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Agricultural Extension and the Campaign to Assimilate the Native Americans of Wisconsin, 1914–1932

  • Angela Firkus (a1)

Abstract

Congress founded the Agricultural Extension Service (AES) in the Smith-Lever Act of 1914 to disseminate agricultural research to individual farmers. In some states the AES also worked to encourage Native Americans to adopt sedentary intensive agriculture and all aspects of assimilation connected with that occupation. J. F. Wojta, AES administrator in Wisconsin from 1914 to 1940, took a deep interest in Indian farmers and used the power and resources of his office to instruct Native Americans. Ho-Chunks, Menominees, Ojibwes, and Oneidas in Wisconsin adopted or rejected these social, economic, and political assimilation efforts during the Progressive Era according to their own circumstances and goals. The experience of Wisconsin tribes with the state's agricultural extension programs illustrates different ways that Native peoples tried to benefit from modern government services while maintaining their own culture and kinship ties.

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1 The author would like to thank Donald Parman, Purdue University, and Bernard Schermetzler, Division of Archives, University of Wisconsin–Madison, for their help with this article. U.S. Senate, Committee on Indian Affairs, Condition of Indian Affairs in Wisconsin, 61st Cong., 1st sess. (Oct. 2, 1909), serial 12–0, 1122; 1910 Oneida Superintendent's Narrative Report (SNR), Superintendents' Annual Narrative and Statistical Reports from Field Jurisdictions of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, 1907–38, frame (fr.) 237, reel 95, microcopy 1011, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Record Group (RG) 75, National Archives (NA); Richards, Cara E., The Oneida People (Phoenix, 1974), 76.

2 Hauptman, Laurence, ed., The Oneida Indians in the Age of Allotment, 1860–1920 (Norman, OK, 2006); Lewis, Herbert S., Oneida Lives: Long-Lost Voices of the Wisconsin Oneidas (Lincoln, 2005); Ackley, Kristina, “Renewing Haudenosaunee Ties: Laura Cornelius Kellogg and the Idea of Unity in the Oneida Land Claim,” American Indian Culture and Research Journal 32:1 (2008): 5781. For a general discussion of persistence of culture, see Holm, Tom, The Great Confusion in Indian Affairs: Native Americans and Whites in the Progressive Era (Austin, 2005), 2349.

3 Douglas Hurt, R., Indian Agriculture in America: Prehistory to the Present (Lawrence, KS, 1987); Parman, Donald L., Indians and the American West in the Twentieth Century (Bloomington, IN, 1994), 129; Lewis, David Rich, Neither Wolf nor Dog: American Indians, Environment, and Agrarian Change (New York, 1994), 1418; Parker, Arthur C., “The Status and Progress of Indians as Shown by the Thirteenth Census,” Quarterly Journal of the Society of American Indians 3 (July–Sept. 1915): 202; Hoxie, Frederick, A Final Promise: The Campaign to Assimilate the Indians, 1880–1920 (Lincoln, NE, 1984), 139. Of course the end result was a tremendous loss of Indian land. McDonnell, Janet A., The Dispossession of the American Indian, 1887–1934 (Bloomington, IN, 1991).

4 McIntyre, E. R., Fifty Years of Cooperative Extension in Wisconsin, 1912–1962 (Madison, 1962), 4966; Act, Smith-Lever, U.S. Statutes at Large 38 (1914): 372; Bowers, William, “Country Life Reform, 1900–1920: A Neglected Aspect of Progressive Era History,” Agricultural History 45 (July, 1971): 211–21; Grant, Philip A., “Senator Hoke Smith, Southern Congressmen, and Agricultural Education, 1914–1917,” Agricultural History 60 (Spring 1986): 111–22; Rasmussen, Wayne D., Taking the University to the People: 75 Years of Cooperative Extension (Ames, IA, 1989), 2639; Fiske, Emmet Preston, “The College and Its Constituency: Rural and Community Development at the University of California, 1875–1978” (PhD diss., University of California, Davis, 1979), 117; Reid, Debra, “African-Americans and Land Loss in Texas: Government Duplicity and Discrimination Based on Race and Class,” Agricultural History 77 (Spring 2003): 258–93; Lynn-Sherow, Bonnie, Red Earth: Race and Agriculture in Oklahoma Territory (Lawrence, 2004), 60; Luther, E. L., “Agricultural Representatives,” Wisconsin Farmers' Institute Bulletin, 31 (1917): 3132, 37; E. L. Luther to J. F. Wojta, Aug. 18, 1915, box 1, Ernest L. Luther Papers, 1912–1952, State Historical Society of Wisconsin. The federal government has historically provided about 30 percent of the total annual budget for extension programs.

