Hostname: page-component-77c89778f8-swr86 Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-07-19T04:03:02.710Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Associations of Lipid Levels and Cognition: Findings from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  23 September 2019

Melissa Lamar*
Affiliation:
Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL60612, USA Institute for Minority Health Research, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL60612, USA Rush Alzheimer’s Disease Center and Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL60612, USA
Ramon A. Durazo-Arvizu
Affiliation:
Institute for Minority Health Research, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL60612, USA Department of Public Health Sciences, Loyola University, Chicago, IL60153, USA
Carlos J. Rodriguez
Affiliation:
Department of Epidemiology & Prevention, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC27109, USA
Robert C. Kaplan
Affiliation:
Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA98109, USA
Marisa J. Perera
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL33124, USA
Jianwen Cai
Affiliation:
Department of Biostatistics, Collaborative Studies Coordinating Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC27599, USA
Rebeca A. Espinoza Giacinto
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA92093, USA Division of Health Promotion and Behavioral Sciences, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA92093, USA
Hector M. González
Affiliation:
Department of Neuroscience, Shiley-Marcos Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA92093, USA
Martha L. Daviglus
Affiliation:
Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL60612, USA Institute for Minority Health Research, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL60612, USA
*
Correspondence and reprint requests to: Melissa Lamar, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Rush Alzheimer’s Disease Center, Rush University Medical Center, 1750 West Harrison Street, Suite 1000, Chicago, IL 60612, USA. E-mail: melissa_lamar@rush.edu

Abstract

Objective:

Hispanics/Latinos in the United States are less aware of their cholesterol levels and have a higher burden of associated adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular outcomes than non-Latino whites. Investigations of the associations between cholesterol levels and cognition in this population have often occurred within the context of metabolic syndrome and are limited to select lipids despite the fact that triglycerides (TGs) may be more relevant to the health of Hispanics/Latinos.

Methods:

Baseline data from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, collected from 2008 to 2011, was used to investigate the associations of lipid levels (i.e., TG, total cholesterol, TC; low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C and HDL-C) with cognition (i.e., learning, memory, verbal fluency, and digit symbol substitution, DSS), adjusting for relevant confounders.

Results:

In 7413 participants ages 45 to 74 years from Central American, Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Puerto Rican, and South American backgrounds, separate, fully adjusted linear regression models revealed that TG levels were inversely associated with DSS performance; however, this relationship was no longer significant once additional cardiovascular disease risk factors were added to the model (p = .06). TC and LDL-C levels (separately) were positively associated with learning and verbal fluency regardless of adjustments (p-values < .05). Separate analyses investigating the effect modification by background and sex revealed a particularly robust association between TC levels and DSS performance for Puerto Ricans and Central Americans (albeit in opposite directions) and an inverse relationship between TG levels and DSS performance for women (p-values < .02).

Conclusions:

It is important to consider individual lipid levels and demographic characteristics when investigating associations between cholesterol levels and cognition in Hispanics/Latinos.

Type
Regular Research
Copyright
Copyright © INS. Published by Cambridge University Press, 2019

