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Hierarchies of forcing axioms II

  • Itay Neeman


A truth for λ is a pair 〈Q, ψ〉 so that QHλ, ψ is a first order formula with one free variable, and there exists BHλ+ such that (Hλ+; ∈, B) ⊨ ψ[Q]. A cardinal λ is , indescribable just in case that for every truth 〈Q, ψ〈 for λ, there exists < λ so that is a cardinal and 〈Q ∩ , ψ) is a truth for . More generally, an interval of cardinals [κ, λ] with κ ≤ λ is indescribable if for every truth 〈Q, ψ〈 for λ, there exists , and π: Hλ so that is a cardinal, is a truth for , and π is elementary from () into (H; ∈, κ, Q) with id.

We prove that the restriction of the proper forcing axiom to ϲ-linked posets requires a indescribable cardinal in L, and that the restriction of the proper forcing axiom to ϲ+-linked posets, in a proper forcing extension of a fine structural model, requires a indescribable 1-gap [κ, κ+]. These results show that the respective forward directions obtained in Hierarchies of Forcing Axioms I by Neeman and Schimmerling are optimal.


Corresponding author

Department of Mathematics, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1555, USA, E-mail:


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Hierarchies of forcing axioms II

  • Itay Neeman


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