5 Jenkins, John W., A Centennial History: A History of the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences at the University of Wisconsin–Madison (Madison, 1991), 6768; Curti, Merle and Carstensen, Vernon, The University of Wisconsin: A History 1848–1925 (Madison, 1949), 2:582–83; Mc-Intyre, , Fifty Years, 3943; McCarthy, Charles, The Wisconsin Idea (New York, 1912), 125–31; Thelen, David, The New Citizenship: Origins of Progressivism in Wisconsin, 1883–1900 (Columbia, MO, 1972), 5960, 67–71; Rasmussen, Taking the University to the People; True, Alfred Charles, A History of Agricultural Extension Work in the United States, 1785–1923 (New York, 1969); White, Grace Witter, Cooperative Extension in Wisconsin: 1962–1982 (Dubuque, IA, 1985); Risjord, Norman K., “From the Plow to the Cow,” Wisconsin Magazine of History (Spring 2005): 4049.

6 Allen, E. A., “The Indian—Federal and State Responsibility,” The Red Man 8 (Oct. 1915): 45; Commissioner of Indian Affairs (CIA) Annual Report for 1916, 32; Anderson, A. E., “State Co-operation with Indians,” The Red Man 8 (Apr. 1916): 282–84; Lewis, , Neither Wolf nor Dog, 148; Report of the State County Agent Leader for November, 1916, Annual Narratives and Statistical Reports From State Offices and County Agents, reel 1, T 849, Records of the Federal Extension Service, RG 33, National Archives; “Helping Indians to Understand Farming Better,” The Red Man 8 (Dec. 1915): 126; Lynn-Sherow, , Red Earth, 136.

7 Thelen, New Citizenship; Cooper, John Milton Jr,, “Why Wisconsin? The Badger State in the Progressive Era,” Wisconsin Magazine of History 87 (Fall 2004): 1425; Brye, David L., “Wisconsin Scandinavians and Progressivism, 1900 to 1950,” Norwegian-American Studies 27 (1977): 163–94; Caine, Stanley P., The Myth of a Progressive Reform: Railroad Regulation in Wisconsin, 1903– 1910 (Madison, 1970); Jew, Victor, “Social Centers in Wisconsin, 1911–1915,” UCLA Historical Journal 8 (1987): 97113.

8 Wojta, J. F., “The Town of Two Creeks Manitowoc County1,” Wisconsin Magazine of History 25 (Dec. 1941): 146–47; Wojta, Joseph Frank, A History of the Town of Two Creeks, Manitowoc County, Wisconsin (Madison, 1945).

9 True, Alfred Charles, A History of Agricultural Education in the United States, 1785–1925 (Washington, 1929), 347; “Resolutions … on … Wojta,” J. F. Wojta File, Civilian Personnel Records, National Personnel Records Center, National Archives, St. Louis, MO; K. L. Hatch to H. B. Russell, July 2, 1914, box 4, Archives Series [AS] 9/1/1–9, College of Agriculture Papers (COA), Division of Archives, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Wojta started as a supervisor of courses, was appointed assistant state leader of county agents in 1915 and became state leader in 1920.

10 Wojta, J. F., “Indian Farm Institutes in Wisconsin,” Wisconsin Magazine of History 29 (Winter 1946): 423; Wisconsin AES Annual Report for 1916, reel 1, T896, RG 33.

11 Wojta, J. F., “Wisconsin Indians in Farming,” Wisconsin Archeologist n.s. 6 (Sept. 1927): 117; Wojta, J. F.Wisconsin Indians Learn Farming,” Wisconsin Archeologist 18:1 (1919): 19.

12 Field Report of J. F. Wojta for the week ending Sept. 11, 1915, box 6, AS 9/4/13, COA; Wojta, , “Wisconsin Indians Learn Farming,” 19, 30; Wojta, , “Wisconsin Indians in Farming,” 117–18; Krainz, Thomas A., “Culture and Poverty: Progressive Era Relief in the Rural West,” Pacific Historical Review 74 (Feb. 2005): 108.

