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“Traditional Music Weeps” and Other Themes in the Discourse on Music, Dance and Theatre of Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand

  • Margaret J. Kartomi (a1)


One of the most remarkable features of the past twenty years of scholarship on the Southeast Asian performing arts has been the sparking off of ideas between Southeast Asian-born scholars, whether trained in Southeast Asian universities or overseas, and Western scholars of the Southeast arts who live in North America, Australia, Europe, Japan and elsewhere. In colonial Indonesia (until 1945) and Malaysia (until 1957), research agendas of Dutch and British scholars respectively had complied with the social, economic and political priorities of the colonial powers and associated local court-centred artistic interests, though not always consciously. In Thailand, which was the only country in the region not to be colonized by a European power, Thai scholars had been actively researching their own court performing arts in the late colonial era but were nevertheless influenced by the colonial ethos of the region. In the past twenty years or so, the developing dialogue and contradictions between Southeast Asian and foreign scholars, each with their own partly distinctive assumptions and methodologies based on the priorities of their respective traditions and governments, have resulted in a healthy divergence, convergence, and cross-fertilization of ideas.



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For reasons of space, this article will refer to a relatively small number of the many significant publications that have appeared, and only by way of example of arguments presented. The author is grateful to a number of colleagues for their critical comments on this article, including Judith Becker, R. Anderson Sutton, Sumarsam, Ashley Turner, Aline Scott-Maxwell, Mauly Purba and Terry E. Miller.

1 The ruler of the largest empire in the world was Queen Victoria, who by the time of her Diamond Jubilee in 1897 ruled over eleven million square miles of territory in Europe, Africa, America, Asia, Australasia and the Atlantic, Indiean and Pacific Oceans, including 372 million subjects. The Dutch and French colonies shared a similar worldview with the British.

2 A similar periodization in the visual arts has been presented in Smith, Bernard, “Modernism and Post-Modernism: Neo-Colonial Viewpoint”, Thesis Eleven 38 (1994): 109. Early modernism as a period style, he wrote, is a product of the late nineteenth century but became the dominant style of the twentieth century until about 1970; while “the post-modern is best understood as a dialogue with modernism as a period style, that is to say as a dialogue with formalism”, which “ended its hegemony as a mainstream style in the United States during the early 1970s”, pp. 110–11.

3 Use of the term “post-colonial” is not meant to imply that we now live in a non-imperialist age, only that colonialization in the sense of the direct political, economic and cultural subjugation of a people by a non-resident nation (such as the British and Dutch in Southeast Asia between the seventeenth and twentieth centuries) has been replaced in independent Southeast Asian nations by other forms of political, economic and cultural control, in part via foreign governments and multinational companies. The America-Vietnam war may be regarded as a continuation of the French colonial war in Vietnam by the Americans and allies.

4 François Valentijn, Beschrijvinge van Amboine [Description of Ambon], in Valentijn, Francois, Oud en Nieuw Oost Indiën [Old and New], vol. 2 (Dordrecht-Amsterdam: J. van Braam, 1724–26). Valentijn was a Calvinist clergyman who served two terms in the VOC army, mainly in Ambon in 1686–94 and 1705–1713.

5 Raffles, Thomas Stamford, The History of Java, 2 vols. (London, 1817; repr. Japan, 1965).

6 See Dhaninivat, Prince Sonakul, “An Outline of Siamese Cultural History”, Thai Digest 1 (8 02 1957): 6.

7 The Centhini was written by several authors in the early nineteenth century under the supervision of Crown Prince Paku Buwana (1820–23). Several versions exist, based on older editions; see Pigeaud, Theodore G., Literature of Java, vol. I (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1967), p. 229.

8 Sumarsam, , “Historical Contexts and Theories of Javanese Music” (Ph.D. diss., Cornell University, 1992), p. 142. Aspects of European culture in the life of Javanese courtiers, as described by the nineteenth century poet of the Babad Krama Dalem, were a form of evasion as well as an expression of the extent to which European power had imbued the fabric of Javanese cultural and political life. Thus, the frequent sounding together of European and Javanese music, monggang and cannons, pistols and gamelan each contributed to a unitary political and cultural statement, a “noise” that definitely had a meaning (ibid., p. 141).

9 See Smith, , “Modernism and Post-modernism”, p. 109.

10 For example, Serrurier, L., De Wajang Poerwa: Eene Ethnologische Studie (Leiden, 1896).

11 Adler, Guido, “Umfang, Methode und Ziel der Musikwissenschaft”, Vierteljahresschrift fur Musikwissenschaft 1 (Leipzig, 1919).

12 See for example Stumpf, Carl, “Tonsystem der Siamesen”, Beiträdge zur Akustik und Musikwissenschaft 3 (1901): 69138, reprinted in Sammelbände für Vergleichende Musikwissenschaft 1 (1922): 122–77; and Ellis, Alexander J., “On the Musical Scales of Various Nations”, Journal of the Royal Society of Arts 33 (1885): 485572.

13 Jacobson, E. and van Hasselt, J. H., De Gong-Fabricatie te Semarang (Leiden: Brill, 1907).

14 See Kartomi, Margaret, On Concepts and Classifications of Musical Instruments (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990), Chapter 1. The most influential classification of instruments was von Hornbostel's, Erich and Sachs', CurtSystematik der Musikinstrumente: Ein Versuch”, Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 45 (3) (1914): 553–90.

15 For example, Surakarta court poet Ronggowarsita “may have received cash regularly from his Dutch colleagues” in return for information about court life and arts in the second half of the nineteenth century (see Sumarsam, , “Cultural Contact with the West: The Development of Theories of Javanese Gamelan by Indonesian Theorists”, in Music-Cultures in Contact: Convergences and Collisions, ed. Kartomi, Margaret and Blum, Stephen (Basel, Gordon and Breach, 1994), pp. 100121, and Day, Anthony, “The Meaning of Change in the Poetry of Nineteenth-Century Java” (Ph.D. diss., Cornell University, 1980), pp. 184–86.

16 The earliest such treatise was written in 1870 by Raden Harya Tondhakusuma of the Mangkunegaran court in Surakarta, who took a music-etymological approach, followed by a collaborative Javanese-Dutch work on Javanese children's songs in 1913 by K.P.H. Koesoemadiningrat and D. van Hinloopen Labberton in 1913. See Sumarsam, , “Cultural Contact”, pp. 102103ff.

