and aging (pp. 165191). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. doi: 10.1075/z.200.07gor.
Grossman, M., Cooke, A., DeVita, C., Alsop, D., Detre, J., Chen, W., & Gee, J. (2002). Age-related changes in working memory during sentence comprehension: an fMRI study. NeuroImage, 15(2), 302317. doi: 10.1006/nimg.2001.0971.
Hasson, U., Nusbaum, H.C., & Small, S.L. (2006). Repetition suppression for spoken sentences and the effect of task demands. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18(12), 20132029. doi: 10.1162/jocn.2006.18.12.2013.
Henderson, J.M., Choi, W., Luke, S.G., & Desai, R.H. (2015). Neural correlates of fixation duration in natural reading: evidence from fixation-related fMRI. NeuroImage, 119, 390397. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.06.072.
Hickok, G. & Poeppel, D. (2007). The cortical organization of speech processing. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 8(5), 393402. doi: 10.1038/nrn2113.
Hugdahl, K., Raichle, M.E., Mitra, A., & Specht, K. (2015). On the existence of a generalized non-specific task-dependent network. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2015.00430.
James, P.J., Krishnan, S., & Aydelott, J. (2014). Working memory predicts semantic comprehension in dichotic listening in older adults. Cognition, 133(1), 3242. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2014.05.014.
Jobard, G., Vigneau, M., Mazoyer, B., & Tzourio-Mazoyer, N. (2007). Impact of modality and linguistic complexity during reading and listening tasks. NeuroImage, 34(2), 784800. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2006.06.067.
Kemtes, K.A. & Kemper, S. (1997). Younger and older adults’ on-line processing of syntactically ambiguous sentences. Psychology and Aging, 12(2), 362371. http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy1.lib.asu.edu/10.1037/0882-7974.12.2.362.
Kim, D.I., Mathalon, D.H., Ford, J.M., Mannell, M., Turner, J.A., Brown, G.G., Belger, A., Gollub, R., Lauriello, J., Wible, C., & Calhoun, V.D. (2009). Auditory oddball deficits in schizophrenia: an independent component analysis of the fMRI multisite function BIRN study. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 35(1), 6781. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbn133.
Kliegl, R., Grabner, E., Rolfs, M., & Engbert, R. (2004). Length, frequency, and predictability effects of words on eye movements in reading. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 16(1–2), 262284.
Li, Y.-O., Adalı, T., & Calhoun, V.D. (2007). Estimating the number of independent components for functional magnetic resonance imaging data. Human Brain Mapping, 28(11), 12511266.
Mackenzie, C. (2000). The relevance of education and age in the assessment of discourse comprehension. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 14(2), 151161.
Madden, D.J. (2007). Aging and visual attention. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16(2), 7074. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8721.2007.00478.x.
Mar, R.A. (2011). The neural bases of social cognition and story comprehension. Annual Review of Psychology, 62(1), 103134. doi: 10.1146/annurev-psych-120709-145406.
Marstaller, L., Williams, M., Rich, A., Savage, G., & Burianová, H. (2015). Aging and large-scale functional networks: white matter integrity, gray matter volume, and functional connectivity in the resting state. Neuroscience, 290, 369378. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2015.01.049.
McKeown, M.J., Hansen, L.K., & Sejnowski, T.J. (2003). Independent component analysis of functional MRI: what is signal and what is noise? Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 13(5), 620629.
Meyer, B.J. (1987). Reading comprehension and aging. Annual Review of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 7 (1), 93115.
Morcom, A.M. & Henson, R.N.A. (2018). Increased prefrontal activity with aging reflects nonspecific neural responses rather than compensation. Journal of Neuroscience, 38(33), 73037313. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1701-17.2018.
Narain, C., Scott, S.K., Wise, R.J.S., Rosen, S., Leff, A., Iversen, S.D., & Matthews, P.M. (2003). Defining a left-lateralized response specific to intelligible speech using fMRI. Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y.: 1991), 13(12), 13621368.