13 Roosevelt, Theodore, “Impressions about Indians,” Outlook, Oct. 1913, 364–65.

14 Maddox, Lucy, Citizen Indians: Native American Intellectuals, Race, and Reform (Ithaca, NY, 2005), 14, 55, 69–88; Hoxie, , A Final Promise, 115–45, 201–02, 206; Holm, , The Great Confusion in Indian Affairs, 131–52; Hoxie, Frederick, ed., Talking Back to Civilization: Indian Voices from the Progressive Era (Boston, 2001), 1420, 119–22; Smith, Sherry L., Reimagining Indians: Native Americans through Anglo Eyes, 1880–1940 (Oxford, 2000), 615.

15 Bureau of the Census, Department of Commerce, Indian Population, 1910 (Washington, 1915), 1721; Lurie, Nancy, Wisconsin Indians (Madison, 1987), 12; Lurie, Nancy, “The Win-nebago Indians: A Study in Cultural Change” (PhD diss., Northwestern University, 1952), 271–72; Condition of Indian Affairs in Wisconsin, 1170; 1916 Grand Rapids SNR, fr. 10, reel 58, RG 75; “Board of Indian Commissioners Report” in CIA Report for 1920, 87.

16 1914 Tomah SNR, fr. 65, reel 149, RG 75; Condition of Indian Affairs in Wisconsin, 1171; Lurie, Nancy, ed., Mountain Wolf Woman: Sister of Crashing Thunder: The Autobiography of a Win-nebago Indian (Ann Arbor, 1961), 1016, 22, 117; Lurie, , “Winnebago Indians,” 275; Lurie, Nancy, “Winnebago” in Northeast, vol. 15 of Handbook of North American Indians, ed. Trigger, Bruce G. (Washington, 1978), 704; Loew, Patty, Indian Nations of Wisconsin: Histories of Endurance and Renewal (Madison, 2001), 4849.

17 Lurie, , “Winnebago,” 704; Lurie, , Mountain Wolf Woman, 34; 1916 Grand Rapids SNR, fr. 21, reel 58, RG 75.

18 1912 Tomah SNR, frs. 32–33, reel 149, RG 75; CIA Report for 1914, 30; 1916 Grand Rapids SNR, frs. 5, 24, reel 58, RG 75.

19 State County Agent Leader's Report, Mar. 1917, reel 1, T896, RG 33; Indian Farmers' Institutes for 1917 in Wisconsin, box 9, AS 9/4/8–3, COA,; McIntyre, , Fifty Years, 239, 260; Mauston Star, Apr. 26, 1917.

20 State County Agent Leader's Report, Apr. 1917, reel 1, T896, RG 33; 1917 Grand Rapids SNR, frs. 47, 58, reel 58, RG 75; Badger State Banner (Black River Falls, WI), May 3, 1917.

21 Indian Farmers' Institutes for 1917 in Wisconsin, box 9, AS 9/4/8–3, COA; CIA Report for 1916, 133, 183; Mauston Star, Oct. 5, 1916; Wojta, , “Wisconsin Indians Learn Farming,” 32; 1919 Grand Rapids SNR, fr. 79, reel 58, RG 75; 1929, 1931 Tomah SNR, frs. 803, 993, reel 149, RG 75.

22 Lurie, , “Winnebago Indians,” 270, 277; Ritzenthaler, Robert, “The Potawatomi Indians of Wisconsin,” Milwaukee Public Museum Bulletin 19 (Jan. 1953): 115; Swoboda, Frank G., “Agricultural Cooperation in Wisconsin,” Wisconsin Magazine of History 10 (Spring 1926): 166; 1927 Tomah SNR, fr. 588, reel 149, RG 75; Lurie, , “Winnebago,” 704; U.S. Senate Committee on Indian Affairs, Survey of Conditions of the Indians in the United States, 71st Cong., 1st sess. (July 8, 1929), S 545–2–A 1886–87.

23 CIA Report for 1920, 117; 1928 Tomah Superintendent's Statistical Report (SSR), frs. 681, 683, reel 149, RG 75.

24 1929 Tomah SNR, frs. 787–788, 804, reel 149, RG 75; Lurie, Nancy, “Trends of Change in Patterns of Child Care and Training Among the Wisconsin Winnebago” (MA thesis, University of Chicago, 1947), 6365; Lurie, , Mountain Wolf Woman, 4344.