17 See Sumarsam, , “Cultural Contact”, pp. 103106.

18 This body of literature, published mostly in the 1920s and 1930s but in part as late as the 1960s and 1970s, includes such works as de Zoete, Beryl and Spies, Walter, Dance and Drama in Bali (1938; repr. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1973); Holt, Claire, Dance Quest in Celebes (Paris: Les Archives Internationales de la Danse, 1939); Belo, Jane, Trance in Bali (New York: Columbus University Press, 1960); McPhee, Colin, Music in Bali (New Haven: Yale University, 1966); and Holt, Claire, Art in Indonesia: Continuities and Change (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1976). Kunst, authored monographs titled De Toonkunst van Bali (Weltevreden, 1925); Hindoe-Javaansche Muziek instrumenten, speciaal die van Oost-Java (with Goris, R.) (Batavia, 1927); rev. ed. as Hindu-Javanese Musical Instruments, 1968; De Toonkunst van Java (The Hague, 1934; English trans, as Music in Java: Its History, its Theory and its Technique, 2 vols. (The Hague: M. Nijhoff, 1949; 3rd ed., 1973); Music in Nias (Leiden, 1939); Music in Flores (Leiden, 1942); and Music in New Guinea (The Hague: M. Nijhoff, 1967). See further Heins, Ernst, “The Netherlands: History to World War II”, in Ethnomusicology: Historical and Regional Studies, ed. Myers, H (London: Macmillan, 1993), pp. 101111. Buys, J. Brandts also wrote many works, including “De Toonkunst bij de Madoereezen”, Djåwå 8 (1928): 61349.

19 R.A.A. Tjakrahadikusuma, “De Regelen der Gendhing [Rules of Gamelan Works]”, referred to in Kunst,De Toonkunst van Java/Music in Java.

20 Kunst, De Toonkunst van Java/Music in Java.

21 Prince Damrong's publications are discussed in Morton, David, The Traditional Music of Thailand (Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1976), p. 18.

22 See Tramote, Montri, “The Evolution of Thai Music” (in Thai), Thai Culture Journal 2 (1 12 1954): 611.

23 For example, Buys, J.S. Brandts, “Toneel 1: Het Wajang-feestspel te Jogjakarta”, Djawa 3 (1923): 133–36; Djawa 6 (1926): 91110.

24 For example, Manusama, A. Th., Komedie Stamboel of de Oost-Indische Opera (Weltevreden, 1922).

25 Pigeaud, Theodore, Javaansche Volksvertoningen, Bijdrage tot de Beschrijvring van Land en Volk (Batavia: Volkslectuur, 1938).

26 Sheppard, Mubin, Taman Indera: Malay Decorative Arts and Pastimes (Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1972).

27 See Sumarsam, , “Historical Contexts”, pp. 106107, quoting Dewantara's, Ki Hadjar Sari Swara [Good Sound] (Groningen — The Hague, 1930) and Kawruh Gending Jawa (Surakarta: Sadu Budi, 1936).

28 Kunst, , Music in Java, pp. 34.

29 For example, Vichitr-Vadakarn, V., “The Evolution of Siamese Music”, Siam Today (07 1937): 7180; Damrong, Prince, Siamese Musical Instruments, 2nd ed. (Bangkok: The Royal Institute, 1931), pp. 112; and Duriyanga, Phra Chen, Thai Music, 4th ed. (Bangkok: Department of Fine Arts, Thailand Culture Series no. 8, 1956).

30 See Kunst, Jaap, Ethno-Musicology, its Problems, Methods and Representative Personalities, 3rd ed. (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1959). “Scientific” meant using means of measurement and analysis that aimed to be objective, including the use of machines such as the melograph of the 1970s, which graphed the pitch and timbral aspects of recorded music.

31 For example, Kunst (1949), Hood (1958) and McPhee (1966) included in their books studies of mode and formal structure of Javanese or Balinese music, notations in Western or local notation systems, and analyses based on them. Morton did likewise in his book on Thai music, as did Burmese musicologist U Khin Zaw, for example in Burmese Music”, Open Mind 2, 12 (1961): 175215.

32 Hood first became known for his book on Javanese mode: The Nuclear Theme as a Determinant of Pathet in Javanese Music (The Hague: M. Nijhoff, 1954).

33 See, for example, Sindoesawarno, Ki, Ilmu Karawitan [Knowledge of Gamelan Practice] [1955], vol. 1 (Surakarta: Konservatori Karawitan Indonesia, 1955) and Ilmu Karawitan, vol. II, unpublished monograph (Surakarta: Konservatori Karawitan, n.d.). See also Martopangrawit's, R.L. Pengetahuan Karawitan [Knowledge of Gamelan Practice] vols. Ia and Ib (Surakarta: Dewan Mahasiswa, Akademi Seni Karawitan Indonesia, 1969) and vol. 2 (Surakarta ASKI, 1969); also Martopangrawit, R.L., “Catatan-catatan Pengetahuan Karawitan” [Notes on gamelan playing] in Karawitan: Source Readings in Javanese Gamelan and Vocal Music, vol. 1, ed. Becker, Judith and Feinstein, Alan (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1984), pp. 1244.

34 See Sumarsam, “Historical Contexts”, pp. 110, 113.

35 Yupho, Dhanit, Thai Musical Instruments, trans. Morton, David (Bangkok: Department of Fine Arts, 1960), p. 140; Yupho, Dhanit, Classical Siamese Theatre (Bangkok: Hatha Dhip, 1952), p. 168; Montri Tramote, “The Evolution of Thai Music”; and “A Description of Thai Musical Ensembles”, in Notes on Thai Songs (pamphlet and disc, Series 2; Bangkok: Department of Fine Arts, 1959); and Tramote, Montri, Classical Siamese Theatre (Bangkok: Hatha Dhip, 1952) and The Khon and Lakon (Bangkok: Department of Fine Arts, 1963).

36 Tramote, , “The Evolution of Thai Music”, p. 60.

37 Morton, , The Traditional Music of Thailand.

38 Heins, , “The Netherlands: History to World War II”, pp. 101111.

39 The highly influential and prolific writer Umar Kayam produced studies such as Seni, Tradisi, Masyarakat [Art, Tradition, Society] (Jakarta: Penerbit Sinar Harapan, 1981).

40 See, for example, Susilo, Hardja, “Wayang Wong Panggung: Its Social Context, Technique and Music”, in Aesthetic Tradition and Cultural Transition in Java and Bali, ed. Morgan, S. and Sears, L.J. (Madison: Center for Southeast Asian Studies, University of Wisconsin, 1984), pp. 117–62.

41 See, for example, I Made Bandem, Kaja and Kelod- Balinese Dance in Tradition (Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1981).

42 Osman, Mohd TaibPatterns of Supernatural Premises Underlying the Institution of the Malay Bomoh”, Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde 128 (1972): 219–34; and Osman, Mohd Taib (ed.), Traditional Music and Drama of Southeast Asia (Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, 1974).

43 For example, the development of a new performative approach (based on ideas of such theorists as Gregory Bateson, Claude Lévi-Strauss, Maurice Bloch and Suzanne Langer) to the study of theatre, music and dance as forms of social ceremonial, media of communication and modes of social action, with features such as formality, conventionality, stereotypy and rigidity, may be observed in the 1970s. See Tambiah, S.J., “A Performative Approach to Ritual”, Culture, Thought and Social Action (Cambridge, Mass., and London: Harvard, 1985), pp. 123–68; and a discussion by Becker, A.L. of his own performance experience of being a Javanese puppeteer and his consequent aesthetic insights in “Text-Building, Epistemoloy and Aesthetics in Javanese Shadow Theatre”, The Imagination of Reality: Essays in Southeast Asian Coherence Systems, ed. Becker, A.L. and Yengoyan, Aram A. (Norwood New Jersey, Ablex, 1974), pp. 211–44. The relationship between the musician and his audience, his role in society, and other aspects of behavioural musicology are discussed in Becker, Judith, “Time and Tune in Java”, The Imagination of Reality, pp. 197210, while Husserl's phenomenology influenced a study of Balinese symbolic systems in “In the World of the Sea Urchin: the Application of Husserlian Phenomenology to Cultural Symbols”, The Imagination of Reality, ed. Becker, and Yengoyan, , pp. 7583.

