Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Cognitive impulsivity and HIV serostatus in substance dependent males

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 November 2004

EILEEN M. MARTIN
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois Chicago VA Health Care System-West Side Division, Chicago, Illinois
DAVID L. PITRAK
Affiliation:
Chicago VA Health Care System-West Side Division, Chicago, Illinois Department of Medicine-Section of Infectious Disease, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
WILLIAM WEDDINGTON
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois Chicago VA Health Care System-West Side Division, Chicago, Illinois
NILES A. RAINS
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
GERALD NUNNALLY
Affiliation:
Chicago VA Health Care System-West Side Division, Chicago, Illinois
HEATHER NIXON
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
SILVANA GRBESIC
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
JASMIN VASSILEVA
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois
ANTOINE BECHARA
Affiliation:
Department of Neurology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa

Abstract

HIV-seropositive (HIV+) drug users show impaired performance on measures of integrity of prefrontal–subcortical systems. The Iowa Gambling Task (GT) is mediated primarily through ventromedial–prefrontal systems, and poor performance on this measure (“cognitive impulsivity”) is common among substance dependent individuals (SDIs) as well as patients with disease involving prefrontal–subcortical systems (e.g., Huntington disease). We hypothesized that HIV+ SDIs might be more vulnerable to cognitive impulsivity when compared with HIV-seronegative (HIV−) SDIs because recent studies report evidence of additive effects of HIV serostatus and drug dependence on cognition. Further, working memory is considered a key component of GT performance and is reliably impaired among HIV+ SDIs compared to controls. We administered the GT to 46 HIV+ and 47 well-matched HIV− males with a past or current history of substance dependence. In addition, we evaluated correlations between subjects' scores on the GT and on a delayed nonmatch to sample (DNMS) task in order to test if working memory deficits accounted for cognitive impulsivity among the HIV+ subjects. The HIV+ subjects performed significantly more poorly on the GT compared to the HIV− group but this effect could not be explained by working memory deficits. Implications of these findings for future basic and applied studies of HIV and substance dependence are discussed. (JINS, 2004, 10, 931–938.)

Type
Research Article
Copyright
© 2004 The International Neuropsychological Society