25 Cohen, Felix, “Indian Citizenship” in American Indians, comp. Daniels, Walter (New York, 1957), 107; For court rulings on citizenship and wardship, see Wilkins, David E., American Indian Sovereignty and the US Supreme Court: The Masking of Justice (Austin, 1997), 118–36.

26 Field Report of J. F. Wojta, week ending Sept. 11, 1915, COA; Wojta, , “Wisconsin Indians Learn Farming,” 31; Wojta, , “Wisconsin Indians in Farming,” 119; Hurt, , Indian Agriculture in America, 168; Meriam, Lewis et al., Problem of Indian Administration (1928; New York, 1971), 135, 493; U.S. House Committee on Appropriations, Interior Department Appropriation for 1932, 71st Cong., 3rd sess. (Nov. 17, 1930), H 556–0, 806–08; Survey of Conditions of the Indians in the United States, 1971–73, 2030.

27 Hosmer, Brian C., “Creating Indian Entrepreneurs: Menominees, Neopit Mills, and Timber Exploitation, 1890–1915,” American Indian Culture and Research Journal 15 (Jan. 1991): 128; Report of Mr. Edward E. Ayer on the Menominee Indian Reservation, Jan. 1914, 79–80, Edward E. Ayer Collection of Americana and American Indians, Newberry Library, Chicago; Nicholson, Angus, “The Menominee Indians Working Their Way,” The Red Man 5 (Sept. 1912): 1723; 1914, 1915 Keshena SNR, reel 69, RG 75; Bieder, Robert E., Native American Communities in Wisconsin, 1600–1960 (Madison, 1995), 161–63.

28 Field Report of J. F. Wojta, week ending Feb. 26, 1916, and Field Report of J. F. Wojta, week ending Mar. 25, 1916, box 6, AS 9/4/13, COA; Wojta, , “Wisconsin Indians Learn Farming,” 2829; Wojta, , “Indian Farm Institutes in Wisconsin,” 424–25; 1916, 1919, 1924 Keshena SNR, 1923, 1925 Keshena SSR, reel 69, RG 75; Shawano County Advocate, Mar. 21, 1916, Mar. 28, 1916; CIA Report for 1915, 193; CIA Report for 1916, 183; CIA Report for 1917, 189; CIA Report for 1918, 203. Wojta wrote in his articles that the first institute for the Menominees was in spring 1915, but all other sources record it as Mar. 21–24, 1916.

29 Wojta, , “Wisconsin Indians Learn Farming,” 2830; Wojta, , “Indian Farm Institutes,” 426; Shawano County Advocate, Mar. 28, 1916.

30 Ernest Oshkosh to Wojta, n.d. [1921 or 1922], box 9, AS 9/4/8–3, COA; Ernest Oshkosh File, Civilian Personnel Records, National Personnel Records Center.

31 State County Agent Leader's Report for Feb. and Mar. 1917, reel 1, T896, RG 33; Field Report of J. F. Wojta, week ending Mar. 24, 1917, box 6, AS 9/4/13, COA; “Indian Farmers” Institute at Assembly Hall Menominee Indian Reservation Keshina [sic], Wis.,” box 1, AS 9/4/13, COA; Indian Farmers' Institutes for 1917 in Wisconsin, box 9, AS 9/4/8–3, COA; Shawano County Advocate, Mar. 20, 1917; McIntyre, , Fifty Years, 239, 241; CIA Report for 1917, 137, 189; 1918, 1919, 1929 Keshena SNR, reel 69, RG 75; Wojta, , “Wisconsin Indians Learn Farming,” 29; “Dairy Marketing in Shawano County” in “Annual Report of Department of Farmers' Institutes for the Year 1931–1932,” box 2, AS 9/27/2–1, COA; Risjord, , “From the Plow to the Cow,” 4049.

32 1918, 1919, 1920, 1923, 1925, 1928, 1930, 1931 Keshena SSR, reel 69, RG 75; 1921, 1924, 1930 Keshena SNR, reel 69, RG 75; Shawano County Advocate, Feb. 16, 1915, 1.

