The cardinality problem for ultraproducts is as follows: Given an ultrafilter over a set I and cardinals αi, i ∈ I, what is the cardinality of the ultraproduct ? Although many special results are known, several problems remain open (see  for a survey). For example, consider a uniform ultrafilter over a set I of power κ (uniform means that all elements of have power κ). It is open whether every countably incomplete has the property that, for all infinite α, the ultra-power has power ακ. However, it is shown in  that certain countably incomplete , namely the κ-regular , have this property.
This paper is about another cardinality property of ultrafilters which was introduced by Eklof  to study ultraproducts of abelian groups. It is open whether every countably incomplete ultrafilter has the Eklof property. We shall show that certain countably incomplete ultrafilters, the κ-good ultrafilters, do have this property. The κ-good ultrafilters are important in model theory because they are exactly the ultrafilters such that every ultraproduct modulo is κ-saturated (see ).
Let be an ultrafilter on a set I. Let αi, n, i ∈ I, n ∈ ω, be cardinals and αi, n, ≥ αi, m if n < m. Let
Then ρn are nonincreasing and therefore there is some m and ρ such that ρn = ρ if n ≥ m. We call ρ the eventual value (abbreviated ev val) of ρn.