Nee, D.E., Brown, J.W., Askren, M.K., Berman, M.G., Demiralp, E., Krawitz, A., & Jonides, J. (2013). A meta-analysis of executive components of working memory. Cerebral Cortex, 23(2), 264282. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhs007.
Niendam, T.A., Laird, A.R., Ray, K.L., Dean, Y.M., Glahn, D.C., & Carter, C.S. (2012). Meta-analytic evidence for a superordinate cognitive control network subserving diverse executive functions. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 12(2), 241268. doi: 10.3758/s13415-011-0083-5.
Noppeney, U. & Price, C.J. (2004). An fMRI Study of Syntactic Adaptation. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16, 702713. doi: 10.1162/089892904323057399.
Norman, S., Kemper, S., & Kynette, D. (1992). Adults’ reading comprehension: effects of syntactic complexity and working memory. Journal of Gerontology, 47(4), P258P265.
Owen, A.M., McMillan, K.M., Laird, A.R., & Bullmore, E. (2005). N-back working memory paradigm: A meta-analysis of normative functional neuroimaging studies. Human Brain Mapping, 25(1), 4659. doi: 10.1002/hbm.20131.
Park, D.C., Lautenschlager, G., Hedden, T., Davidson, N.S., Smith, A.D., & Smith, P.K. (2002). Models of visuospatial and verbal memory across the adult life span. Psychology and Aging, 17(2), 299.
Park, D.C., Polk, T.A., Park, R., Minear, M., Savage, A., & Smith, M.R. (2004). Aging reduces neural specialization in ventral visual cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101(35), 1309113095. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0405148101.
Park, D.C. & Reuter-Lorenz, P. (2009). The adaptive brain: aging and neurocognitive scaffolding. Annual Review of Psychology, 60(1), 173196. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.59.103006.093656.
Peelle, J.E., Troiani, V., Wingfield, A., & Grossman, M. (2009). Neural processing during older adults’ comprehension of spoken sentences: age differences in resource allocation and connectivity. Cerebral Cortex, 20(4), 773782. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhp142.
Power, J.D., Cohen, A.L., Nelson, S.M., Wig, G.S., Barnes, K.A., Church, J.A., Vogel, A.C., Laumann, T.O., Miezin, F.M., Schlaggar, B.L., & Petersen, S.E. (2011). Functional network organization of the human brain. Neuron, 72(4), 665678. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2011.09.006.
Price, C.J. (2012). A review and synthesis of the first 20 years of PET and fMRI studies of heard speech, spoken language and reading. NeuroImage, 62(2), 816847. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.04.062.
Rauschecker, J.P. & Scott, S.K. (2009). Maps and streams in the auditory cortex: nonhuman primates illuminate human speech processing. Nature Neuroscience, 12(6), 718724. doi: 10.1038/nn.2331.
Rayner, K., Reichle, E.D., Stroud, M.J., Williams, C.C., & Pollatsek, A. (2006). The effect of word frequency, word predictability, and font difficulty on the eye movements of young and older readers. Psychology and Aging, 21(3), 448.
Raz, N., Gunning-Dixon, F., Head, D., Rodrigue, K.M., Williamson, A., & Acker, J.D. (2004). Aging, sexual dimorphism, and hemispheric asymmetry of the cerebral cortex: replicability of regional differences in volume. Neurobiology of Aging, 25(3), 377396. doi: 10.1016/S0197-4580(03)00118-0.
Raz, N. & Rodrigue, K.M. (2006). Differential aging of the brain: Patterns, cognitive correlates and modifiers. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 30(6), 730748. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2006.07.001.
Reuter-Lorenz, P.A. & Cappell, K.A. (2008). Neurocognitive aging and the compensation hypothesis. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17(3), 177182. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8721.2008.00570.x.