44 See, for example, Geertz, Clifford, The Religion of Java (Glencoe, Illinois: Free Press, 1960); Anderson, Benedict, “The Idea of Power in Javanese Culture”, in Culture and Politics in Indonesia, ed. Holt, Claire and others (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1972); and Ricklefs, Merle C., Jogjakarta under Sultan Mangkubumi, 1749–1792 (London: Oxford University Press, 1974). See also Commentary in “A Reformulation of Geertz's Conception of the Theatre State”, Culture, Thought and Social Action: an Anthropological Perspective, ed. Tambiah, S.J. (Cambridge, Mass., and London: Harvard, 1985), pp. 316–38.

45 This point was made by Becker, Judith in “Southeast Asia”, Ethnomusicology: Historical and Regional Studies, ed. Myers, H. (London: Macmillan, 1993), p. 378.

46 The Department was set up by the then Rektor, Professor A.P. Parlindungan, with initial advice from Monash University, followed by extensive financial assistance from the Ford Foundation, which sent a succession of Americans and an Australian there to teach ethnomusicology, an arrangement that ended in 1994.

47 Performing arts academy graduates were sent mainly from the STSI (Sekolah Tinggi Seni Indonesia), formerly called ASKI (Akademi Seni Karawitan Indonesia), located in Surakarta, Java.

48 For example, Roongruang, Panya's, Prawat Kan Dontri Thai [The History of Thai Music] (Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University 1974), which gives an overview of some historical data, based largely on Montri Tramote's earlier works on Thai music history.

49 The Indonesian Musicological Society (Masyarakat Musikologi Indonesia) published the first issues of its newsletter Warta MMI and journal Seni Pertunjukan Indonesia in 1990. The Society's name changed in 1993 to become the Indonesian Performing Arts Society (Masyarakat Seni Pertunjukan Indonesia, MSPI).

50 Becker, Judith, Traditional Music in Modern Java: Gamelan in a Changing Society (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1980).

51 For example, Waridi, , Proses Kumulatif Unsur-Unsur Musikal Dalam Diri Empu Karawitan Bapak R.L. Martopangrawit [Accumulative Process of Musical Elements in the Karawitan of Martopangrawit] (Surakarta: STSI, 1983); and Hatch, Martin, “Nyai Bei Mardusari: Singer of Javanese Poetry”, Review of Indonesian and Malaysian Affairs 19 (1985): 113–36.

52 For example, see Humardani, S.D., Perbendaharaan Gerak Tari [Dance Movement Vocabulary] (Surakarta: STSI Surakarta, 1979/1980).

53 For example, see Anis Md Nor, Malaysian scholar Mohd, Randai Dance of Minangkabau, Sumatra, with Labanotation Scores (Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya, 1986); and Indonesian scholar Murgiyanto, Sal, “Labanotation: An Alternative System of Analyzing and Recording Movement”, Performing Arts 2 (1986): 1624.

54 For example, see Sedyawati, Edi, “Gambyong Menurut Serat Cabolang dan Serat Centhini”, in Tari, ed. Sedyawati, Edi (Jakarta: Pustaka Jaya, 1987). Sedyawati's dance research is informed by both archaeological and anthropological pursuits as well as containing descriptive and analytical-choreological data.

55 Scott-Maxwell, Aline, “The Dynamics of the Yogyakarta Gamelan Music Tradition” (Ph.D. diss., Monash University, 1993).

56 For a study of the Tantric religious elements in Javanese dance, see Becker, Judith, “The Javanese Court Bedhaya Dance as a Tantric Analogy”, in Metaphor A Musical Dimension, ed. Kassler, J. (Sydney: Currency Press, 1991); and for a study of the choreographical aspects see Brakel-Papenhuyzen, Clara, Seni Tari Jawa: Tradisi Surakarta den Peristilahannya [Javanese Dance: Surakarta Tradition and Terminology] (Leiden: State University of Leiden, 1991).

57 See, for example, Sweeney, Amin, The Ramayana and the Malay Shadow Play (Kuala Lumpur: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 1972); Malm, W.P., “Music in Kelantan, Malaysia, and Some of its Cultural Implications”, Studies in Malaysian Oral Traditions (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Center for South and Southeast Asian Studies, 1974); and Yousof, Ghulam Sarwar, “Feasting of the spirits: the Berjamu Ritual Performance in the Kelantanese Wayang Siam Shadow Play”, Kajian Malaysia 1/1 (1983): 95115.

58 Zurbuchen, Mary, The Language ofBalinese Shadow Theatre (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1987).

59 Yousof, Ghulam Sarwar, “The Kelantan Mak Yong Dance Theatre: A Study of Performance Structure” (Ph.D, diss., University of Hawaii, 1976); and Nora Chatri in Kedah”, Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 55/1 (1982): 5361.

60 For example, Soedarsono, , Wayang Wong: The State Ritual Dance Drama in the Court of Yogyakarta (Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press, 1984).

61 Peacock, James, Rites of Modernization (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968).

62 Hatley, Barbara, “Ludruk and Ketoprak; Popular Theatre and Society in Java”, Review of Indonesian and Malaysian Affairs 7/1 (1973): 3857.

63 Beng, Tan Sooi, Bangsawan: A Social and Stylistic History of Popular Malay Opera (Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1993).

64 Rafferty, “The New Tradition of Putu Wijaya”; and Thomas, Karen, “Tradition and Modern Indonesian Theatre” (Ph.D. diss., University of California at Berkeley, 1993).

65 Nanney, Nancy, “An Analysis of Modern Malaysian Drama” (Ph.D. diss., University of Hawaii, 1983); and Beng, Tan Sooi, “Counterpoints in the Performing Arts of Malaysia”, in Fragmented Vision: Culture and Politics in Contemporary Malaysia, ed. Kahn, J.S. and Kok Wah, F. Loh (Honolulu: University of Hawaii, 1992), pp. 282306.

66 Brandon, James L., The Performing Arts in Southeast Asia (Paris: Unesco, 1967).

67 See Mohamad, Goenawan, “Sebuah Pembelaan untuk Teater Indonesia Mutakhir”, in Seks, Sastra Kita [Sex, Literature and Us], ed. Mohamad, G, 2nd ed. (Jakarta: Penerbit Sinar Harapan, 1981); Goenawan Mohamad wrote also that the literary work can limit the creativity of both director and cast.

68 See, for example, Hatley, , “Cultural Expression in New Order Indonesia”, in Indonesia's New Order: The Dynamics of Socio-Economic Transformation, ed. Hill, Hal (Allen and Unwin, 1994), pp. 216–66; and Hatley, , “National Ritual Neighbourhood Performance: Celebrating Tujuhbelasan”, Indonesia 34 (10 1982): 5564.

