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Brooches and burials: variability in expressions of identity in cemeteries of the Batavian civitas

  • Stijn Heeren (a1)

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1 Jundi, S. and Hill, J. D., “Brooches and identity in first century AD Britain: more than meets the eye?” in Forcey, C., Hawthorne, J. and Witcher, R. (edd.), TRAC 1997 (Oxford 1998) 125–37; Eckardt, H., “The social distribution of Roman artefacts: the case of nail-cleaners and brooches in Britain,” JRA 18 (2005) 139–60.

2 Cf. Hertz, R., “The collective representation of death,” in Needham, R. and Needham, C. (edd.), Death and the right hand (Aberdeen 1960) 2786 .

3 M. Bloch and J. Parry, “Introduction,” in iid. (edd.), Death and the regeneration of life (Cambridge 1982) 1-44.

4 Aarts, J. G. and Heeren, S., Opgravingen bij Tiel-Passewaaij 2. Het grafveld aan de Passewaaijse Hogeweg (Amsterdam 2011); cf. Martin-Kilcher, S., “Römische Gräber — Spiegel der Bestattungsund Grabsitten,” in Scheid, J. (ed.), Pour une archéologie du rite: nouvelles perspectives de l’archéologie funéraire (CollEFR 407, 2008) 927 .

5 Cf. Haffner, A., Gräber — Spiegel des Lebens (Mainz 1989).

6 J. Pearce, “Burial, society and context in the provincial Roman world,” in id., M. Millett and M. Struck (edd.), Burial, society and context in the Roman world (Oxford 2000) 1-12; Martin-Kilcher (supra n.4).

7 Haalebos, J. K., De fibulae van Maurik (Oudheid. Meded. Rijksmuseum van Oudheden te Leiden Suppl. 65, 1986).

8 Heeren, S., Romanisering van rurale gemeenschappen in de civitas Batavorum. De casus Tiel-Passewaaij (Amersfoort 2009) 146–47.

9 van Buchem, H. J. H., De fibulae van Nijmegen (Nijmegen 1941) pl. IX, 32 .

10 Böhme, A., “Die Fibeln der Kastelle Saalburg und Zugmantel,” SaalbJb 29 (1972) 2425 .

11 Böhme, H. W., Germanische Grabfunde des 4.-5. Jahrhundert zwischen unterer Elbe und Loire (München 1974) 7 and 51 .

12 Wild, J. P., “Clothing in the north-west provinces of the Roman empire,” BJb 168 (1968) 199207 .

13 von Richthofen, J., Fibelgebrauch – gebrauchte Fibeln. Studien an Fibeln der älteren römischen Kaiser zeit (Bonn 2000) 43, Abb. 57.

14 Smits, E., Leven en sterven langs de Limes: het fysisch-antropologisch onderzoek van vier grafveldpopulaties uit de noordelijke grenszone van Germania Inferior in de Vroeg-en Midden-Romeinse tijd (Ph.D. diss. Univ. of Amsterdam 2006) 7185 with digital appendix.

15 Aarts and Heeren (supra n.4) 160-74.

16 Ibid. 230.

17 N. Roymans, “The sword or the plough. Regional dynamics in the Romanisation of Belgic Gaul and the Rhineland area,” in id. (ed.), From the sword to the plough (Amsterdam 1996) 9-126; T. Derks, “Ethnic identity in the Roman frontier. The epigraphy of Batavi and other Lower Rhine tribes,” in id. and N. Roymans (edd.), Ethnic constructs in antiquity. The role of power and tradition (Amsterdam 2009) 239-82.

18 Nicolay, J., Armed Batavians. Use and significance of weaponry and horse gear from non-military contexts in the Rhine delta (50 BC to AD 450) (Amsterdam 2008).

19 Aarts and Heeren (supra n.4).

20 Ibid. 150-57.

21 Willems, W. J. H. and van Enckevort, H. (edd.), VLPIA NOVIOMAGVS Roman Nijmegen. The Batavian capital at the imperial frontier (JRA Suppl. 73, 2009) 138–39.

