The Minimal Data Set are demographic and tobacco use questions asked during enrollment at many quitlines. We tested whether these questions can be used to predict program engagement and success, and to evaluate whether findings can inform the tailoring of protocols to disparate populations. We analyzed 7,920 Arizona Smokers' Helpline treatment records to test a Structural Equation Model of the mediating effects of quitline services and short-term cessation outcomes on the relationship between intake questions and 7-month quit rate. Education (b = 0.05), gender (b = 0.03), Medicaid (b = −0.09), longest length of previous quit attempt (b = 0.05), confidence in quitting for 24 h (b = 0.04), environmental risk (b = −0.05), and life stress (b = 0.04) all significantly (P < 0.05) predicted engagement in quitline services. Program engagement had a direct effect on an in-program cessation outcomes construct (b = 0.47) and 7-month quit rate (b = 0.44). This in-program cessation outcomes construct had a significant direct effect on 7-month quit rate (b = −0.12). This model showing the relationship between program engagement and outcomes suggests that tailoring protocols can focus on engaging clients who have historically not taken full advantage of quitline services.