69 Thomas, Karen, “Tradition and Modern Indonesian Theatre” (Ph.D, diss., UC Berkeley, 1993).

70 See Oemarjati, Boen S., Bentuk Lakon dalam Sastra Indonesia (Jakarta: Gunung Agung, 1971).

71 See for example, Hatley, , “Theatrical Imagery and Gender Ideology in Java”, in Power and Difference: Gender in Island Southeast Asia, ed. Errington, S. and Atkinson, J. (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1991), pp. 177207; and Hatley, , “Stage Texts and Life Texts: Women in Contemporary Indonesian Theatre”, Australasian Drama Review 25 (10 1994): 1739.

72 Wolbers, P.A., “Transvesticism, Eroticism and Religion; in Search of a Contextual Background for the Gandrung and Sebelang Traditions of Banyuwangi, East Java”, Progress Reports in Ethnomusicology 2/6 (1989): 117.

73 Sutton, R.A., “Who is the Pesindhen? Notes on the Female Singing Tradition in Java”, Indonesia 37 (1984): 119–34.

74 Ceres Pioquinto, “Dangdut at Sekaten; Female Representations in a Live Performance”, paper presented at the Fourth Women in Asia Conference, Asian Studies Association of Australia (Melbourne, Oct. 1993).

75 Weiss, Sarah, “Gender and Gender: Gender Ideology and the Female Gender Player in Central Java”, in Rediscovering the Muses: Women's Musical Traditions (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1993).

76 Choy, Peggy, “Texts through Time: the Golek Dance of Java”, in Aesthetic Tradition and Cultural Transition in Java and Bali, ed. Morgan, S. and Sears, L.J. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984).

77 Roseman, Marina, “Beyond the Gender Wars?”, in The Performance of Healing, ed. Laderman, C. and Roseman, M. (London: Routledge, 1995).

78 See Lin, Ang Swee, “The Impact of Socio-cultural Modernization on the Training of Female Court Dancers in Yogyakarta”, paper presented at the International Seminar on Southeast Asian Traditional Performing Arts(Universiti Sains Malaysia,1992); Scott-Maxwell, Aline, “Women's Gamelan Groups in Central Java: Social Progress or Culture Incorporation?”, unpublished paper, Melbourne University Centennial Conference,June 1995; and Nancy I. Cooper, “Of Rice and Women: Metaphors and Narratives of Gender from Central Java”, in preparation.

79 Sweeney, , Authors and Audiences in Traditional Malay Literature (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980), Centre for South and Southeast Asian Studies, Monograph Series no. 20.

80 Hobsbawm, Eric and Ranger, Terence (eds.), The Invention of Tradition (Cambridge and New York: CUP, 1983). Hobsbawm's ideas were applied in articles by Hatley, , “Constructions of ‘Tradition’ in New Order Indonesian Theatre”; Culture and Society in New Order Indonesia, ed. Hooker, V. (Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University, 1993); Kartomi, , “Revival of Feudal Music, Dance and Ritual in the Former ‘Spice Islands’ of Ternate and Tidore”, in Hooker, V., Culture and Society in New Order Indonesia, pp. 185210; Zurbuchen, , “Images of Culture and National Development in Indonesia: The Cockroach Opera”, Asian Theatre Journal 7/2 (1990); and in Scott-Maxwell, “The Dynamics of the Yogyakarta Gamelan Music Tradition”.

81 Hatley, , “Cultural Expression in New Order Indonesia”, p. 66.

82 Yuliman, Sanento, “Kemiskinan Seni Lukis [The Poverty of the Art of Painting]”, Tempo (11 11 1989): 67.

83 Maklai, Brita, “New Streams, New Visions: Contemporary Art since 1966”, in Culture and Society in New Order Indonesia, ed. Hooker, , p. 81.

84 Bourdieu, Pierre, Outline of a Theory of Practice, trans. Nice, R. (Cambridge University Press, 1977).

85 Kartomi, , “Appropriation of Music and Dance in the Former Spice Islands of Ternate and Tidore”, in Revista de Musicologia 16/1 (1993): 514–27.

86 Sarkissian, Margaret, “Music, Identity and the Impact of Tourism on the Portuguese Settlement, Melaka, Malaysia” (Ph.D. diss., University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana, 1993).

87 Beng, Tan Sooi, “Counterpoints in the Performing Arts of Malaysia”, in Fragmented Vision, ed. Kahn, J.S. and Kok Wah, F. Loh, pp. 282306.

88 Becker, Judith, “A Southeast Asian Musical Process: Thai thao and Javanese irama”, Ethnomusicology 24 (1980): 453–64.

89 Wong, Deborah and Lysloff, Rene, “Threshold to the Sacred: The Overture in Thai and Javanese Ritual Performance”, Ethnomusicology 35/3 (1991): 381–91.

90 Maceda, Jose, “In Search of a Source of Pentatonic, Hematonic and Anhemitonic Scales in Southeast Asia”, Ada Musicologica 62/2–3 (1990): 192230.

91 Long, Roger A., “Crosscultural Influences on Original Creative Productions: Traditional Southeast Asian Theatre as a Source for Intercultural Creation”, unpublished paper presented at the International Seminar on Southeast Asian Traditional Performing Arts,Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang,1992.

92 As noted in Becker, “Southeast Asia”, they include Judith Becker (1980), Martin Hatch (1980), Sumarsam (1984), Martopangrawit (1984), Sri Hastanto (1985), R.D. Poerbatjaraka (1987), Ki Sindoesawarno (1987), Ben Brinner (1985), and Susan Pratt Walton (1987).

93 See, for example, Miller, Terry E., “Reconstructing Siamese Music History from Historical Sources, 1548–1932”, Asian Music, 15/2 (1984): 32; and the Thai “archeological dances” choreographed by recent Thai dance experts.

94 Roongruang, Panya, Thai Music in Sound, 2nd ed. (Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University, 1990) reviewed by Wong, Patricia in Asian Music 25/1–2 (1993/1994).

95 According to a personal communication from Terry Miller, recent Thai Ph.D. graduates from Kent State University also include Somsak Kerdkaenchan, who specialized on Central Thai court music. Under Jose Maceda, Masters theses on Thai music were recently written at the University of the Philippines by Thai scholars including Manop Wisuthipaet, Orawan Banchosin, Prasit Liewsiripong and Anan Nakkong.

96 Keeler, Ward, Javanese Shadow Play, Javanese Selves (Princeton University Press, 1987), and Javanese Shadow Puppets (Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1992); Mulyono, Sri, Wayang dan Karakter Manusia [Wayang and Human Character] (Jakarta: Gunung Agung 1983); and Buurman, Peter, Wayang Golek (Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1988).

97 Susilo, Hardja, “Wayang Wong Panggung: Its Social Context, Technique and Music”, in Aesthetic tradition and cultural transition in Java and Bali, pp. 117–62; and Soedarsono, Wayang Wong. Susilo emphasizes the music and Soedarsono the dance elements, and both offer some historical perspectives. Also Lindsay, Jennifer, “Klasik, Kitsch, or Contemporary: A Study of the Javanese Performing Arts” (Ph.D, diss., University of Sydney, 1985), which was translated and published as Klasik, Kitsch, Kontemporer Sebuah Studi Tentang Seni Pertunjukan Jawa (Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press, 1991).

98 For example, de Cruz, Marion, “Joget Gamelan” (MA diss., Universiti Sains Malaysia, 1979); Matusky, Patricia, Malaysian Shadow Play and Music, Continuity of an Oral Tradition (Oxford University Press, 1993); and Nanney, Nancy, “An Analysis of Modern Malaysian Drama” (Ph.D. diss., University of Hawaii, 1983).

99 Nashijaya's, Kasumi “From Thewada to TV: Changing Identity of Nang Yai [Thai Puppet Theatre]” (Ph.D. diss., Australian National University, 1986).

100 See, for example, Piah, Harun Mat and Ismail, Siti Zainon, Lambang Sari, Tari Gamelan Terengganu [Dance and Gamelan of Terengganu] (Bangi: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 1986). Also Ahmad, Omar, “Joget Gamelan: The Art of Orchestral Dance”, Performing Arts 1/1 (1984); and The Performing Arts in Malaysia: State and Society”, Asian Music 21/1 (1989/1990): 137–71.

101 See, for example, Matusky, Patricia, “Music of Sarawak: A Contextual View of Vocal and Instrumental Genres”, in Southeast Asian Traditional Performing Arts: The State of the Art (Penang: Universiti Sains Malaysia, in press); Rubinstein, Carol, The Honey Tree Song: Poems and Chants of Sarawak Dayaks (Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1985).

102 See Harrison, Robert, “Where have all the Rituals Gone? Ritual Presence among the Ranan Dusun of Sabah, Malaysia”, The Imagination of Reality, ed. Becker, and Yengoyan, , pp. 5574.

103 Gorlinski, V.K., “Gongs among the Kenyan Uma' Jalan: Past and Present Positioin of an Instrumental Tradition”, Yearbook for Traditional Music XXVI (1994): 8199.

104 Turner, Ashley, “Belian as a Symbol of Cosmic Reunification”, in Metaphor: A Musical Dimension, ed. Kassler, J. (Sydney: Currency Press, 1991).

105 See works by Roseman, such as “The Social Structuring of Sound: The Temiar of Peninsular Malaysia”, Ethnomusicology 28/3 (1984): 411–45; “Pure Products Go Crazy: Rainforest Healing in a Nation-state”, in Women and Music in Cross Cultural Perspective, ed. Koskoff, Ellen (University of Illinois Press, 1987), pp. 131–50; and Healing Sounds from the Malaysian Rainforest: Temiar Music and Medicine (Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1991).

106 In 1991 a compact disc with notes by Neil Sorrell and Bruce Gaston (who is well-known for his arrangements of syncretic styles) was issued, entitled The Sleeping Angel: Thai Classical Music performed by Fong Naomi, Nimbus Records NI5319.

107 See Osman, Mohd Tkib, Bunga Rampai: Aspects of Malay Culture (Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, 1984); Bujang, Rahmah, Boria, , A Form of Malay Theatre (Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1987), pp. viixii; and Beng, Tan Sooi, “Counterpoints”, pp. 254–81.

108 See Tan, , “Counterpoints”, pp. 282306.

109 Ibid., pp. 268–74.

110 Md Nor, Mohd Anis, Zapin: Folk Dance of the Malay World (Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1994).

111 Bujang, Rahmah, Boria, pp. iii and xiv.

112 Yousof, Ghulam Sarwar, writing in the New Straits Times, 14 04 1984. See Tan, , “Counterpoints”, p. 287.

113 Sutton, R. Anderson, Traditions of Gamelan Music in Java: Musical Pluralism and Regional Identity (Cambridge University Press, 1991).

114 Hughes-Freeland, Felicia, “Revivalism as a Defining Stand in Yogyakarta Court Dance”, Indonesia Circle 37 (1985): 3543.

115 Hughes-Freeland, Felicia, “Indonesia Image Enhancement”, Anthropology Today 5/6 (12 1989): 4.

116 Becker, Judith, “Southeast Asia”, in Ethnomusicology: Historical and Regional Studies, ed. Myers, H. (London: Macmillan, 1993), p. 108.

117 Becker, Judith, “One Perspective on Gamelan in America”, Asian Music 15/1 (1984): 8289.

118 An example of such articles is: Martin, Bill, “Cambridge Gamelan Society”, Balungan 1/3 (1985): 22.

119 Works referred to here are: Burman-Hall, Linda, “Nano S.'s Warna: A Life in Music”, Balungan 5/2 (1993): 2429; Dally, Nikhil, “Pekan Komponis VIII: A National Composers' Festival”, Balungan 4/1 (1989): 26; Diamond, Jody, “New Music from Indonesia”, KPFA Folio (Berkeley, California) 41/10 (11 1989): 1; McDermott, Vincent, “Gamelans and New Music”, The Musical Quarterly 72/1 (1986): 1627; Polansky, Larry, “Tuning Systems in American Gamelan”, Balungan 1/2 (1985): 911; and Ben Brinner, “Cultural Matrices and Innovation in Central Javanese Performing Arts”, paper presented at the Festival of Indonesia Conference, “Indonesian Music: Twentieth Century Innovation and Tradition” [see Festival of Indonesian Conference Summaries, ed. Marc Perlman (Festival of Indonesia Foundation, 1992)].

120 Dwight, Thomas, “Lou Harrison's Double Concerto for Gamelan, Violin and Cello: Juxtaposition of Individual and Cultural Expectations”, Asian Music 15/1 (1983): 90102.

121 Sukerta, Pande Made, Penyusunan Komposist Satu Altematif [Composing New Musia One Alternative] (Surakarta: STSI, 1988).

122 Sadra, I. Wayan, Tinjauan Karya-karya Baru [An Exploration of New Composition] (Surakarta: STSI, 1988).

123 Mueller, Richard, “Bali, Tabuh-tabuhan and McPhee's Method of Intercultural Composition”, Journal of Musicological Research 10/34 (1991): 127–68; and Oja, Carol J., Colin McPhee: Composer in Two Worlds (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1990).

124 McPhee, , Music in Bali.

125 Tenzer, Michael, Balinese Music (Singapore: Periplus Editions, 1991).

126 See, for example, Myers-Moro, Pamela, “Teachers on Tape: Innovation and Experimentation in Teaching Thai Music”, Balungan 5/1 (1991).

127 These caricatures were supplied per kind favour of Ashley Turner, Ford Foundation lecturer in ethnomusicology at Universitas Sumatra Utara from 1990 to 1994, and are reproduced with Yulianus Limbeng's permission.

128 Becker, Judith, “Kroncong: Indonesian Popular Music”, Asian Music 7/1 (1975): 1419; Heins, Ernst, “Kroncong and Tanjidor: Two Cases of Urban Folk Music in Jakarta”, Asian Music 7/1 (1975): 2032; and Kornhauser, Bronia, “In Defence of Kroncong”, in Studies in Indonesian Music, ed. Kartomi, (Clayton: Centre for Southeast Asian Studies, Monash University, 1978).

129 Thomas, Phillip, Like Tigers around a Piece of Meat: The Baba Style of Dondang Sayang (Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1986).