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

REFERENCES

Aine, C.J., Sanfratello, L., Adair, J.C., Knoefel, J.E., Qualls, C., Lundy, S.L., Caprihan, A, Stone, D., & Stephen, J.M. (2014). Characterization of a normal control group: are they healthy? Neuroimage, 84, 796809. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.09.025CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
American Diabetes Association . (2018). Classification and diagnosis of diabetes: Standards of medical care in diabetes—2018. Diabetes Care, 41(Supplement 1), S13S27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anstey, K.J., Lipnicki, D.M., & Low, L.F. (2008). Cholesterol as a risk factor for dementia and cognitive decline: a systematic review of prospective studies with meta-analysis. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 16(5), 343354. doi:10.1097/JGP.0b013e31816b72d4CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barker, M.J., Greenwood, K.M., Jackson, M., & Crowe, S.F. (2004). Cognitive effects of long-term benzodiazepine use: a meta-analysis. CNS Drugs, 18(1), 3748.doi:10.2165/00023210-200418010-00004CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Benton, A.L. & Hamsher, K. (1989). Multilingual Aphasia Examination (2nd ed.). Iowa City: AJA Associates.Google Scholar
Callahan, C.M., Unverzagt, F.W., Hui, S.L., Perkins, A.J., & Hendrie, H.C. (2002). Six-item screener to identify cognitive impairment among potential subjects for clinical research. Medical Care, 40(9), 771781. doi:10.1097/01.MLR.0000024610.33213.C8CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Chiuve, S.E., Fung, T.T., Rimm, E.B., Hu, F.B., McCullough, M.L., Wang, M., Stampfer, M.J. & Willett, W.C. (2012). Alternative dietary indices both strongly predict risk of chronic disease. Journal of Nutrition, 142(6), 10091018. doi:10.3945/jn.111.157222CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dahl, A.K. & Hassing, L.B. (2013). Obesity and cognitive aging. Epidemiologic Review, 35, 2232. doi:10.1093/epirev/mxs002CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Daviglus, M.L., Pirzada, A., Durazo-Arvizu, R., Chen, J., Allison, M., Aviles-Santa, L., Cai, J., González, H.M., Kaplan, R.C., Schneiderman, N., Sorlie, P.D., Talavera, G.A., Wassertheil-Smoller, S., & Stamler, J. (2016). Prevalence of low cardiovascular risk profile among diverse Hispanic/Latino adults in the United States by age, sex, and level of acculturation: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Journal of American Heart Association, 5(8). doi:10.1161/JAHA.116.003929CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Daviglus, M.L., Pirzada, A., & Talavera, G.A. (2014). Cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Hispanic/Latino population: lessons from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). Progress in Cardiovascular Dis, 57(3), 230236. doi:10.1016/j.pcad.2014.07.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Daviglus, M.L., Talavera, G.A., Aviles-Santa, M.L., Allison, M., Cai, J., Criqui, M.H., Gellman, M., Giachello, A.L., Gouskova, N., Kaplan, R.C., LaVange, L., Penedo, F., Perreira, K., Pirzada, A., Schneiderman, N., Wassertheil-Smoller, S., Sorlie, P.D., & Stamler, J. (2012). Prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular diseases among Hispanic/Latino individuals of diverse backgrounds in the United States. JAMA, 308(17), 17751784. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.14517CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Del Brutto, O.H., Mera, R.M., & Zambrano, M. (2016). Metabolic syndrome correlates poorly with cognitive performance in stroke-free community-dwelling older adults: a population-based, cross-sectional study in rural Ecuador. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 28(2), 321325. doi:10.1007/s40520-015-0404-6CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Elias, P.K., Elias, M.F., D’Agostino, R.B., Sullivan, L.M., & Wolf, P.A. (2005). Serum cholesterol and cognitive performance in the Framingham Heart Study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 67(1), 2430. doi:10.1097/01.psy.0000151745.67285.c2CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fall, T., Hagg, S., Ploner, A., Magi, R., Fischer, K., Draisma, H.H., Sarin, A.P., Benyamin, B., Ladenvall, C., Åkerlund, M., Kals, M., Esko, T., Nelson, C.P., Kaakinen, M., Huikari, V., Mangino, M., Meirhaeghe, A., Kristiansson, K., Nuotio, M.L., Kobl, M., Grallert, H., Dehghan, A., Kuningas, M., de Vries, P.S., de Bruijn, R.F., Willems, S.M., Heikkilä, K., Silventoinen, K., Pietiläinen, K.H., Legry, V., Giedraitis, V., Goumidi, L., Syvänen, A.C., Strauch, K., Koenig, W., Lichtner, P., Herder, C., Palotie, A., Menni, C., Uitterlinden, A.G., Kuulasmaa, K., Havulinna, A.S., Moreno, L.A., Gonzalez-Gross, M., Evans, A., Tregouet, D.A., Yarnell, J.W., Virtamo, J., Ferrières, J., Veronesi, G., Perola, M., Arveiler, D., Brambilla, P., Lind, L., Kaprio, J., Hofman, A., Stricker, B.H., van Duijn, C.M., Ikram, M.A., Franco, O.H., Cottel, D., Dallongeville, J., Hall, A.S., Jula, A., Tobin, M.D., Penninx, B.W., Peters, A., Gieger, C., Samani, N.J., Montgomery, G.W., Whitfield, J.B., Martin, N.G., Groop, L., Spector, T.D., Magnusson, P.K., Amouyel, P., Boomsma, D., Nilsson, P.M., Järvelin, M.R., Lyssenko, V., Metspalu, A., Strachan, D.P., Salomaa, V., Ripatti, S., Pedersen, N.L., Prokopenko, I., McCarthy, M.I., Ingelsson, E., & Consortium, E. (2015). Age- and sex-specific causal effects of adiposity on cardiovascular risk factors. Diabetes, 64(5), 18411852. doi:10.2337/db14-0988CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Friedewald, W.T., Levy, R.I., & Fredrickson, D.S. (1972). Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clinical Chemistry, 18(6), 499502.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
George, O. & Koob, G.F. (2017). Individual differences in the neuropsychopathology of addiction. Dialogues Clinical Neuroscience, 19(3), 217229.Google Scholar
Gezmu, T., Schneider, D., Demissie, K., Lin, Y., Giordano, C., & Gizzi, M.S. (2014). Lipid profiles and ischemic stroke risk: variations by sex within racial/ethnic groups. International Journal of Women’s Health, 6, 585595. doi:10.2147/IJWH.S61274CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gonzalez, H.M., Mungas, D., & Haan, M.N. (2002). A verbal learning and memory test for English- and Spanish-speaking older Mexican-American adults. Clinical Neuropsychology, 16(4), 439451. doi:10.1076/clin.16.4.439.13908CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gonzalez, H.M., Mungas, D., Reed, B.R., Marshall, S., & Haan, M.N. (2001). A new verbal learning and memory test for English- and Spanish-speaking older people. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 7(5), 544555.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gonzalez, H.M., Tarraf, W., Gouskova, N., Gallo, L.C., Penedo, F.J., Davis, S.M., Lipton, R.B., Argüelles, W., Choca, J.P., Catellier, D.J., & Mosley, T.H. (2015). Neurocognitive function among middle-aged and older Hispanic/Latinos: results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 30(1), 6877. doi:10.1093/arclin/acu066CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gonzalez, H.M., Tarraf, W., Gouskova, N., Rodriguez, C.J., Rundek, T., Grober, E., Pirzada, A., González, P., Lutsey, P.L., Camacho, A., Daviglus, M.L., Wright, C., & Mosley, T.H. (2016). Life’s simple 7's cardiovascular health metrics are associated with Hispanic/Latino neurocognitive function: HCHS/SOL results. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 53(3), 955965. doi:10.3233/JAD-151125CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gonzalez, H.M., Tarraf, W., Vasquez, P., Sanderlin, A.H., Rosenberg, N.I., Davis, S., Rodríguez, C.J., Gallo, L.C., Thyagarajan, B., Daviglus, M., Khambaty, T., Cai, J., & Schneiderman, N. (2018). Metabolic syndrome and neurocognition among diverse middle-aged and older Hispanics/Latinos: HCHS/SOL results. Diabetes Care, 41(7), 15011509. doi:10.2337/dc17-1896CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Grundy, S.M., Stone, N.J., Bailey, A.L., Beam, C., Birtcher, K.K., Blumenthal, R.S., Braun, L.T., de Ferranti, S., Faiella-Tommasino, J., Forman, D.E., Goldberg, R., Heidenreich, P.A., Hlatky, M.A., Jones, D.W., Lloyd-Jones, D., Lopez-Pajares, N., Ndumele, C.E., Orringer, C.E., Peralta, C.A., Saseen, J.J., Smith, S.C. Jr., Sperling, L., Virani, S.S., & Yeboah, J. (2018). 2018 AHA/ACC/AACVPR/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/ADA/AGS/APhA/ASPC/NLA/PCNA guideline on the management of blood cholesterol: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 139(25), e1082e1143. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2018.11.003Google Scholar
Han, C., Jo, S.A., Seo, J.A., Kim, B.G., Kim, N.H., Jo, I., Park, M.H., & Park, K.W. (2009). Adiposity parameters and cognitive function in the elderly: application of “Jolly Fat” hypothesis to cognition. Archives of Gerontology Geriatrics, 49(2), e133–e138. doi:10.1016/j.archger.2008.11.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Henderson, V.W., Guthrie, J.R., & Dennerstein, L. (2003). Serum lipids and memory in a population based cohort of middle age women. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 74(11), 15301535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Howell, W.H., McNamara, D.J., Tosca, M.A., Smith, B.T., & Gaines, J.A. (1997). Plasma lipid and lipoprotein responses to dietary fat and cholesterol: a meta-analysis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 65(6), 17471764. doi:10.1093/ajcn/65.6.1747CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ihle, A., Gouveia, E.R., Gouveia, B.R., Freitas, D.L., Jurema, J., Tinoco, M.A., & Kliegel, M. (2017). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol level relates to working memory, immediate and delayed cued recall in Brazilian older adults: the role of cognitive reserve. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 44(1–2), 8491. doi:10.1159/000477846CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jin, H., & Nicodemus-Johnson, J. (2018). Gender and age stratified analyses of nutrient and dietary pattern associations with circulating lipid levels identify novel gender and age-specific correlations. Nutrients, 10(11), 115. doi:10.3390/nu10111760CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lamar, M., Durazo-Arvizu, R.A., Sachdeva, S., Pirzada, A., Perreira, K.M., Rundek, T., Gallo, L.C., Grober, E., DeCarli, C., Lipton, R.B., Tarraf, W., González, H.M., & Daviglus, M.L. (2019). Cardiovascular disease risk factor burden and cognition: implications of ethnic diversity within the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. PLoS One, 14(4), e0215378. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0215378CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lamar, M., Wu, D., Durazo-Arvizu, R.A., Brickman, A.M., Gonzalez, H.M., Tarraf, W., & Daviglus, M.L. (2017). Cognitive associates of current and more intensive control of hypertension: findings from the Hispanic community health study/study of Latinos. American Journal of Hypertension, 30(6), 624631. doi:10.1093/ajh/hpx023CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lavange, L.M., Davis, S.M., Hankinson, J., Enright, P., Wilson, R., Barr, R.G., Aldrich, T.K., Kalhan, R., Lemus, H., Ni, A., Smith, L.J., & Talavera, G.A. (2017). Spirometry reference equations from the HCHS/SOL (Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos). American Journal of Respiratory Critical Care Medicine, 196(8), 9931003. doi:10.1164/rccm.201610-1987OCCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lavange, L.M., Kalsbeek, W.D., Sorlie, P.D., Aviles-Santa, L.M., Kaplan, R.C., Barnhart, J., Liu, K., Giachello, A., Lee, D.J., Ryan, J., Criqui, M.H., & Elder, J.P. (2010). Sample design and cohort selection in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Annals of Epidemiology, 20(8), 642649. doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2010.05.006CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Leritz, E.C., McGlinchey, R.E., Salat, D.H., & Milberg, W.P. (2016). Elevated levels of serum cholesterol are associated with better performance on tasks of episodic memory. Metabolic Brain Disease, 31(2), 465473. doi:10.1007/s11011-016-9797-yCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Levin, B.E., Llabre, M.M., Dong, C., Elkind, M.S., Stern, Y., Rundek, T., Sacco, R.L., & Wright, C.B. (2014). Modeling metabolic syndrome and its association with cognition: the Northern Manhattan study. Journal of International Neuropsychology Society, 20(10), 951960. doi:10.1017/S1355617714000861CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lezak, M., Howieson, D.B., & Loring, D.W. (2004). Neuropsychological Assessment. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Lin, X., Zhang, X., Guo, J., Roberts, C.K., McKenzie, S., Wu, W.C., Liu, S., & Song, Y. (2015). Effects of exercise training on cardiorespiratory fitness and biomarkers of cardiometabolic health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of American Heart Association, 4(7), e002014. doi:10.1161/JAHA.115.002014CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lu, Y., An, Y., Yu, H., Che, F., Zhang, X., Rong, H., Xi, Y., & Xiao, R. (2017). Sex-specific nonlinear associations between serum lipids and different domains of cognitive function in middle to older age individuals. Metabolic Brain Disease, 32(4), 10891097. doi:10.1007/s11011-017-9999-yCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lv, Y.B., Yin, Z.X., Chei, C.L., Brasher, M.S., Zhang, J., Kraus, V.B., Kraus, V. B., Qian, F., Shi, X.M., Matchar, D.B., & Zeng, Y. (2016). Serum cholesterol levels within the high normal range are associated with better cognitive performance among Chinese elderly. Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging, 20(3), 280287. 10.1007/s12603-016-0701-6CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ma, C., Yin, Z., Zhu, P., Luo, J., Shi, X., & Gao, X. (2017). Blood cholesterol in late-life and cognitive decline: a longitudinal study of the Chinese elderly. Molecular Neurodegeneration, 12(1), 24. doi:10.1186/s13024-017-0167-yCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Martinez-Larrad, M.T., Lorenzo, C., Gonzalez-Villalpando, C., Gabriel, R., Haffner, S.M., & Serrano-Rios, M. (2012). Associations between surrogate measures of insulin resistance and waist circumference, cardiovascular risk and the metabolic syndrome across Hispanic and non-Hispanic white populations. Diabetic Medicine, 29(11), 13901394. doi:10.1111/j.1464-5491.2012.03723.