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Bechara, A. & Damasio, H. (2002). Decision-making and addiction (part I): Impaired activation of somatic states in substance dependent individuals when pondering decisions with negative future consequences. Neuropsychologia, 39, 376389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bechara, A., Damasio, H., & Damasio, A.R. (2000). Emotion, decision making and the orbitofrontal cortex. Cerebral Cortex, 10, 295307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bechara, A., Dolan, S., & Hindes, A. (2002). Decision-making and addiction (part II): Myopia for the future or hypersensitivity to reward? Neuropsychologia, 40, 16901705.Google Scholar
Bechara, A., Damasio, H., Tranel, D., & Damasio, A.R. (1997). Deciding advantageously before knowing the advantageous strategy. Science, 275, 12931295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bechara, A., Dolan, S., Denburg, N., Hindes, A., Anderson, S.W., & Nathan, P.E. (2001). Decision-making deficits, linked to a dysfunctional ventromedial prefrontal cortex, revealed in alcohol and stimulant abusers. Neuropsychologia, 39, 376389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bechara, A. & Martin, E.M. (2004). Impaired decision making related to working memory deficits in individuals with substance addictions. Neuropsychology, 18, 152162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beck, A.T., Ward, C.H., Mendelson, M., & Erbaugh, J.K. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 561571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bolla, K.I., Eldreth, D.A., London, E.D., Kiehl, K.A., Mouratidis, M., Contoreggi, C., Matochik, J.A., Kurian, V., Cadet, J.L., Kimes, A.S., Funderburk, F.R., & Ernst, M. (2003). Orbitofrontal cortex dysfunction in abstinent cocaine abusers performing a decision-making task. NeuroImage, 19, 10851094CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chang, L., Speck, O., Miller, E.N., Braun, J., Jovicich, J., Koch, C., Itti, L., & Ernst, T. (2001). Neural correlates of attention and working memory deficits in HIV patients. Neurology, 57, 10011007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Darke, S. (1998). Self-report among injection drug users: A review. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 51, 253263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ernst, M., Kimes, A.S., London, E.D., Matochik, J.A., Eldreth, D., Tata, S., Contoreggi, C., Leff, M., & Bolla, K. (2003). Neural substrates of decision making in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 10611070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ernst, T., Chang, L., Jovicich, J., Ames, N., & Arnold, S. (2002). Abnormal brain activation on functional MRI in cognitively asymptomatic HIV patients. Neurology, 59, 13431349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Farinpour, R., Martin, E.M., Seidenberg, M., Pitrak, D.L., Pursell, K.J., Mullane, K.M., Novak, R.M., & Harrow, M. (2000). Verbal working memory in HIV-seropositive drug users. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 6, 548555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
First, M.B., Spitzer, R.L., Gibbon, M., & Williams, J.B. (1995). Structured Clinical Interview for DSM–IV Axis II Personality Disorders–Patient Edition (SCID–I/P) Version 2.0. New York: Biometrics Research Department, New York State Psychiatric Institute.
Goldstein, R.Z. & Volkow, N.D. (2002). Drug addiction and its underlying neurobiological basis: Neuroimaging evidence for the involvement of the frontal cortex. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 16421652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grant, S., Contoreggi, C., & London, E.D. (2000). Drug abusers show impaired performance in a laboratory test of decision making. Neuropsychologia, 38, 11801187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hardy, D.J. & Hinkin, C.H. (2002). Reaction time performance in adults with HIV/AIDS. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 24, 912929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hinkin, C.H., Hardy, D.J., Mason, K.I., Castellon, S.A., Lam, M.N., Stefaniak, M., & Zolnikov, B. (2002). Verbal and spatial working memory performance among HIV-infected adults. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 8, 532538.Google Scholar
Hinson, J.M., Jameson, T.L., & Whitney, P. (2002). Somatic markers, working memory, and decision making. Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience, 2, 341353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keane, T.M., Wolfe, J., & Taylor, K.L. (1987). Post-traumatic stress disorder: Evidence for diagnostic validity and methods of psychological measurement. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 43, 3243.3.0.CO;2-X>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Macalino, G.E., Celentano, D.D., Latkin, C., Strathdee, S.A., & Vlahov, D. (2002). Risk behaviors by audio computer-assisted self-interviews among HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative injection drug users. AIDS Education and Prevention, 14, 367378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Manes, F., Sahakian, B., Clark, L., Rogers, R., Antoun, N., Aitken, M., & Robbins, T. (2002). Decision-making processes following damage to the prefrontal cortex. Brain, 125, 624639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martin, E.M., Pitrak, D.L., Rains, N.A., Grbesic, S., Pursell, K., Nunnally, G., & Bechara, A. (2003). Delayed nonmatch-to-sample performance in HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative polydrug abusers. Neuropsychology, 17, 283288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martin, E.M., Sullivan, T.S., Reed, R.A., Fletcher, T.A., Pitrak, D.L., Weddington, W., & Harrow, M. (2001). Auditory working memory in HIV-1 infection. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 7, 2026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McLellan, A.T., Luborsky, L., Cacciola, J., Griffith, J., Evans, F., Barr, H.L., & O'Brien, C.P. (1985). New data from the Addiction Severity Index: Reliability and validity in three centers. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 173, 412423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mitchell, D.G.V., Colledge, E., Leonard, A., & Blair, R.J.R. (2002). Risky decisions and response reversal: Is there evidence of orbitofrontal cortex dysfunction in psychopathic individuals? Neuropsychologia, 40, 20122022.Google Scholar
Ornstein, T.J., Iddon, J.L., Baldacchino, A.M., Sahakian, B.J., London, M., Everitt, B.J., & Robbins, T.W. (2000). Profiles of cognitive dysfunction in chronic amphetamine and heroin abusers. Neuropsychopharmacology, 23, 113126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pochon, J.B., Levy, R., Poline, J.B., Crozier, S., Lehericy, S., Pillon, B., Deweer, B., Le Bihan, D., & Dubois, B. (2001). The role of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in the preparation of forthcoming actions: An fMRI study. Cerebral Cortex, 11, 260266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rippeth, J.B., Heaton, R.K., Carey, C.L., Marcotte, T.D., Moore, D.J., Gonzalez, R., Wolfson, T., Grant, I., & the HNRC Group. (2004). Methamphetamine dependence increases risk of neuropsychological impairment in HIV infected persons. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 10, 114.Google Scholar
Rosen, A. & Schalling, D. (1974). On the validity of the California Psychological Inventory socialization scale: A multivariate approach. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 42, 757765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Spielberger, C.D., Gorsuch, R.L., & Lushene, R.E. (1971). State-trait anxiety inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologist Press.
Stout, J.C., Rodawalt, W.C., & Siemers, E.R. (2001). Risky decision making in Huntington's disease. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 7, 92101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Volkow, N.D., Chang, L., Wang, G.J., Fowler, J.S., Franceschi, D., Sedler, M., Gatley, S.J., Miller, E.N., Hitzemann, R., Ding, Y.S., & Logan, J. (2001). Loss of dopamine transporters in methamphetamine abusers recovers with protracted abstinence. Journal of Neuroscience, 21, 94149418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Volkow, N.D. & Fowler, J.S. (2000). Addiction, a disease of compulsion and drive: Involvement of the orbitofrontal cortex. Cerebral Cortex, 10, 318325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ward, M.F., Wender, P.H., & Reimherr, F.W. (1993). The Wender Utah rating scale: An aid in the retrospective diagnosis of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 885888.Google Scholar
Wilkinson, G.S. (1993). The Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT3), 1993 Edition. Wilmington, DE: Wide Range, Inc.
Zuckerman, M. (1996). The psychobiological model for impulsive unsocialized sensation seeking: A comparative approach. Neuropsychobiology, 34, 125129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 11
Total number of PDF views: 86 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 25th January 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Hostname: page-component-898fc554b-r79h5 Total loading time: 0.366 Render date: 2021-01-25T13:48:57.422Z Query parameters: { "hasAccess": "0", "openAccess": "0", "isLogged": "0", "lang": "en" } Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false }

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Cognitive impulsivity and HIV serostatus in substance dependent males
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Cognitive impulsivity and HIV serostatus in substance dependent males
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Cognitive impulsivity and HIV serostatus in substance dependent males
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *