Published online by Cambridge University Press: 27 November 2014
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11 E.g., DeLaine 1995 and 2002 (supra n.6); De Ruyt 1995 (supra n.4); Martin et al. (supra n.7).
12 E.g., Bukowiecki et al. 2008 (supra n.9).
16 Indeed, recovery details for some assemblages are lacking, often leading to an assumption that sieves were not used in those cases.
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21 The following contexts and trenches from the DAI/AAR excavations produced faunal assemblages too small to make this cut: Harbour Basin (Tr. 21), Horreum (Tr. 22), Market Building (Tr. 24), Navalia (Tr. 33). See Martin et al. (supra n.7) fig. 2 for a plan of the complete set of trenches.
22 King, A. C., “Diet in the Roman world: a regional inter-site comparisons of the mammal bones,” JRA 12 (1999) 192 Google Scholar.
23 Reports cited supra n.2.
24 Kirschvink (supra n.5).
25 Martin et al. (supra n.7) 265.
27 Ibid. 263.
28 Bauer, F. A. and Heinzelmann, M., “The Constantinian Bishop's church at Ostia: preliminary report on the 1998 season,” JRA 12 (1999) 342–53Google Scholar.
30 This has been suggested in the case of faunal materials at Pompeii: Ciaraldi, M. and Richardson, J., “Food, ritual and rubbish in the making of Pompeii,” in Fincham, G. et al. (edd.), TRAC 99 (Oxford 2000) 79 Google Scholar.
31 Panciera, S., “Nettezza urbana a Roma. Organizzazione e responsabili,” in Raventós, X. Dupré and Remolà, J.-A. (edd.), Sordes urbis (Rome 2000) 95–105 Google Scholar.
32 Wilson (supra n.29).
33 S. Gelichi, “L'eliminazione dei rifiuti nelle città romane del Nord Italia tra antichità ed alto medioevo,” in Dupré Raventós and Remolà (supra n.31) 12-23.
34 Watanabe, M., “The natural remains unearthed from UU.SS.4. Preliminary reports, archaeological investigations at Porta Capua, Pompeii,” Opusc. Pomp. 6 (1996) 63–65 Google Scholar.
35 Only sites with available (and sufficient) MNI data for skeletal-part distribution were included in Table 3.
36 Meiggs (supra n.1) 27-34.
37 For which no other zooarchaeological information is reported beyond the frequency statistics listed here.
38 MacKinnon (supra n.18) 100.
39 Ibid. 153-59.
40 Ibid. 138.
41 Mazzorin, J. De Grossi and Minniti, C., “L'utilizzazione degli animali nella documentazione archeozoologica a Roma e nel Lazio dalla preistoria recente all'età classica,” in Troccoli, L. Drago (ed.), Il Lazio dai Colli Albani ai Monti Lepini tra preistoria ed età moderna (Rome 2009) 53–54 Google Scholar.
42 Increased pork consumption and ‘Roman identity’ are often viewed as interconnected concepts (King [supra n.22] 169-71; MacKinnon, M., “High on the hog: linking zooarchaeological, literary and artistic data for pig breeds in Roman Italy,” AJA 105  649–73)CrossRefGoogle Scholar, especially within the Roman Italian setting.
43 See MacKinnon, M., “Pack animals, pets, pests, and other non-human beings,” in Erdkamp, P. (ed.), The Cambridge companion to ancient Rome (Cambridge 2013) 125–27Google Scholar, for discussion in the case of Rome. At Ostia there are many rooms (and perhaps more particularly rooms within horrea) that could potentially house animals, either temporarily or for longer stretches.
44 Meiggs (supra n.1) 51-64.
45 MacKinnon (supra n.18) 140; De Grossi Mazzorin and Minniti (supra n.41) 53.
46 A general lack of evidence for private cooking facilities among Roman urban households presupposes the importance of tabernae in furnishing food and drink not only to permanent residents but also to travellers and day-laborers. Cf. DeLaine, J., “The commercial landscape of Ostia,” in MacMahon, A. and Price, J. (edd.), Roman working lives and urban living (Oxford 2005) 29–47 Google Scholar; Kieburg, A. Z., “Roman tavern life - remarks on the remains of taverns in Ostia Antica,” in Aygün, C. (ed.), SOMA 2007. Proc. XI Symposium on Mediterranean Archaeology, Istanbul 2007 (BAR S2190; Oxford 2009) 457–61Google Scholar. Nonetheless, a useful study of Ostian domestic kitchens shows that these were far more common than once thought, but had been tidied away under the drive to present a suitably imperial city for Mussolini's 1941 exhibition: see Riva, S., “Le cucine delle case di Ostia,” Meded 58 (1999) 117–28Google Scholar. All the ground-floor units in the Insula dei Dipinti had kitchens, including Room 35, as did the first floor in the House of Jove and Ganymede in its later phase (I owe this reference and information to J. DeLaine).
47 Meiggs (supra n.1) 266.
48 MacKinnon (supra n.18) 84-85, 110-11 and 147-48.
49 Meiggs (supra n.1) 266.
50 The fulling industry at Ostia is discussed at length by Flohr, M., The world of the fullo. Work, economy and society in Roman Italy (Oxford 2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar. Zooarchaeological evidence can assist with reconstructions of sheep and goat husbandry schemes that may link to the economics behind wool production, but it is unlikely that fulleries (which deal with wool and garments) would contain any significant quantities of animal bones from slaughter or the processing of carcasses.
51 MacKinnon (supra n.18) 103-5.
52 For Rome, see De Grossi Mazzorin and Minniti (supra n.41).
53 Kiesswalter, L., Skelettmessungen an Pferden als Beitrag sur theoretischen Grundlage der Beurteilungslehre des Pferdes (Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Leipzig 1888)Google Scholar.
54 Vitt, V. O., “Loshadi Pezyryksich kurganov,” Sovetskaja Archeologija 16 (1952) 109–26Google Scholar.
55 MacKinnon (supra n.18) 70-72.
56 Ibid. 190-92.
57 Meiggs (supra n.1) 267.
59 Zooarchaeological work at Rome notes a similar assemblage skewed heavily towards the bones of cattle at via Sacchi: Mazzorin, J. De Grossi and Coppola, F., “L'analisi dei resti faunistici nel quadro delle strategie di allevamento e alimentazione nella Roma imperiale,” in Filippi, F. (ed.), Horti et sordes. Uno scavo alle falde del Gianicolo (Rome 2008) 410–19Google Scholar. This deposit, which dates to the 1st c. A.D., contained c.70% cattle by NISP count, the bulk of which were elements from the lower leg. The assemblage may relate to bone-working operations but nonetheless denotes the degree of specialization and compartmentalization within animal-processing activities.
60 MacKinnon (supra n.18) 184. Our understanding of livestock markets at Ostia is conjectural. One possibility is the campus of the Magna Mater.
61 Meiggs (supra n.1) 82-83.
62 Ibid. 83-101.
64 Ibid. 124-39.
65 Gering, A., “Plätee und Straßensperren, Zum Funktionswandel Ostias in der Spätantike,” RömMitt 111 (2004) 299–382 Google Scholar.
66 King (supra n.22) 173.
67 MacKinnon (supra n.18) 120-31.
68 Ibid. 84-85 and 92.
69 MacKinnon, M., “Cattle ‘breed’ variation and improvement in Roman Italy: connecting the zooarchaeological and ancient textual evidence,” WorldArch 42 (2010) 55–73 Google Scholar.
70 MacKinnon (supra n.42) 656-58.
71 MacKinnon (supra n.18) 153-59.
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