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meusel, L.C., Anderson, N.D., Parrott, M.D., Yuen, W., Tchistiakova, E., MacIntosh, B.J., Feldman, S., & Greenwood, C.E. (2017). Brain function is linked to LDL cholesterol in older adults with cardiovascular risk. Journal of American Geriatric Society, 65(2), e51e55. doi:10.1111/jgs.14663CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mijajlovic, M.D., Pavlovic, A., Brainin, M., Heiss, W.D., Quinn, T.J., Ihle-Hansen, H.B., Hermann, D.M., Assayag, E.B., Richard, E., Thiel, A., Kliper, E., Shin, Y.I., Kim, Y.H., Choi, S., Jung, S., Lee, Y.B., Sinanović, O., Levine, D.A., Schlesinger, I., Mead, G., Milošević, V., Leys, D., Hagberg, G., Ursin, M.H., Teuschl, Y., Prokopenko, S., Mozheyko, E., Bezdenezhnykh, A., Matz, K., Aleksić, V., Muresanu, D., Korczyn, A.D., & Bornstein, N.M. (2017). Post-stroke dementia—a comprehensive review. BMC Medicine, 15(1), 11. doi:10.1186/s12916-017-0779-7CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Parthasarathy, V., Frazier, D.T., Bettcher, B.M., Jastrzab, L., Chao, L., Reed, B., Mungas, D., Weiner, M., DeCarli, C., Chui, H., & Kramer, J.H. (2017). Triglycerides are negatively correlated with cognitive function in nondemented aging adults. Neuropsychology, 31(6), 682688. doi:10.1037/neu0000335CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Paterson, D.H., & Warburton, D.E. (2010). Physical activity and functional limitations in older adults: a systematic review related to Canada’s Physical Activity Guidelines. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 7, 38. doi:10.1186/1479-5868-7-38CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Razali, N.M. & Wah, Y.B. (2011). Power comparisons of Shapiro-Wilk, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Lilliefors, and Anderson-Darling tests. Journal of Statistical Modeling and Analytics, 2(1), 2133.Google Scholar
Reitz, C., Tang, M.X., Manly, J., Schupf, N., Mayeux, R., & Luchsinger, J.A. (2008). Plasma lipid levels in the elderly are not associated with the risk of mild cognitive impairment. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 25(3), 232237. doi:10.1159/000115847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rodriguez, C.J. & Brenes, J.C. (2008). Hypercholesterolemia in minorities. In Chavez-Tapia, N.C. & Uriba, M. (Eds.), Topics in Prevalent Diseases: A Minority’s Perspective, (pp. 125136). New York: Nova Science Publishers.Google Scholar
Rodriguez, C.J., Cai, J., Swett, K., Gonzalez, H.M., Talavera, G.A., Wruck, L.M., Wassertheil-Smoller, S., Lloyd-Jones, D., Kaplan, R., & Daviglus, M.L. (2015). High cholesterol awareness, treatment, and control among Hispanic/Latinos: results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Journal of American Heart Association, 4(7), e001867. doi:10.1161/JAHA.115.001867CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rodriguez, C.J., Daviglus, M.L., Swett, K., Gonzalez, H.M., Gallo, L.C., Wassertheil-Smoller, S., Giachello, A.L., Teng, Y., Schneiderman, N., Talavera, G.A., & Kaplan, R. (2014). Dyslipidemia patterns among Hispanics/Latinos in the United States of Diverse Background. American Journal of Medicine, 127(12), 11861194. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2014.07.026CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ryan, C.M., Freed, M.I., Rood, J.A., Cobitz, A.R., Waterhouse, B.R., & Strachan, M.W. (2006). Improving metabolic control leads to better working memory in adults with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 29(2), 345351.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smit, R.A., Trompet, S., Sabayan, B., le Cessie, S., van der Grond, J., van Buchem, M.A., de Craen, A.J., & Jukema, J.W. (2016). Higher visit-to-visit low-density lipoprotein cholesterol variability is associated with lower cognitive performance, lower cerebral blood flow, and greater white matter hyperintensity load in older subjects. Circulation, 134(3), 212221. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.115.020627CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Solomon, A., Kareholt, I., Ngandu, T., Wolozin, B., Macdonald, S.W., Winblad, B., Nissinen, A., Tuomilehto, J., Soininen, H., & Kivipelto, M. (2009). Serum total cholesterol, statins and cognition in non-demented elderly. Neurobiology of Aging, 30(6), 10061009. doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2007.09.012CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sorlie, P.D., Aviles-Santa, L.M., Wassertheil-Smoller, S., Kaplan, R.C., Daviglus, M.L., Giachello, A.L., Schneiderman, N., Raij, L., Talavera, G., Allison, M., Lavange, L., Chambless, L.E., & Heiss, G. (2010). Design and implementation of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Annals of Epidemiology, 20(8), 629641. doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2010.03.015CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Steeves, J.A., Shiroma, E.J., Conger, S.A., Van Domelen, D., & Harris, T.B. (2019). Physical activity patterns and multimorbidity burden of older adults with different levels of functional status: NHANES 2003-2006. Disability and Health Journal, 12(3), 495502. doi:10.1016/j.dhjo.2019.02.005CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stough, C., Pipingas, A., Camfield, D., Nolidin, K., Savage, K., Deleuil, S., & Scholey, A. (2019). Increases in total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein associated with decreased cognitive performance in healthy elderly adults. Metabolic Brain Disease, 34(2), 477484. doi:10.1007/s11011-018-0373-5CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Surveillance and Population-Based Prevention . (2008). Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ): Analysis Guide. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
van den Kommer, T.N., Dik, M.G., Comijs, H.C., Fassbender, K., Lutjohann, D., & Jonker, C. (2009). Total cholesterol and oxysterols: early markers for cognitive decline in elderly? Neurobiology of Aging, 30(4), 534545. doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2007.08.005CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
van den Kommer, T.N., Dik, M.G., Comijs, H.C., Jonker, C., & Deeg, D.J. (2012). Role of lipoproteins and inflammation in cognitive decline: do they interact?. Neurobiology of Aging, 33(1), 196 1e191–112. doi:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2010.05.024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vega-Lopez, S., Calle, M.C., Fernandez, M.L., Kollannoor-Samuel, G., Chhabra, J., Todd, M., Segura-Pérez, S., D’Agostino, D., Damio, G., & Perez-Escamilla, R. (2013). Triglyceride screening may improve cardiometabolic disease risk assessment in Latinos with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. Journal of Health Care Poor Underserved, 24(4), 17391755. doi:10.1353/hpu.2013.0171CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wardle, J., Rogers, P., Judd, P., Taylor, M.A., Rapoport, L., Green, M., & Nicholson Perry, K. (2000). Randomized trial of the effects of cholesterol-lowering dietary treatment on psychological function. American Journal of Medicine, 108(7), 547553.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Warsch, J. R., Rundek, T., Paik, M.C., Elkind, M.S., Sacco, R.L., & Wright, C.B. (2013). Association between northern Manhattan study global vascular risk score and successful aging. Journal of American Geriatric Society, 61(4), 519524. doi:10.1111/jgs.12166CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wechsler, D. (1981). WAIS-R Manual. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
Willey, J.Z., Rodriguez, C.J., Carlino, R.F., Moon, Y.P., Paik, M.C., Boden-Albala, B., Sacco, R.L., DiTullio, M.R., Homma, S., & Elkind, M.S. (2011). Race-ethnic differences in the association between lipid profile components and risk of myocardial infarction: The Northern Manhattan Study. American Heart Journal, 161(5), 886892. doi:10.1016/j.ahj.2011.01.018CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yaffe, K., Haan, M., Blackwell, T., Cherkasova, E., Whitmer, R.A., & West, N. (2007). Metabolic syndrome and cognitive decline in elderly Latinos: findings from the Sacramento Area Latino Study of Aging study. Journal of American Geriatric Society, 55(5), 758762. doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2007.01139.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Yeo, S.H., Lim, Z.I., Mao, J., & Yau, W.P. (2017). Effects of central nervous system drugs on recovery after stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clinical Drug Investigation, 37(10), 901928. doi:10.1007/s40261-017-0558-4CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Zeki Al Hazzouri, A., Haan, M.N., Neuhaus, J.M., Pletcher, M., Peralta, C.A., Lopez, L., & Perez Stable, E.J. (2013). Cardiovascular risk score, cognitive decline, and dementia in older Mexican Americans: the role of sex and education. Journal of American Heart Association, 2(2), e004978. doi:10.1161/JAHA.113.004978Google ScholarPubMed
Supplementary material: File

Lamar et al. supplementary material

Tables S1-S3

Download Lamar et al. supplementary material(File)
File 34 KB