33 Delgado, Jeanne Hunnicutt, ed., “Nellie Kedzie Jones's Advice to Farm Women: Letters from Wisconsin, 1912–1916,” Wisconsin Magazine of History 57 (Spring 1973): 45; Delgado, Jeanne Hunnicutt, ed., “Nellie Kedzie Jones's Advice to Farm Women: Letters from Wisconsin, 1912–1916” in Women's Wisconsin: From Native Matriarchies to the New Millennium, ed. McBride, Genevieve G. (Madison, 2005), 318–19; McIntyre, , Fifty Years, 167, 172; Jones, Nellie Kedzie, “The Woman on the Farm–Her Needs and the Forces Available for the Betterment of Her Condition” in Agricultural Extension as Related to Business Interests: Something of Its Meaning, the Forces Engaged in the Work, and the Results Obtained (Chicago, 1916); Hoffschwelle, Mary S., “Better Homes on Better Farms: Domestic Reform in Rural Tennessee,” Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies 22:1 (2001): 53; Bowers, , “Country Life Reform,” 211–21.

34 McIntyre, , Fifty Years, 172; “Menominee Indian Farmers' Institute at Assembly Hall, Kesh-ena Indian School, Keshena, Wis. Apr. 8th and 9th, 1919,” box 9, AS 9/4/8–3, COA; Monthly Report of State Home Demonstration Leader, Apr. 1919, reel 1, T896, RG 33; McBride, , Women's Wisconsin, 303; Hoffschwelle, , “Better Homes on Better Farms,” 53.

35 1912, 1915 Hayward School SNR, frs. 53, 132, reel 63, RG 75.

36 1910, 1917, 1918, 1919 Hayward School SNR, frs. 2, 4, 183, 209, 235, reel 63, RG 75; Danziger, Edmund Jefferson Jr, The Chippewas of Lake Superior (Norman, OK, 1979), 118; CIA Report for 1913, 121.

37 A Summary Report of County Representative Work for the Month of Sept. 1916, reel 1, T896, RG 33; Field Report of J. F. Wojta, week ending May 4, 1918, box 6, AS 9/4/13, COA; Wojta to West, Apr. 25, 1919, box 4, AS 9/4/1, COA; West to Wojta, May 2, 1919, box 4, AS 9/4/13, COA; County Agent Summary Report for May, 1917, Sawyer County and Narrative Report on the War Work of Sawyer County Agent West, reel 1, T896, RG 33.

38 Loew, , Indian Nations of Wisconsin, 6769.

39 Sawyer County Board of Supervisors Proceedings (SCBSP), 1913 to 1914, 10–11, 14–15; SCBSP, 1917, and SCBSP, 1915; 1918 Hayward School SNR, frs. 137, 209, reel 63, RG 75; Chapter 313 in Laws of Wisconsin (1917).

40 SCBSP, 1917; 1919 Hayward School SNR, fr. 239, reel 63, RG 75.

41 1915 Hayward School SNR, fr. 137, reel 63, RG 75; U.S. v. Nice, 241 U.S. 591, 36 Sup. Ct. Rep. 696 (1916); Prucha, Francis Paul, The Great Father: The United States Government and the American Indians (Lincoln, NE, 1984), 785.

42 1916 La Pointe SNR, frs. 643–44, reel 77, RG 75; for example, Ashland Daily Press, Mar. 27, 1917; 1916, 1918 Red Cliff School SNR, fr. 76–79, 112, reel 114, RG 75.

43 Danziger, , Chippewas, 115; 1921, 1922 La Pointe SNR, frs. 912, 913, 916, 1007, 1008, reel 77, RG 75; 1928 Lac du Flambeau SNR, fr. 1175, reel 75, RG 75.

44 Field Report of J. F. Wojta, week ending May 20, 1916, box 6, AS 9/4/13, COA; General Characteristics of Work Performed by County Representatives for May 1916, reel 1, T896, RG 33; 1917 La Pointe SNR, fr. 687, reel 77, RG 75; McIntyre, , Fifty Years, 246; Wojta, , “Wisconsin Indians Learn Farming,” 22; Ashland Daily Press, Mar. 24, 1917, Apr. 3, 1917; Indian Farmers' Institute at Village Hall, Bad River, Mar. 27–30, 1917, box 1, AS 9/4/13, COA.

