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Danish social policies have a gender neutral approach, combined
aim of autonomy for individuals and a system of universal social policies.
This approach has moved Denmark away from the use of moral regulation
of single mothers and a strong male income earner model in social
policy. It has highlighted men's roles as fathers, as well as women's
as workers and has therefore a lot of advantages. Problems do occur
though when the obligation to work or to be a parent in reality differs
men and for women; this becomes clear when we focus on single parents.
Using a form of discourse analysis of various government texts,
examines the way in which central government in Scotland formulated
its response to the problem of ‘glue-sniffing’. Drawing on
framework developed by Foucault, it traces the links between professional
knowledge, political programmes and parents' desires. It describes
the discursive manoeuvres government deployed in constituting parents
as primarily responsible for their children's sniffing. It suggests
doing this government sought to align its own political objectives with
the aspirations of parents, by purporting to preserve their freedom and
autonomy. It concludes that ‘expertise’ is used selectively,
legitimating and producing policy, and in linking this to subjective life.
This article examines three comparative perspectives on East Asian
systems with special reference to Japan and Korea. First, an expenditure
approach shows that the levels of government spending in Japan
and Korea are lower than in UK and Sweden, but it necessarily underestimates
the welfare expenditure publicly spent in Japan and Korea, due to
the regulator type of policy intervention in financing welfare programmes.
Second, the standard analysis of cross-sectional redistribution
shows that social and fiscal policies have made only a small impact on
income distribution, but the profiles of policy intervention reveal the
characteristics of social security systems in these two countries.
Lastly, this article examines the welfare systems in Japan and Korea in
the light of Esping-Andersen's conservative welfare regime type. It
argues that the welfare systems in these two countries do not fit into
type of the conservative welfare state and suggests that there is a case
an ‘East Asian welfare model’, at least regarding Japan and
The article discusses the role of Scandinavian local governments
providing welfare state services. Wide-ranging social care services are
the most distinctive feature of the Scandinavian welfare societies. These
services, in the main, have been financed publicly and provided by local
government. The traditional principle of Scandinavian local self-government,
requiring local autonomy, and the goal of a welfare state providing a
uniformly equal service to all is, however, a contradiction in terms. How
have the Scandinavian countries dealt with this dilemma? This question
discussed by an examination of the day-care service policies in the four
Scandinavian countries. Two distinct Scandinavian policy-models seem to
emerge, one that primarily respects the local discretion of municipalities
and the other that favours a more centralised approach. Norway represents
the local autonomy model, Sweden and Finland exemplify the centrally
directed model, while Denmark displays features from both models.
During the 1990s, the main responsibility for social services has been
decentralized also in Sweden and Finland. At the same time, Scandinavian
local government action has turned to a more liberal direction.
A. Figueroa, T. Altamirano and D. Sulmont, Social Exclusion and
Inequality in Peru, International Institute for Labour Studies Research
Series, No. 104, ILO, Geneva, 1996, 96 pp., 17.50 Swiss francs.
M. H. Hashem, Goals for Social Integration and Realities of Social
in the Republic of Yemen, International Institute for Labour Studies
Research Series, No. 105, ILO, Geneva, 1996, 116 pp., 20 Swiss francs.
P. Appasamay, S. Guhan, R. Hema, M. Majumdar and A. Vaidyanathan,
Social Exclusion from a Welfare Rights Perspective in India, International
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1996, 133 pp., 22.50 Swiss francs.
P. Phongpaichit, S. Piriyarangsanan, and N. Treerat, Challenging
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20 Swiss francs.
N. Tchernina, Economic Transition and Social Exclusion in Russia,
International Institute for Labour Studies Research Series, No. 108, ILO,
Geneva, 1996, 103 pp., 17.50 Swiss francs.
F. Kaijage and A. Tibaijuka, Poverty and Social Exclusion in Tanzania,
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Geneva, 1996, 202 pp., 25 Swiss francs.
(All published for the International Institute for Labour Studies/United
Nations Development Programme by the International Labour
Organisation, Geneva, Switzerland.)
These volumes were commissioned as part of an International Labour
Organisation/UN Development Programme research series to explore the
relevance and the value of the notion of social exclusion in a global context.