Reuter-Lorenz, P.A. & Park, D.C. (2014). How does it STAC up? Revisiting the scaffolding theory of aging and cognition. Neuropsychology Review, 24(3), 355370. doi: 10.1007/s11065-014-9270-9.
Robertson, D.A., Gernsbacher, M.A., Guidotti, S.J., Robertson, R.R.W., Irwin, W., Mock, B.J., & Campana, M.E. (2000). Functional neuroanatomy of the cognitive process of mapping during discourse comprehension. Psychological Science, 11(3), 255260. doi: 10.1111/1467-9280.00251.
Rogalsky, C. & Hickok, G. (2011). The Role of Broca’s area in sentence comprehension. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23(7), 16641680. doi: 10.1162/jocn.2010.21530.
Rogalsky, C., Matchin, W., & Hickok, G. (2008). Broca’s area, sentence comprehension, and working memory: an fMRI study. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 2, 14. doi: 10.3389/neuro.09.014.2008.
Saliasi, E., Geerligs, L., Lorist, M.M., & Maurits, N.M. (2014). Neural correlates associated with successful working memory performance in older adults as revealed by spatial ICA. PLoS ONE, 9(6), e99250. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0099250.
Salthouse, T.A. (2010). Selective review of cognitive aging. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS, 16(5), 754760. doi: 10.1017/S1355617710000706.
Saur, D., Schelter, B., Schnell, S., Kratochvil, D., Küpper, H., Kellmeyer, P., Kümmerer, D., Klöppel, S., Glauche, V., Lange, R., & Weiller, C. (2010). Combining functional and anatomical connectivity reveals brain networks for auditory language comprehension. NeuroImage, 49(4), 31873197. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.11.009.
Seeley, W.W., Menon, V., Schatzberg, A.F., Keller, J., Glover, G.H., Kenna, H., Reiss, A.L., & Greicius, M.D. (2007). Dissociable intrinsic connectivity networks for salience processing and executive control. The Journal of Neuroscience, 27(9), 23492356. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5587-06.2007.
Shafto, M.A. & Tyler, L.K. (2014). Language in the aging brain: The network dynamics of cognitive decline and preservation. Science, 346(6209), 583587. doi: 10.1126/science.1254404.
Stevens, M.C., Kiehl, K.A., Pearlson, G., & Calhoun, V.D. (2007). Functional neural circuits for mental timekeeping. Human Brain Mapping, 28(5), 394408. doi: 10.1002/hbm.20285.
Stine-Morrow, E.A., Milinder, L.-A., Pullara, O., & Herman, B. (2001). Patterns of resource allocation are reliable among younger and older readers. Psychology and Aging, 16(1), 69.
Storsve, A.B., Fjell, A.M., Tamnes, C.K., Westlye, L.T., Overbye, K., Aasland, H.W., & Walhovd, K.B. (2014). Differential longitudinal changes in cortical thickness, surface area and volume across the adult life span: Regions of accelerating and decelerating change. Journal of Neuroscience, 34(25), 84888498.
Taler, V., Aaron, G.P., Steinmetz, L.G., & Pisoni, D.B. (2010). Lexical neighborhood density effects on spoken word recognition and production in healthy aging. Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 65(5), 551560.
Tomasi, D. & Volkow, N.D. (2012a). Aging and functional brain networks. Molecular Psychiatry, 17(5), 549558. doi: 10.1038/mp.2011.81.
Tomasi, D. & Volkow, N.D. (2012b). Resting functional connectivity of language networks: Characterization and reproducibility. Molecular Psychiatry, 17(8), 841854. doi: 10.1038/mp.2011.177.
Turken, A.U. & Dronkers, N.F. (2011). The neural architecture of the language comprehension network: Converging evidence from lesion and connectivity analyses. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 5. doi: 10.3389/fnsys.2011.00001.
Tyler, L.K. & Marslen-Wilson, W. (2008). Fronto-temporal brain systems supporting spoken language comprehension. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 363(1493), 10371054.
