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The HNRC 500-Neuropsychology of Hiv infection at different disease stages

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  26 February 2009


Robert K. Heaton
Affiliation:
University of California at San Diego, Dept. of Psychiatry, La Jolla, CA 92093
Igor Grant
Affiliation:
University of California at San Diego, Dept. of Psychiatry, La Jolla, CA 92093 Veterans Affairs Medical Center-San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92161
Nelson Butters
Affiliation:
University of California at San Diego, Dept. of Psychiatry, La Jolla, CA 92093 Veterans Affairs Medical Center-San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92161
Desireé A. White
Affiliation:
University of California at San Diego, Dept. of Psychiatry, La Jolla, CA 92093
Donald Kirson
Affiliation:
University of California at San Diego, Dept. of Psychiatry, La Jolla, CA 92093
J. Hampton Atkinson
Affiliation:
University of California at San Diego, Dept. of Psychiatry, La Jolla, CA 92093
J. Allen McCutchan
Affiliation:
University of California at San Diego, Dept. of Psychiatry, La Jolla, CA 92093
Michael J. Taylor
Affiliation:
University of California at San Diego, Dept. of Psychiatry, La Jolla, CA 92093
Mark D. Kelly
Affiliation:
University of California at San Diego, Dept. of Psychiatry, La Jolla, CA 92093
Ronald J. Ellis
Affiliation:
University of California at San Diego, Dept. of Psychiatry, La Jolla, CA 92093 Veterans Affairs Medical Center-San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92161
Tanya Wolfson
Affiliation:
University of California at San Diego, Dept. of Psychiatry, La Jolla, CA 92093
Robert Velin
Affiliation:
University of California at San Diego, Dept. of Psychiatry, La Jolla, CA 92093
Thomas D. Marcotte
Affiliation:
University of California at San Diego, Dept. of Psychiatry, La Jolla, CA 92093
John R. Hesselink
Affiliation:
University of California at San Diego, Dept. of Psychiatry, La Jolla, CA 92093 Veterans Affairs Medical Center-San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92161
Terry L. Jernigan
Affiliation:
University of California at San Diego, Dept. of Psychiatry, La Jolla, CA 92093 Veterans Affairs Medical Center-San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92161
James Chandler
Affiliation:
U.S. Naval Medical Center-San Diego, CA, 92134
Mark Wallace
Affiliation:
U.S. Naval Medical Center-San Diego, CA, 92134
Ian Abramson
Affiliation:
University of California at San Diego, Dept. of Psychiatry, La Jolla, CA 92093

Abstract

The present study examined neuropsychological (NP) functioning and associated medical, neurological, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and psychiatric findings in 389 nondemented males infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Type 1 (HIV-1), and in 111 uninfected controls. Using a comprehensive NP test battery, we found increased rates of impairment at each successive stage of HIV infection. HIV-related NP impairment was generally mild, especially in the medically asymptomatic stage of infection, and most often affected attention, speed of information processing, and learning efficiency; this pattern is consistent with earliest involvement of subcortical or frontostriatal brain systems. NP impairment could not be explained on the bases of mood disturbance, recreational drug or alcohol use, or constitutional symptoms; by contrast, impairment in HIV-infected subjects was related to central brain atrophy on MRI, as well as to evidence of cellular immune activation and neurological abnormalities linked to the central nervous system. (JINS, 1995, 1, 231–251.)


Type
Research Articles
Copyright
Copyright © The International Neuropsychological Society 1995

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