45 CIA Report for 1918, 152, 203; 1916, 1917, 1920 La Pointe SNR, frs. 650–52, 685, 816, reel 77, RG 75.

46 CIA Report for 1918, 203; Danziger, , Chippewas, 115; 1915, 1916 La Pointe SNR, frs. 616, 649, reel 77, RG 75; Wojta, , “Wisconsin Indians Learn Farming,” 22; Ashland Daily Press, Mar. 27, 1917; J. F. Wojta, “Chippewa Indians Adopt Modern Farming Methods,” Indians of North America Miscellaneous Material 1909, 1917, and n.d., State Historical Society of Wisconsin.

47 1916, 1917 La Pointe SNR, frs. 652, 687, reel 77, RG 75; “Helping Indians to Understand Farming Better,” 126; McIntyre, , Fifty Years, 246; Ashland Daily Press, Mar. 28, 1918; CIA Report for 1919, 193.

48 1922 La Pointe SSR, frs. 30, 31, 35, 60, reel 78, RG 75.

49 Danziger, , Chippewas, 111, 117; 1916, 1920 Red Cliff School SNR, frs. 76–77, 149, reel 114, RG 75; CIA Report for 1919, 126.

50 1915–16, 1918–20 Red Cliff School SNR, frs. 59, 61–62, 76–78, 112, 120, 136, reel 114, RG 75.

51 Field Report of J. F. Wojta, week ending Sept. 1, 1917, box 6, AS 9/4/13, COA; State County Agent Leader's Report for Aug. 1917, reel 1, T896, RG 33; Bayfield County Press, Mar. 29, 1918; Wojta, , “Indian Farm Institutes,” 431; CIA Report for 1912, 32; CIA Report for 1919, 193; 1912, 1913, 1915, 1916, 1918 Red Cliff School SNR, frs. 7–8, 24, 59–60, 76, 110, reel 114, RG 75; Norrgard, Chantal, “From Berries to Orchards: Tracing the History of Berrying and Economic Transformation among Lake Superior Ojibwe,” American Indian Quarterly 33 (Winter 2009): 4751.

52 Hertzberg, Hazel, The Search for an American Indian Identity: Modern Pan-Indian Movements, (Syracuse, 1971), 91, 97, 202; Richards, , Oneida People, 78; Lurie, Nancy O., “Recollections of an Urban Community: The Oneidas of Milwaukee” in The Oneida Experience: Two Perspectives, ed. Campisi, Jack and Hauptman, Laurence M. (Syracuse, 1988), 101–02.

53 1917 Oneida School SNR, frs. 344, 350–51, reel 95, RG 75; 1920 Keshena SSR, reel 69, RG 75. When the Oneida school was closed, the Menominee superintendent became responsible for reporting on Oneida progress.

54 Lewis, , Oneida Lives, 7, 158–59.

55 Lews, , Oneida Lives, 910, 36–37, 42, 60; Loew, , Indian Nations of Wisconsin, 108.

56 1918 Oneida School SNR, fr. 360, reel 95, RG 75; 1925 Keshena SNR, reel 69, RG 75; Survey of Conditions of the Indians in the United States, 1998; Lewis, , Oneida Lives, xxvii, 9, 133–34.

57 1917 Oneida School SNR, fr. 351, reel 95, RG 75; Annual Report, Outagamie County, 1923, box 86, AS 9/4/3, box 86, COA; Annual Report, Brown County, 1928, and Annual Report, Brown County, 1924, box 10, AS 9/4/3, COA; E. Salter, Assistant Club Leader, Monthly Reports, Apr. 1927, reel 10, T896, RG 33; Wojta, , “Indian Farm Institutes in Wisconsin,” 432.

58 Lewis, , Oneida Lives, 8, 28, 55, 144.

59 J. F. Wojta to W. W. Clark, Nov. 21, 1939, box 4, AS 9/1/1–9, COA; Annual Report of Department of Farmers' Institutes for the Year 1931–1932, box 2, AS 9/27/2–1, COA; Resolutions of the Faculty of the University of Wisconsin on the Death of Emeritus Professor J. F. Wojta, Joseph Wojta File, document 830, Personnel Records, Division of Archives, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Agricultural Extension and the Campaign to Assimilate the Native Americans of Wisconsin, 1914–1932

  • Angela Firkus (a1)

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