Tyler, L.K., Shafto, M.A., Randall, B., Wright, P., Marslen-Wilson, W.D., & Stamatakis, E.A. (2009). Preserving syntactic processing across the adult life span: The modulation of the frontotemporal language system in the context of age-related atrophy. Cerebral Cortex, 20(2), 352364. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhp105.
Vincent, J.L., Kahn, I., Snyder, A.Z., Raichle, M.E., & Buckner, R.L. (2008). Evidence for a frontoparietal control system revealed by intrinsic functional connectivity. Journal of Neurophysiology, 100(6), 33283342. doi: 10.1152/jn.90355.2008.
Vossel, S., Geng, J.J., & Fink, G.R. (2014). Dorsal and ventral attention systems. The Neuroscientist, 20(2), 150159. doi: 10.1177/1073858413494269.
Walhovd, K.B., Fjell, A.M., Reinvang, I., Lundervold, A., Dale, A.M., Eilertsen, D.E., Quinn, B.T., Salat, D., Makris, N., & Fischl, B. (2005). Effects of age on volumes of cortex, white matter and subcortical structures. Neurobiology of Aging, 26(9), 12611270. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2005.05.020.
Wingfield, A. & Grossman, M. (2006). Language and the aging brain: Patterns of neural compensation revealed by functional brain imaging. Journal of Neurophysiology, 96(6), 28302839. doi: 10.1152/jn.00628.2006.
Wingfield, A., Peelle, J.E., & Grossman, M. (2003). Speech rate and syntactic complexity as multiplicative factors in speech comprehension by young and older adults. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 10(4), 310322. doi: 10.1076/anec.10.4.310.28974.
Wingfield, A. & Stine-Morrow, E.A. (2000). Language and speech. In The Handbook of Aging and Cognition (2nd ed., pp. 359416). Mahwah, NJ, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
Wong, P.C.M., Jin, J.X., Gunasekera, G.M., Abel, R., Lee, E.R., & Dhar, S. (2009). Aging and cortical mechanisms of speech perception in noise. Neuropsychologia, 47(3), 693703. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2008.11.032.
Xu, J., Potenza, M.N., & Calhoun, V.D. (2013). Spatial ICA reveals functional activity hidden from traditional fMRI GLM-based analyses. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 7. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2013.00154.
Yeo, B.T.T., Krienen, F.M., Sepulcre, J., Sabuncu, M.R., Lashkari, D., Hollinshead, M., Roffman, J.L., Smoller, J.W., Zöllei, L., Polimeni, J.R., & Buckner, R.L. (2011). The organization of the human cerebral cortex estimated by intrinsic functional connectivity. Journal of Neurophysiology, 106(3), 11251165. doi: 10.1152/jn.00338.2011.
Yesavage, J.A., Brink, T.L., Rose, T.L., Lum, O., Huang, V., Adey, M., & Leirer, V.O. (1982). Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: A preliminary report. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 17(1), 3749. doi: 10.1016/0022-3956(82)90033-4.
Zhang, H.-Y., Chen, W.-X., Jiao, Y., Xu, Y., Zhang, X.-R., & Wu, J.-T. (2014). Selective vulnerability related to aging in large-scale resting brain networks. PloS One, 9(10), e108807. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0108807.
Zhou, W. & Shu, H. (2017). A meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of eye movements and visual word reading. Brain and Behavior, 7(5), e00683. doi: 10.1002/brb3.683.

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Fitzhugh et al. supplementary material
Fitzhugh et al. supplementary material 1

 Word (25 KB)
25 KB
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Fitzhugh et al. supplementary material
Fitzhugh et al. supplementary material 2

 Unknown (206 KB)
206 KB

Age-Related Atrophy and Compensatory Neural Networks in Reading Comprehension

  • Megan C. Fitzhugh (a1) (a2), B. Blair Braden (a2), Marwan N. Sabbagh (a3), Corianne Rogalsky (a2) and Leslie C. Baxter (a4)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed