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Multivariate Base Rates of Low Scores on Tests of Learning and Memory Among Latino Adult Populations

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  27 May 2019

Diego Rivera
Affiliation:
Biocruces Bizkaia Health Research Institute, Cruces University Hospital, Barakaldo, 48903, Spain
Laiene Olabarrieta-Landa
Affiliation:
Biocruces Bizkaia Health Research Institute, Cruces University Hospital, Barakaldo, 48903, Spain
Brian L. Brooks
Affiliation:
Neuropsychology Service, Alberta Children’s Hospital, Calgary, Alberta, T3B 6A8, Canada Departments of Pediatrics, Clinical Neurosciences, and Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4, Canada Alberta Children’s Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4, Canada
Melissa M. Ertl
Affiliation:
University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, New York, 12222, USA
Itziar Benito-Sánchez
Affiliation:
Biocruces Bizkaia Health Research Institute, Cruces University Hospital, Barakaldo, 48903, Spain Department of Cell Biology and Histology, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Leioa, Bizkaia, 48940, Spain
Maria Cristina Quijano
Affiliation:
Department of Social Science, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Cali, Valle del Cauca, 760001, Colombia
Walter Rodriguez-Irizarry
Affiliation:
Department of Social Science, Universidad Interamericana de Puerto Rico, Recinto de San Germán, San Germán, Puerto Rico, 00683, USA
Adriana Aguayo Arelis
Affiliation:
Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco, 44340, México
Yaneth Rodríguez-Agudelo
Affiliation:
Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía, MVS, Ciudad de México, México
Juan Carlos Arango-Lasprilla
Affiliation:
Biocruces Bizkaia Health Research Institute, Cruces University Hospital, Barakaldo, 48903, Spain Ikerbasque, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao, Bizkaia, 48013, Spain
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Objective:

To determine the prevalence of low scores for two neuropsychological tests with five total scores that evaluate learning and memory functions.

Method:

N = 5402 healthy adults from 11 countries in Latin America and the commonwealth of Puerto Rico were administered the Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) and the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT-R). Two-thirds of the participants were women, and the average age was 53.5 ± 20.0 years. Z-scores were calculated for ROCF Copy and Memory scores and HVLT-R Total Recall, Delayed Recall, and Recognition scores, adjusting for age, age2, sex, education, and interaction variables if significant for the given country. Each Z-score was converted to a percentile for each of the five subtest scores. Each participant was categorized based on his/her number of low scoring tests in specific percentile cutoff groups (25th, 16th, 10th, 5th, and 2nd).

Results:

Between 57.3% (El Salvador) and 64.6% (Bolivia) of the sample scored below the 25th percentile on at least one of the five scores. Between 27.1% (El Salvador) and 33.9% (Puerto Rico) scored below the 10th percentile on at least one of the five subtests. Between 5.9% (Chile, El Salvador, Peru) and 10.3% (Argentina) scored below the 2nd percentile on at least one of the five scores.

Conclusions:

Results are consistent with other studies that found that low scores are common when multiple neuropsychological outcomes are evaluated in healthy individuals. Clinicians should consider the higher probability of low scores when evaluating learning and memory using various sets of scores to reduce false-positive diagnoses of cognitive deficits.

Type
Regular Research
Copyright
Copyright © INS. Published by Cambridge University Press, 2019. 

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