22 Ibid.

23 Koster, A., Het grafveld van Noviomagus en de rijke graven van de stedelijke elite, Nijmegen (Ph.D. diss., Radboud Univ. 2010); Willems and van Enckevort (supra n.21) fig. 48.

24 Koster ibid.

25 Heirbaut, E. N. A. and Norde, E. H. L. D., Romeinse graven aan de Sperwerstraat. Onderzoek in het grafveld van Ulpia Noviomagus (Nijmegen 2012).

26 Haalebos, J. K., Het grafveld van Nijmegen-Hatert, een begraafplaats uit de eerste drie eeuwen na Chr. op het platteland bij Noviomagus Batavorum (Nijmegen 1990); Willems and Van Enckevort (supra n.21) 142-45.

27 Haalebos ibid.

28 van den Broeke, P. W., Vindplaatsen in vogelvlucht. Beknopt overzicht van het archeologisch onderzoek in de Waalsprong 1996-2001 (Nijmegen 2002).

29 Unpublished; pers. comm. P. van den Broeke.

30 E. Riha, Die römische Fibeln aus Augst und Kaiseraugst (Forsch. Augst 3, 1979).

31 A. Böhme (supra n.10) 24-25.

32 Veldman, H. A. P., Graven in Zoelen. De opgraving van een Romeinse nederzetting en grafveld te Zoelen-Scharenburg, gemeente Buren (Amersfoort 2011).

33 Veldman, H. A. P. and Blom, E. (edd.), Onder de zoden van Zaltbommel. Een rurale nederzetting en een grafveld uit de Romeinse tijd in het plangebied De Wildeman (Amersfoort 2010).

34 For the Treveran area mainly: Wild (supra n.12); Rothe, U., “The ‘third way’: Treveran women’s dress and the ‘Gallic ensemble’,” AJA 116 (2012) 236–49.

35 van Enckevort, H., Haalebos, J. K. and Thijssen, J., Nijmegen., legerplaats en stad in het achterland van de Romeinse limes (Abcoude 2000) 3940 .

36 Aarts and Heeren (supra n.4).

37 Roymans, N., “Die Bataver. Zur Entstehung eines Soldatenvolkes,” in Berke, S. et al. (edd.), 2000 Jahre Varusschlacht Mythos (exh. cat. Lippisches Landesmuseum Detmold; 2009) 8598 .

38 Groot, M., Heeren, S., Kooistra, L. I. and Vos, W. K., “Surplus production for the market? The agrarian economy in the non-villa landscapes of Germania Inferior ,“ JRA 22 (2009) 231–52.

39 The Thuin cemetery has 32 brooches from 11 graves as part of the complete grave gifts from a total of 55 graves: Faider-Feytmans, G., La nécropole gallo-romaine de Thuin (Mariemont 1965). At the cemetery of Solre-sur-Sambre 14 graves from a total of 48 graves yielded 28 brooches: Brulet, R., La nécropole gallo-romaine de la Thure à Solre-sur-Sambre (Brussels 1972).

40 Heeren (supra n.8).

41 Roymans (supra n.17); Nicolay (supra n.18).

42 Derks, T. and Roymans, N., “Seal-boxes and the spread of Latin literacy in the Rhine delta,” in Cooley, A. E. (ed.), Becoming Roman, writing Latin? (JRA Suppl. 48, 2002) 87134 . Seal boxes have now been interpreted differently: Andrews, C., “Are seal-boxes evidence for literacy?JRA 26 (2013) 423–38. The main argument about literacy in the Batavian countryside does, however, also rest on other finds such as stili, ink-pots, and a wooden writing-tablet from rural settlements.

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Brooches and burials: variability in expressions of identity in cemeteries of the Batavian civitas

  • Stijn Heeren (a1)

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