130 Frederick, William H., “Rhoma Irama and the Dangdut Style: Aspects of Contemporary Indonesian Popular Culture”, Indonesia 34 (10 1982): 103130.

131 This point was made by the present author in “Indonesian Popular Music”, Music and Popular Culture: Australia and Asia, ed. Kartomi, M. and Hayward, P. (Melbourne: Open Learning Australia, 1994), pp. 309324.

132 See Subagio, Gunawan, Apa itu Lagu Pop Daerah? [What is a Regional Popular Song?] (Bandung: FT Citra Aditya Bakti, 1989); Manuel, Peter and Baier, Randall, “Jaipongan: Indigenous Popular Music of West Java”, Asian Music 18/1 (1986): 91110; and Williams, Sean, “Current Developments in Sundanese Popular Music”, Asian Music, 21/1 (19891990): 105136.

133 Yampolsky, Philip, “Hati Yang Luka; An Indonesian Hit”, Indonesia 47 (04 1989): 217.

134 Harsono, Andreas, “A Star is Banned”, Inside Indonesia 21 (1989): 1415.

135 See Chopyak, J.D., “Music in Modern Malaysia: A Survey of the Musics Affecting the Development of Malaysian Popular Music”, Asian Music 18/1 (1990): 111–37; Chopyak, J.D., “The Role of Music in Mass Media, Public Education and the Formation of a Malaysian National Culture”, Ethnomusicology 31 (1987): 431–54; Tan, Bangsawan; Tan, “Counterpoint”; and Lockhard, Craig A., “Reflections of Change: Sociopolitical Commentary and Criticism in Malaysian Popular Music since 1950”, Interdisciplinary Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 6/1 (1991): 1111.

136 Myers-Moro, Pamela A.‘Songs for Life’: Leftist Thai Popular Music in the 1970s”, Journal of Popular Culture 20, 3 (1975): 93117.

137 Maure, J. and Charlton, H., “Two Faces of Thailand: A Musical Portrait”, Beatings of the Heart, Popular Music of the World (London: Pluto Press, 1985), pp. 198214.

138 Miller, Terry E., Traditional Music of the Lao; Khaen Playing and Mawlum Singing in Northeast Thailand (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, Press 1985); Flora, Reis and Bauer, Christian, “Mon Music: Vocal and Instrumental”, Proceedings of the International Conference on Thai Studies, vol. 2, comp. Ann Buller (Canberra: Australian National University, 1987), pp. 119; Kedit, Peter M., “Sambe, Sambe Making”, in Asian Musics in an Asian Perspective, ed. Koizumi, F. and others (Tokyo: The Japan Foundation, 1977), pp. 4277; Kartomi, , “Wayang Kulit and Mamanda Musical Theatre in South Kalimantan”, Performing Arts of Southeast Asia, ed. Yousof, Ghulam Sarwar, (Penang: University Sains Malaysia, in press); and Kartomi, , “Dabuih in West Sumatra: A Synthesis of Muslim and Pre-Muslim Ceremony and Musical Style”, Archipel 41 (1991): 3352; Kartomi, , “Contact and Synthesis in the Development of the Music of South Sumatra”, in Festschrift for Andrew McCredie, ed. Swale, David (Wilhelmshaven: Heinrichhofensverlag, 1995); and Basile, Christopher, “Music of Roti” (Ph.D. diss., Monash University, in progress).

139 Suanda, Endo, “Dancing in Cirebonese Topeng”, Balungan 3/3 (1988): 715; and Seniman Cirebon Dalam Konteks Sosialnya”, Seni Pertunjukan Indonesia 1/1 (1990): 2652; Koesasi, Basoeki, Lenong and Si Pitung (Clayton: Centre for Southeast Asian Studies, Monash University, 1992); Kleden-Pronegoro, Ninuk, “Teater Topeng Betawi Sebagai Teks dan Maknanya: Suatu Tafsiran Antropologi” [Batavian mask Theatre as Text and Meaning: an Anthropological Viewpoint], Masyarakat Indonesia 14/2 (1987): 101125; and Kritik dalam Seni Pertunjukan Tradisional: Kasus Teater Betawi”, Masyarakat Indonesia 16/2 (1987): 157–65; and Sutton, Traditions of Gamelan Music in Java.

140 Pioneering research into many Sumatran musical cultures has been documented in over forty theses by University of North Sumatra (USU) students in recent years. For example, Hajizar's Sarjana USU thesis in 1988 researched the poetic texts and music of Minangkabau sijobang story-singing; while Hanafi's Sarjana thesis in 1992 discussed a ceremony on Siberut Island.

141 Research on the Sumatran performing arts at Monash University has been carried out by the present author, Barbara Hatley, David Goldsworthy, Lynette Moore and Ashley Turner, who between them have carried out field work throughout the island and have published or written theses on the music of Aceh, North Sumatra (including West and East Coast Malays, Mandailing, Angkola, Pakpak and Nias peoples), West Sumatra and South Sumatra.

142 See, for example, Simon, Artur, “The Terminology of Batak Instrumental Music in Northern Sumatra”, Yearbook for Traditional Music 13 (1985): 113–45; and Gondang, Gods and Ancestors, Religious Implications of Batak Ceremonial Music”, Yearbook for Traditional Music 25 (1993): 8188; and Carle, Rainer, Opera Batak: Das Wandertheater der Toba Batak in Nord-Sumatra: Schauspiele zür Wahrung kultureller Identitdt im nationalen Indonesischen Kontext, 2 vols. (Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag, 1990).

143 Kartomi, , “Music in Sumatra”, Encyclopedia of World Music, ed. Rice, Timothy and Porter, James (Garland, in press).

144 Music of the Mandailing People, North Sumatra (LP disc of field recordings by Kartomi with 14 pp. of musicological transcription, analysis and commentary; Musicaphon, Barenreiter BM 30 SL 2567, 1983); Music of the Angkola People, North Sumatra (LP disc with 10 pp. of musicological transcription, analysis and commentary; Musicaphon, Barenreiter BM 30 SL 2568 [1983]); and Gendang Karo (2 LP discs and booklet of notes by Artur Simon; Museum Collection Berlin (West) ISBN 3886095134 [1990]); and Gondang Toba [5 LPs and booklet of notes by Artur Simon; Museum Collection Berlin (West), 1989].

145 See Kartomi, , “Muslim Music in West Sumatran Culture”, The World of Music 3/8 (1986): 1332; and Hatley, Barbara, “Theatre and Politics of National/Regional Identity: Some Sumatran Examples”, Review of Indonesian and Malaysian Affairs 25/2 (1991): 118.

146 Kartomi, , “Is Maluku still Musicological Terra Incognita? An Overview of the Music-Cultures of Maluku”, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 25/1 (1994): 141–71; Harnish, David, “Religion and Music: Syncretism, Orthodox Islam, and Musical Change in Lombok”, Selected Reports in Ethnomusicology 7 (1988): 123–39; and “The Preret of the Lombok Balinese: Transformation and Continuity within a Sacred Tradition”, Selected Reports in Ethnomusicology (Issues in Organology) 8 (Los Angeles: University of California, 1990), pp. 201–20; George, Kenneth M., “The Singing from the Headwaters: Song and Tradition in the Headhunting Rituals of an Upland Sulawesi Community” (Ph.D. diss., University of Michigan 1989); Myers, Douglas, “Outside Influences on the Music of Nusa Tenggara Timur”, in Culture and Society in New Order Indonesia, ed. Hooker, V., pp. 211–27; and Kartomi, “Appropriation of Music and Dance in the Former Spice Islands”.

147 Suanda, Endo, “The Social Context of Cirebonese Performing Artists”, Asian Music 131/1 (1981): 2742; and Ceribonese Topeng and Wayang of the Present Day”, Asian Music 16/2 (1985): 84120.

148 Silapabanleng, Chin, Son Thong: Pra Choom Phala Ngan Phleng Khong Luang Pradit Phairoh [Golden Arrow: Proceedings of the Conference on the works of Luang Pradit Phairoh] (Bangkok: Department of Fine Arts, 1982); and Sakarik, Chanok, Khu Mu Kan an Note Khim [Handbook for reading Khim notation] (Bangkok: Luang Pradit Phairoh Institute, 1989).

149 Pikulsri, Boonmanam Chalermsak, “A Study of the Musical Instruments Described in the Tripitaka (an Early Buddhist Text) and their Relationship to Thai Classical Instruments” (M.Phil thesis, Banaras Hindu University, 1988).

150 Amatyakul, Poonpit, “Lao Ruang Kamnoet Khong Wong” [On the Origin of the Gong Circle] in Saksri Dontri Thai: Ngan Dontri Thai Udom Suska Khrang Thi 16 [The Glory of Thai Music, The 16th Annual Festival for Thai Music in Higher Education] (Songkhla: Srinakharinwirot University); and “Phraya sano Duriyang (Chaem Sunthorawathin) (BE 2409–2492)”, in Dontri Wichak Khawamru Buang Ton Kieo Kap Dontri Khong Thai Phua Khwamchun Chom [Music Investigated: Introductory Knowledge about Thai Music, for Appreciation], 2nd ed. (Bangkok, 1986), pp. 126–28; Phukhaothong, Sangat, “Phleng Dieo [Solo pieces]”, in Kan Dontri Thai Lae Thang Khao Su dontri Thai [Matters of Thai Music, and the Way to Enter into Thai Music] (Bangkok: Department of Fine Arts, 1989), pp. 219–23; Roongruang, Panya, Dontree Thai Prgawab Siang: Thai Music in Sound (Bangkok: Thai Watana Panit, 1990); Nakasawat, Uthit, “Thang Dieo [The solo style]”, in Thrisadi Lae Padbat Dontri Thai [The Theory and Performance of Thai Music], 5th ed. (1987): 4752.

151 Myers-Moro, Pamela, “Thai Music and Musicians in Contemporary Bangkok: An Ethnography” (Ph.D. diss., University of California at Berkeley, 1988); Myers-Moro, P., “Names and Civil Service Titles of Siamese Musicians”, Asian Music 19, 2 (1988): 8292; and Myers-Moro, P., “Musical Notation in Thailand”, Journal of the Siam Society 78, 1 (1990): 101108.

152 Miller, Terry E., “Reconstructing Siamese Musical History from Historical Sources: 1548–1932”, Asian Music 15, 2 (1984): 3242; and The Theory and Practice of Thai Musical Notation”, Ethnomusicology 36, 2 (1992): 197222.

153 Picken, L.E.R., Adkins, C.J. and Page, R.F., “The Making of a Khaen: the Free-Reed Mouth Organ of North-East Thailand”, Musica Asiatka 4 (1984): 117–54; and Dyck, Gerald P., “Lung Noi Na Kampan Makes a Drumhead for a Northern Thailong Drum”, Selected Reports in Ethnomusicology 2,2 (1975): 183204.

154 Wong, Deborah, “Thai Cassettes and their Covers: Two Case Histories”, Asian Music 21/1 (1989/1990): 78104; and Wong, Deborah, “Across Three Generations: A Solo Piece for Thai Gong Circle”, Balungan 5/1 (1991): 29.

155 Miller, The Traditional Music of the Lao; and Catlin, Amy, “Songs of Hmong Women: Virgins Orphans, Widows and Bards”, Textiles as Texts: Arts of Hmong Women from Laos, ed. Catlin, Amy and Swift, Dixie (Los Angeles: The Woman's Building, 1987).

156 Beng, Tan Sooi, “Chinese Opera in Malaysia: Changes and Survival”, Review of Southeast Asian Studies 10 (1980): 2945; Tan Sooi Beng, “Ko-tai, A New Form of Chinese Urban Street Theatre in Malaysia” (Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1984), 40 pp.; and Tan, “Counterpoints”.

157 See Yampolsky, Philip, Music from the Outskirts of Jakarta: Gambang Kromong (Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, CDSF40057 1991); and Kartomi, , “History of Musical Repression among Chinese-Indonesian Minority Groups”, in Music and Repression, ed. Bohlmann, Philip V. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, in press).

158 Ed. Richard Wallis (Garland Press, in press).

159 I Made Bandem, , Ensiklopedi Gambelan Bali (Denpasar: Proyek Penggalian, Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Seni Klasik/Tradisional dan Kesenian Baru, Pemerintah Daerah Tingkat I Bali, 1983); Soedarsono, and others, Kamus Istilah Tari dan Karawitan Jawa [Dictionary of Javanese Dance and Karawitan Terms] (Jakarta: Proyek Penelitian Bahasa dan Sastra Indonesia dan Daerah, Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, 1983); and Sopandi, Atik, Kamus Istilah Karawitan Sunda [Dictionary ofSundanese Karawitan Terms] (Bandung: Penerbit CV Pustaka Buana, 1988).

160 For example, Ensiklopedi Tari Daerah dan Musik Irian Jaya [Irian Jayan Regional Music and Dance Encyclopedia] (Jayapura: Proyek Penelitian dan Pencatatan Kebudayaan Daerah, Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, 1980).

161 Toth, Andrew, Recordings of the Traditional Music of Bali and Lombok (The Society for Ethnomusicology, 1980); and Phillip, Yampolsky, Lokananta: A Discography of the National Recording Company of Indonesia 1957–1985 (Centre for Southeast Asian Studies, University of Wisconsin, 1987).

162 The New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments, ed. Sadie, Stanley (London: Macmillan, 1984). These articles were authored mainly by the present writer.

163 Among the most extensive Southeast Asian performing arts collections are those held in the National Museums in Bangkok, Jakarta and Kuala Lumpur, the Museum of the Universiti Sains Malaysia in Penang, the Department of Fine Arts' collection in Bangkok, the collections in the Rijksmuseum in Leiden, Amsterdam's Tropische Instituut, the Jaap Kunst Archive of the University of Amsterdam, and the Claire Holt Dance Collection in the Dansmuseet in Stockholm. STSI in Surakarta is currently setting up an Archive with funding from the Department of Education and Culture. Several other tertiary institutions around the world also have archives, such as the ethnomusicological archive/collections at UCLA, the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, Kent State University and Monash University. A handful of scholars at Monash University have now recorded traditional and contemporary music in 26 of the 28 provinces of Indonesia, including many return trips to the same areas, thus providing a basis for diachronic studies of musical change to be made.

164 For discussions of Javanese, Tboli, Minangkabau and Mandailing classifications see Kartomi, , On Concepts and Classifications of Musical Instruments, chapters 7, 13, 14 and 15.

165 de Vale, Sue Carole, “Cosmological Symbolism in the Design and Morphology of Gamelan in Java”, in Essays in Southeast Asian Performance, ed. Foley, Kathy (Berkeley: Centre for South and Southeast Asian Studies, University of California, 1993).

166 Quigley, Colin, “The Construction, Technique, and Image of the Central Javanese Rebab in Relation to its Role in the Gamelan”, Pacific Review of Ethnomusicology 3 (1986): 4262.

167 For example, Ambronicus, “Studi Gerantung Ensembel Gong Pakpak-Dairi” (Sarjana thesis, University of North Sumatra, 1988); and Ben Pasaribu, “Tagading Batak Toba: Suatu Kajian dalam Konteks Gondang Sabangunan” (Sarjana thesis, University of North Sumatra, 1986).

168 Hatch, Martin, “Lagu, Laras, Layang: Rethinking Melody in Javanese Music” (Ph.D. diss., Cornell University, 1980); Schumacher, Rudiger, Die Suluk-Gesdnge des Dalang im Schattenspiel Zentraljavas, 2 vols. (Munich: Emil Katzbichler, 1980); van Zanten, Wim, Sundanese Music in the Cianjuran Style: Anthropological and Musicological Aspects of Tembang Sunda (Dordrecht-Holland: Foris, 1989); Manihuruk, Rusti, “Kajian Struktur Musik Urdo-urdo: Genre Nyanyian Menidurkan Anak pada Masyarakat Simalungun [Lullabies among the Simalungun]” (Sarjana thesis, University of North Sumatra, 1993); Becker, A.L., “Text-building, Epistemology and Aesthetics in Javanese Shadow Theatre”, in The Imagination of Reality, ed. Becker, and Yengoyan, , pp. 211–44; and Terry E. Miller, Traditional Music of the Lao.

169 Morgan, Stephanie and Sears, Laurie Jo (eds.), Aesthetic Tradition and Cultural Transition in Java and Bali (Madison: Centre for Southeast Asian Studies, University of Wisconsin, 1984), p. xi.

170 Gitosaprodjo, Sulaiman, “The Four Principles of Karawitan: Ethics, Esthetics, Norms and Ideals”, in Karawitan, vol. 1, ed. Becker, J. and Feinstein, A..

171 Sumarsam, , “The Meaning of Gamelan Performance”, Progress Reports in Ethnomusicology 2/3 (19871988): 111.

172 Kartomi, , “Beautiful when Heard from Afar: Mandailing Ideas of Musical Beauty”, in Five Essays on the Indonesian Arts, ed. Kartomi, (Clayton: Centre of Southeast Asian Studies, Monash University, 1981), pp. 116.

173 See for example, Zurbuchen, Mary, The Language of Balinese Shadow Theatre.

174 For example, see Simon, Artur, “Gondang, Gods and Ancestors, Religious Implications of Batak Ceremonial Music”, Yearbook for Traditional Music 25 (1993): 8188; Goldsworthy, David, “Honey Collecting ceremonies on the East Coast of North Sumatra”, Studies in Indonesian Music, ed. Kartomi, (Melbourne: Centre of Southeast Asian Studies, Monash University, 1978), pp. 144.

175 Mabbett, Ian, “Buddhism and Music”, Asian Music 25/1–2 (19931994): 928.

176 Despite these generalisations, as Mabbett points out (ibid., p. 9), “It is notoriously difficult to generalize about the essentials of Buddhism”, some principles of which may be observed to change over time.

177 Ibid., pp. 25–26.

178 Becker, Judith, Gamelan Stories: Tantrism, Islam and Aesthetics in Central Java (Tempe, Arizona, Arizona State University, Program for Southeast Asian Studies, 1993).

179 Harnish, David, “The Future Meets the Past in the Present”, Asian Music 25/1–2 (19931994): 2950.

180 See Ashley Turner, “Belian”.

181 For example, a sacred type of gamelan — gamelan sekati — is an example of an adaptation of a pre-Islamic Javanese style of Islamic functions, especially to celebrate the birthday of the Prophet Muhammad. See Pacholczyki, Jozef, “Music and Islam in Indonesia”, The World of Music 3 (1986): 311; rodat is described in Sheppard, Taman Indera, and indang is described in Kartomi, , “Muslim Music in West Sumatran Culture”, The World of Music 28, 3 (1986): 1332.

182 See Takari, Muhammad, “Kesenian Hadrah pada Kebudayaan Etnis Melayu Deli Serdang dan Asahan: Studi Deskriptif Musikal” [The Art of Hadrah in the Malay Deli-Serdang and Asahan Ethnic Groups] (Sarjana thesis, University of North Sumatra, 1990). Other USU theses on Muslim topics include the muazin's call by Makmud Hasbi in 1992 and marhaban by Elydawati in 1993.

183 See Kartomi, , “Experience-Near and Experience-Distant Perceptions of the Dabuih Ritual in Aceh, Sumatra”; Schumacher, R. (ed.), Von der Vielfalt musikalischer Kultur: Festschrift für Josef Kuckertz zur Vollendung des 60 Lebensjahres (Salzburg: Ursula Müller-Speiser, 1992), pp. 2244; and Kartomi, , “Dabuih in West Sumatra: a synthesis of Muslim and Pre-Muslim Ceremony and Style”, Archipel 41 (1992): 3352.

184 See Kartomi, “Tabut: a Shi'a Ritual Transplanted from India to Sumatra”, in Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Indonesia- Essays in Honour of Prof. J.D. Legge, ed. Chandler, D. and Ricklefs, M. (Melbourne: Centre of Southeast Asian Studies, Monash University, 1986).

185 See Music of Madura, Java, Indonesia (compact disc recorded by Jack Body and Yono Sukarno, ODE Record Company, Auckland).

186 Faruqi, Lois al, “Qu'ran Reciters in Competition in Kuala Lumpur”, Ethnomitsicology 31 (1987): 221ff.

187 Nasarudin, M.G., “Dance and music of the Desa Performing Arts of Malaysia” (Ph.D. diss., University of Indiana, 1979).

188 Purba, Mauly, “Mangido Gondang di dalam Penyajian Musik Gondang Sabangunan pada Masyarakat Batak Toba”, Seni Pertunjukan Indonesia 2/2 (1991): 134–63. See also Purba's Ph.D. diss. on the topic (Monash University, in progress).

189 This point is made in Indonesia's Policy Guidelines for Cultural Development entitled: “Pembangunan, Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Menjelang Era Tinggal Landas” (anon., Jakarta: Indonesian Department of Education and Culture, 1994), p. 117.

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“Traditional Music Weeps” and Other Themes in the Discourse on Music, Dance and Theatre of Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand

  • Margaret J. Kartomi (a1)


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